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HANDBOOK OF 


Chemical 

and 

Biological 

Warfare 

Agents 


SECOND EDITION 

D. HANK ELLISON 



CRC Press 

Taylor & Francis Group 



Chemical 

and 

Biological 

Warfare 


Agents 






Chemical 

and 

Biological 

Warfare 

Agents 


SECOND EDITION 


D. HANK ELLISON 



CRC Press is an imprint of the 

Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 






CRC Press 

Taylor & Francis Group 

6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 

Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 

© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 

CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business 

No claim to original U.S. Government works 

Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 

10 987654321 

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-1434-8 (Hardcover) 

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-1434-6 (Hardcover) 

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted 
with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to 
publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of 
all materials or for the consequences of their use. 

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 


Ellison, D. Hank. 

Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents / D. Hank Ellison. — 2nd ed. 
p. cm. 

Includes bibliographical references and index. 

ISBN-13: 978-0-8493-1434-6 (alk. paper) 

ISBN-10: 0-8493-1434-8 (alk. paper) 

1. Chemical warfare— Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Chemical agents (Munitions)— Handbooks, 
manuals, etc. 3. Biological warfare— Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. 

UG447.E44 2007 

358’.34— dc22 2007005392 


Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at 
http://www.taylorandfrancis.com 

and the CRC Press Web site at 
http://www.crcpress.com 



Contents 


Preface xxiii 

Acknowledgments xxv 

Author xxvii 

Explanatory Notes xxix 

Section I Nerve Agents 1 

1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 3 

1 . 1 General Information 3 

1.1.1 G-Series Nerve Agents 3 

1.1.2 V-Series Nerve Agents 3 

1.1.3 GV-Series Nerve Agents 4 

1.1.4 Novichok-Series Nerve Agents 4 

1.1.5 Comments 4 

1.2 Toxicology 5 

1.2.1 Effects 5 

1.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 5 

1.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 5 

1.2. 3.1 G-Series 5 

1. 2.3.2 V-Series 5 

1.2. 3. 3 GV-Series 6 

1.2. 3.4 Novichok Series 6 

1.2.4 Latency Period 6 

1.2. 4.1 Vapor /Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 6 

1. 2.4.2 Liquids 6 

1. 2.4.3 Solids (Nonaerosol) 6 

1.3 Characteristics 6 

1.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 6 

1.3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 6 

1.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 6 

1.3. 1.3 Binary Agents 7 

1.3. 1.4 Modified Agents 7 

1.3.2 Stability 7 

1.3.3 Persistency 8 

1.3.4 Environmental Fate 8 

1 .4 Additional Hazards 9 

1.4.1 Exposure 9 

1.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 9 



VI 


Contents 


1.4.3 Fire 9 

1.4.4 Reactivity 10 

1.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 10 

1.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 10 

1. 4.5.2 Combustion 10 

1.5 Protection 10 

1.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 10 

1.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 11 

1.5. 2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 11 

1.5. 2.2 Respiratory Protection 12 

1.5. 2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 12 

1.6 Decontamination 12 

1.6.1 General 12 

1.6. 1.1 G-Series Nerve Agents 12 

1.6. 1.2 V-Series Nerve Agents 13 

1.6. 1.3 G V-Series Nerve Agents 13 

1.6. 1.4 Novichok Agents 14 

1.6. 1.5 Vapors 14 

1.6. 1.6 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 15 

1.6. 1.7 Solids, Dusty Agents, or Particulate Aerosols 15 

1.7 Medical 16 

1.7.1 CDC Case Definition 16 

1.7.2 Differential Diagnosis 16 

1.7.3 Signs and Symptoms 16 

1. 7.3.1 Vapors/Aerosols 16 

1. 7.3.2 Liquids /Solids 16 

1.7.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 17 

1. 7.4.1 Priority 1 17 

1. 7.4.2 Priority 2 17 

1. 7.4.3 Priority 3 17 

1. 7.4.4 Priority 4 17 

1.7.5 Casualty Management 17 

1 .8 Fatality Management 17 

References 101 

2 Carbamate Nerve Agents 105 

2.1 General Information 105 

2.2 Toxicology 105 

2.2.1 Effects 105 

2.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 105 

2.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 106 

2.2.4 Latency Period 106 

2.2.4. 1 Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 106 

2.2.4.2 Solids /Solutions (Nonaerosol) 106 

2.3 Characteristics 106 

2.3.1 Physical Appearance/ Odor 106 

2. 3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 106 

2.3. 1.2 Modified Agents 106 

2.3.2 Stability 106 

2.3.3 Persistency 107 

2.3.4 Environmental Fate 107 



Contents 


vii 

2.4 Additional Hazards 107 

2.4.1 Exposure 107 

2.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 107 

2.4.2. 1 Fire 108 

2.4. 2. 2 Reactivity 108 

2.4.3 Hazardous Decomposition Products 108 

2.4.3. 1 Hydrolysis 108 

2.4. 3. 2 Combustion 108 

2.5 Protection 108 

2.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 108 

2.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 108 

2.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 108 

2.5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 109 

2.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 109 

2.5.3 Decontamination 109 

2.5. 3.1 General 109 

2.5. 3. 2 Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 109 

2.5. 3. 3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 110 

2.6 Medical 110 

2.6.1 CDC Case Definition 110 

2.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 110 

2.6.3 Signs and Symptoms Ill 

2.6.3. 1 Aerosols Ill 

2.6. 3. 2 Solutions /Solids Ill 

2.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations Ill 

2.6. 4.1 Priority 1 Ill 

2.6. 4.2 Priority 2 Ill 

2.6. 4.3 Priority 3 Ill 

2.6. 4.4 Priority 4 Ill 

2.6.5 Casualty Management Ill 

2.7 Fatality Management 112 

References 139 

Section II Vesicant/Urticant Agents 141 

3 Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 143 

3.1 General Information 143 

3.2 Toxicology 144 

3.2.1 Effects 144 

3.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 144 

3.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 144 

3.2.3. 1 Sulfur Series 144 

3.2. 3. 2 Nitrogen Series 145 

3.2.4 Latency Period 145 

3.2.4. 1 Vapor /Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 145 

3.2.4.2 Liquids 145 

3.2.4.3 Solids (Nonaerosol) 145 

3.3 Characteristics 146 

3.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 146 

3. 3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 146 

3.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 146 



Contents 


viii 


3. 3. 1.3 Modified Agents 146 

3. 3. 1.4 Mixtures with Other Agents 146 

3.3.2 Stability 147 

3.3.3 Persistency 147 

3.3.4 Environmental Fate 147 

3.4 Additional Hazards 147 

3.4.1 Exposure 147 

3.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 148 

3.4.3 Fire 148 

3.4.4 Reactivity 148 

3.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 148 

3.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 148 

3.4.5.2 Combustion 149 

3.5 Protection 149 

3.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 149 

3.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 150 

3.5. 2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 150 

3. 5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 150 

3.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 150 

3.5.3 Decontamination 150 

3. 5. 3.1 General 150 

3.5. 3.2 Vapors 151 

3. 5. 3. 3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 152 

3. 5. 3. 4 Solids, Dusty Agents, or Particulate Aerosols 152 

3.6 Medical 153 

3.6.1 CDC Case Definition 153 

3.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 153 

3.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 153 

3. 6. 3.1 Vapors/Aerosols 153 

3.6. 3.2 Liquids /Solids 154 

3.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 154 

3.6.4. 1 Priority 1 154 

3.6.4.2 Priority 2 (Majority of Cases) 154 

3. 6.4.3 Priority 3 154 

3. 6.4.4 Priority 4 154 

3.6.5 Casualty Management 154 

3.7 Fatality Management 155 

References 187 

4 Arsenic Vesicants 191 

4.1 General Information 191 

4.2 Toxicology 191 

4.2.1 Effects 191 

4.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 191 

4.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 192 

4.2.4 Latency Period 192 

4.2.4. 1 Vapor /Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 192 

4.2.4.2 Liquids 192 

4.3 Characteristics 192 

4.3.1 Physical Appearance/ Odor 192 

4.3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 192 



Contents 


IX 


4.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 193 

4.3. 1.3 Modified Agents 193 

4.3. 1.4 Mixtures with Other Agents 193 

4.3.2 Stability 193 

4.3.3 Persistency 193 

4.3.4 Environmental Fate 193 

4.4 Additional Hazards 194 

4.4.1 Exposure 194 

4.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 194 

4.4.3 Fire 194 

4.4.4 Reactivity 194 

4.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 194 

4.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 194 

4.4. 5. 2 Combustion 195 

4.5 Protection 195 

4.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 195 

4.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 195 

4.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 195 

4.5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 196 

4.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 196 

4.5.3 Decontamination 196 

4.5. 3.1 General 196 

4.5. 3.2 Vapors 197 

4.5. 3. 3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 197 

4.6 Medical 198 

4.6.1 CDC Case Definition 198 

4.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 198 

4.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 198 

4.6. 3.1 Vapors /Aerosols 198 

4.6. 3. 2 Liquids 198 

4.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 198 

4.6.4.1 Priority 1 198 

4.6.4.2 Priority 2 (Majority of Cases) 199 

4.6. 4.3 Priority 3 199 

4.6. 4.4 Priority 4 199 

4.6.5 Casualty Management 199 

4.7 Fatality Management 199 

References 205 

5 Urticants 207 

5.1 General Information 207 

5.2 Toxicology 207 

5.2.1 Effects 207 

5.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 208 

5.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 208 

5.2.4 Latency Period 208 

5.3 Characteristics 208 

5.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 208 

5. 3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 208 

5.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 208 

5.3.2 Stability 209 



X 


Contents 


5.3.3 Persistency 209 

5.3.4 Environmental Fate 209 

5.4 Additional Hazards 209 

5.4.1 Exposure 209 

5.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 209 

5.4.3 Fire 210 

5.4.4 Reactivity 210 

5.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 210 

5.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 210 

5.4.5.2 Combustion 210 

5.5 Protection 210 

5.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 210 

5.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 211 

5. 5. 2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 211 

5. 5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 211 

5.5.2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 211 

5.5.3 Decontamination 211 

5.5.3. 1 General 211 

5 .5.3.2 Vapors 212 

5. 5. 3. 3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 212 

5. 5. 3. 4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 212 

5.6 Medical 213 

5.6.1 CDC Case Definition 213 

5.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 213 

5.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 213 

5.6. 3.1 Vapors/Aerosols 213 

5.6. 3.2 Liquids /Solids 214 

5.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 214 

5.6.4. 1 Priority 1 214 

5.6.4.2 Priority 2 (Majority of Cases) 214 

5.6.4.3 Priority 3 214 

5.6.4.4 Priority 4 214 

5.6.5 Casualty Management 214 

5.7 Fatality Management 214 

References 217 

Section III Toxic Agents 219 

6 Bicyclophosphate Convulsants 221 

6.1 General Information 221 

6.2 Toxicology 221 

6.2.1 Effects 221 

6.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 221 

6.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 222 

6.2.4 Latency Period 222 

6.3 Characteristics 222 

6.3.1 Physical Appearance/ Odor 222 

6. 3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 222 

6. 3. 1.2 Modified Agents 222 

6.3.2 Stability 222 

6.3.3 Persistency 222 

6.3.4 Environmental Fate 222 



Contents 


xi 


6.4 Additional Hazards 223 

6.4.1 Exposure 223 

6.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 223 

6.4.3 Fire 223 

6.4.4 Reactivity 224 

6.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 224 

6.5 Protection 224 

6.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 224 

6.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 224 

6.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 224 

6. 5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 224 

6.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 224 

6.5.3 Decontamination 225 

6.5.3. 1 General 225 

6.5. 3. 2 Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 225 

6. 5. 3. 3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 225 

6.6 Medical 226 

6.6.1 CDC Case Definition 226 

6.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 226 

6.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 226 

6.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 226 

6.6.5 Casualty Management 226 

6.7 Fatality Management 227 

References 229 

7 COX Inhibiting Blood Agents 231 

7.1 General Information 231 

7.2 Toxicology 231 

7.2.1 Effects 231 

7.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 231 

7.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 232 

7.2.4 Latency Period 232 

7.2.4.1 Vapor 232 

7.2.4.2 Liquid 232 

7.3 Characteristics 232 

7.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 232 

7.3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 232 

7.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 232 

7.3. 1.3 Binary /Reactive Agents 233 

7.3. 1.4 Modified Agents 233 

7.3. 1.5 Mixtures with Other Agents 233 

7.3.2 Stability 233 

7.3.3 Persistency 233 

7.3.4 Environmental Fate 233 

7.4 Additional Hazards 234 

7.4.1 Exposure 234 

7.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 234 

7.4.3 Fire 234 

7.4.4 Reactivity 234 

7.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 235 

7.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 235 

7.4. 5. 2 Combustion 235 



xii Contents 

7.5 Protection 235 

7.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 235 

7.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 236 

7.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 236 

7.5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 236 

7.5.23 Chemical Protective Clothing 236 

7.5.3 Decontamination 236 

7.5.3. 1 General 236 

7.5. 3. 2 Vapors 236 

7.5. 3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 237 

7.5.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 237 

7.6 Medical 237 

7.6.1 CDC Case Definition (for Cyanides) 237 

7.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 238 

7.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 238 

7.6. 3.1 Vapors/Aerosols 238 

7.6. 3.2 Liquids /Solids 238 

7.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 238 

7.6.4. 1 Priority 1 238 

7.6.4.2 Priority 2 238 

7.6.4.3 Priority 3 238 

7.6.4.4 Priority 4 238 

7.6.5 Casualty Management 239 

7.7 Fatality Management 239 

References 245 

8 Arsine Blood Agents 247 

8.1 General Information 247 

8.2 Toxicology 247 

8.2.1 Effects 247 

8.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 247 

8.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 247 

8.2.4 Latency Period 248 

8.3 Characteristics 248 

8.3.1 Physical Appearance/ Odor 248 

8. 3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 248 

8.3.2 Stability 248 

8.3.3 Persistency 248 

8.3.4 Environmental Fate 248 

8.4 Additional Hazards 248 

8.4.1 Exposure 248 

8.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 249 

8.4.3 Fire 249 

8.4.4 Reactivity 249 

8.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 249 

8.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 249 

8.4.5.2 Combustion 249 

8.5 Protection 249 

8.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 249 

8.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 250 

8. 5.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 250 



Contents 


xiii 

8. 5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 250 

8. 5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 250 

8.5.3 Decontamination 250 

8.5. 3.1 General 250 

8. 5. 3. 2 Vapors 250 

8.5. 3. 3 Reactive Solids 251 

8.6 Medical 251 

8.6.1 CDC Case Definition 251 

8.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 251 

8.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 251 

8.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 252 

8.6.4.1 Priority 1 252 

8. 6.4.2 Priority 2 252 

8. 6.4.3 Priority 3 252 

8. 6. 4.4 Priority 4 252 

8.6.5 Casualty Management 252 

8.7 Fatality Management 252 

References 253 

9 Carbon Monoxide Blood Agents 255 

9.1 General Information 255 

9.2 Toxicology 255 

9.2.1 Effects 255 

9.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 255 

9.2.3 General Exposure Elazards 255 

9.2.4 Latency Period 256 

9. 2.4.1 Vapor /Aerosols (Mists) 256 

9. 2.4.2 Liquid 256 

9.3 Characteristics 256 

9.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 256 

9. 3. 1.1 Laboratory Grade 256 

9. 3. 1.2 Munition Grade 256 

9. 3. 1.3 Mixtures with Other Agents 256 

9.3.2 Stability 256 

9.3.3 Persistency 256 

9.3.4 Environmental Fate 257 

9.4 Additional Elazards 257 

9.4.1 Exposure 257 

9.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 257 

9.4.3 Fire 258 

9.4.4 Reactivity 258 

9.4.5 Elazardous Decomposition Products 258 

9.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 258 

9.4. 5. 2 Combustion 258 

9.5 Protection 258 

9.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 258 

9.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 258 

9.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 258 

9.5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 258 

9.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 259 

9.5.3 Decontamination 259 



XIV 


Contents 


9.5.3.1 General 259 

9. 5.3.2 Vapors 259 

9. 5.3.3 Liquids or Solutions (Metal Carbonyls) 259 

9.6 Medical 259 

9.6.1 CDC Case Definition 259 

9.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 260 

9.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 260 

9.6.3. 1 Vapors/Aerosols 260 

9. 6.3.2 Liquids 260 

9.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 260 

9. 6.4.1 Priority 1 260 

9.6.4.2 Priority 2 260 

9.6.4.3 Priority 3 260 

9.6.4.4 Priority 4 260 

9.6.5 Casualty Management 261 

9.7 Fatality Management 261 

References 263 

10 Pulmonary Agents 265 

10.1 General Information 265 

10.2 Toxicology 265 

10.2.1 Effects 265 

10.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 265 

10.2.3 General Exposure Elazards 266 

10.2.4 Latency Period 266 

10.2.4.1 Vapor/ Aerosols 266 

10.3 Characteristics 266 

10.3.1 Physical Appearance/ Odor 266 

10.3.1.1 Laboratory Grade 266 

10.3.1.2 Modified Agents 266 

10.3.1.3 Mixtures with Other Agents 266 

10.3.2 Stability 266 

10.3.3 Persistency 267 

10.3.4 Environmental Fate 267 

10.4 Additional Elazards 267 

10.4.1 Exposure 267 

10.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 267 

10.4.3 Fire 267 

10.4.4 Reactivity 268 

10.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 268 

10.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 268 

10.4.5.2 Combustion 268 

10.5 Protection 268 

10.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 268 

10.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 269 

10.5.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 269 

10.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 269 

10.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 269 

10.5.3 Decontamination 269 

10.5.3.1 General 269 

10.5.3.2 Vapors 269 



Contents 


xv 


10.5.3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 269 

10.5.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 270 

10.6 Medical 270 

10.6.1 CDC Case Definition 270 

10.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 270 

10.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 271 

10.6.3.1 Vapors 271 

10.6.3.2 Liquids 271 

10.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 271 

10.6.4.1 Priority 1 271 

10.6.4.2 Priority 2 271 

10.6.4.3 Priority 3 271 

10.6.4.4 Priority 4 271 

10.6.5 Casualty Management 271 

10.7 Fatality Management 272 

References 282 

11 Toxic Industrial Agents 285 

11.1 General Information 285 

11.2 Toxicology 285 

11.2.1 Effects 285 

11.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 285 

11.3 Protection 286 

11.3.1 Evacuation Recommendations 286 

11.3.2 Personal Protective Requirements 287 

11.3.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 287 

11.3.2.2 Respiratory Protection 287 

11.3.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 287 

11.3.3 Decontamination 287 

11.3.3.1 General 287 

11.3.3.2 Vapors 287 

11.3.3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 288 

11.3.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 288 

11.4 Medical 288 

11.4.1 CDC Case Definition 288 

11.4.2 Signs and Symptoms 289 

11.4.2.1 Vapors 289 

11.4.2.2 Liquids /Solids 289 

11.4.3 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 289 

11.4.4 Casualty Management 289 

11.5 Fatality Management 290 

References 374 

Section IV Incapacitation and Riot Control Agents 377 

12 Incapacitating Agents 379 

12.1 General Information 379 

12.2 Toxicology 380 

12.2.1 Effects 380 

12.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 380 

12.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 380 



XVI 


Contents 


12.2.4 Latency Period 380 

12.2.4.1 Vapors/Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 380 

12.2.4.2 Liquids 380 

12.2.4.3 Solids (Nonaerosol) 381 

12.3 Characteristics 381 

12.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 381 

12.3.1.1 Laboratory Grade 381 

12.3.1.2 Munition Grade 381 

12.3.1.3 Modified Agents 381 

12.3.2 Stability 381 

12.3.3 Persistency 381 

12.3.4 Environmental Fate 382 

12.4 Additional Hazards 382 

12.4.1 Exposure 382 

12.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 382 

12.4.3 Fire 382 

12.4.4 Reactivity 382 

12.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 383 

12.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 383 

12.4.5.2 Combustion 383 

12.5 Protection 383 

12.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 383 

12.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 383 

12.5.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 383 

12.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 383 

12.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 384 

12.5.3 Decontamination 384 

12.5.3.1 General 384 

12.5.3.2 Vapors 384 

12.5.3.3 Liquids /Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 384 

12.5.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 385 

12.6 Medical 385 

12.6.1 CDC Case Definition 385 

12.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 385 

12.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 385 

12.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 386 

12.6.4.1 Priority 1 386 

12.6.4.2 Priority 2 386 

12.6.4.3 Priority 3 386 

12.6.4.4 Priority 4 386 

12.6.5 Casualty Management 386 

12.7 Fatality Management 387 

References 402 

13 Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents 403 

13.1 General Information 403 

13.2 Toxicology 403 

13.2.1 Effects 403 

13.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 403 

13.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 404 

13.2.4 Latency Period 404 



Contents xvii 

13.3 Characteristics 404 

13.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 404 

13.3.1.1 Laboratory Grade 404 

13.3.1.2 Munition Grade 404 

13.3.1.3 Modified Agents 404 

13.3.2 Stability 404 

13.3.3 Persistency 405 

13.3.4 Environmental Fate 405 

13.4 Additional Hazards 405 

13.4.1 Exposure 405 

13.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 405 

13.4.3 Fire 405 

13.4.4 Reactivity 406 

13.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 406 

13.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 406 

13.4.5.2 Combustion 406 

13.5 Protection 406 

13.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 406 

13.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 407 

13.5.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 407 

13.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 407 

13.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 407 

13.5.3 Decontamination 407 

13.5.3.1 General 407 

13.5.3.2 Vapors 408 

13.5.3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 408 

13.5.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 408 

13.6 Medical 409 

13.6.1 CDC Case Definition 409 

13.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 409 

13.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 409 

13.6.3.1 Vapors /Aerosols 409 

13.6.3.2 Solids /Solutions 409 

13.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 409 

13.6.5 Casualty Management 410 

13.7 Fatality Management 410 

References 425 

14 Vomiting /Sterna to ry Agents 427 

14.1 General Information 427 

14.2 Toxicology 427 

14.2.1 Effects 427 

14.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 428 

14.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 428 

14.2.4 Latency Period 428 

14.2.4.1 Aerosols 428 

14.3 Characteristics 428 

14.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 428 

14.3.1.1 Laboratory Grade 428 

14.3.1.2 Munition Grade 428 

14.3.1.3 Modified Agents 428 



xviii Contents 

14.3.1.4 Mixtures with Other Agents 429 

14.3.2 Stability 429 

14.3.3 Persistency 429 

14.3.4 Environmental Fate 429 

14.4 Additional Hazards 429 

14.4.1 Exposure 429 

14.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 430 

14.4.3 Fire 430 

14.4.4 Reactivity 430 

14.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 430 

14.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 430 

14.4.5.2 Combustion 430 

14.5 Protection 430 

14.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 430 

14.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 431 

14.5.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 431 

14.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 431 

14.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 431 

14.5.3 Decontamination 431 

14.5.3.1 General 431 

14.5.3.2 Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 432 

14.5.3.3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 432 

14.6 Medical 432 

14.6.1 CDC Case Definition 432 

14.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 433 

14.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 433 

14.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 433 

14.6.5 Casualty Management 433 

14.7 Fatality Management 433 

References 437 

15 Malodorants 439 

15.1 General Information 439 

15.2 Toxicology 439 

15.2.1 Effects 439 

15.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 440 

15.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 440 

15.2.4 Latency Period 440 

15.3 Characteristics 440 

15.3.1 Physical Appearance/ Odor 440 

15.3.1.1 Laboratory Grade 440 

15.3.1.2 Munition Grade 440 

15.3.1.3 Modified Agents 440 

15.3.2 Stability 440 

15.3.3 Persistency 441 

15.3.4 Environmental Fate 441 

15.4 Additional Hazards 441 

15.4.1 Exposure 441 

15.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 441 

15.4.3 Fire 441 

15.4.4 Reactivity 441 



Contents 


xix 


15.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 442 

15.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 442 

15.4.5.2 Combustion 442 

15.5 Protection 442 

15.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 442 

15.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 442 

15.5.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 442 

15.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 442 

15.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 442 

15.5.3 Decontamination 443 

15.5.3.1 General 443 

15.5.3.2 Vapors 443 

15.5.3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 443 

15.6 Medical 444 

15.6.1 CDC Case Definition 444 

15.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 444 

15.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 444 

15.6.3.1 Vapors 444 

15.6.3.2 Liquids 444 

15.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 444 

15.6.5 Casualty Management 444 

15.7 Fatality Management 444 

References 457 

Section V Biological Agents 459 

16 Toxins 461 

16.1 General Information 461 

16.2 Toxicology 461 

16.2.1 Effects 461 

16.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 462 

16.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 462 

16.2.4 Latency Period 462 

16.3 Characteristics 462 

16.3.1 Physical Appearance /Odor 462 

16.3.1.1 Laboratory Grade 462 

16.3.1.2 Modified Agents 462 

16.3.2 Stability 462 

16.3.3 Persistency 463 

16.3.4 Environmental Fate 463 

16.4 Additional Hazards 463 

16.4.1 Exposure 463 

16.4.2 Livestock/ Pets 463 

16.4.3 Fire 463 

16.4.4 Reactivity 463 

16.5 Protection 464 

16.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 464 

16.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 464 

16.5.2.1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 464 

16.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 464 

16.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 464 



XX 


Contents 


16.5.3 Decontamination 465 

16.5.3.1 General 465 

16.5.3.2 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 465 

16.5.3.3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 465 

16.6 Medical 466 

16.6.1 CDC Case Definition 466 

16.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 466 

16.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 466 

16.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 466 

16.6.5 Casualty Management 467 

16.7 Fatality Management 467 

References 488 

1 7 Bacterial Pathogens 493 

17.1 General Information 493 

17.2 Response 494 

17.2.1 Personal Protective Requirements 494 

17.2.1.1 Responding to the Scene of a Release 494 

17.2.1.2 Working with Infected Individuals 495 

17.2.2 Decontamination 496 

17.2.2.1 Food 496 

17.2.2.2 Casualties/Personnel 496 

17.2.2.3 Animals 496 

17.2.2.4 Plants 496 

17.2.2.5 Property 496 

17.3 Fatality Management 497 

References 522 

18 Viral Pathogens 527 

18.1 General Information 527 

18.2 Response 528 

18.2.1 Personal Protective Requirements 528 

18.2.1.1 Working with Infected Individuals 529 

18.2.2 Decontamination 530 

18.2.2.1 Food 530 

18.2.2.2 Casualties/Personnel 530 

18.2.2.3 Animals 530 

18.2.2.4 Plants 531 

18.2.2.5 Property 531 

18.3 Fatality Management 531 

References 589 

19 Rickettsial Pathogens 593 

19.1 General Information 593 

19.2 Response 594 

19.2.1 Personal Protective Requirements 594 

19.2.1.1 Responding to the Scene of a Release 594 

19.2.1.2 Working with Infected Individuals 594 

19.2.2 Decontamination 594 

19.2.2.1 Food 594 

19.2.2.2 Casualties/Personnel 595 

19.2.2.3 Animals 595 



Contents 


xxi 


1 9 .2 .2 .4 Property 595 

19.3 Fatality Management 595 

References 601 

20 Fungal Pathogens 603 

20.1 General Information 603 

20.2 Response 604 

20.2.1 Personal Protective Requirements 604 

20.2.1.1 Responding to the Scene of a Release 604 

20.2.1.2 Working with Infected Individuals 604 

20.2.2 Decontamination 604 

20.2.2.1 Food 604 

20.2.2.2 Casualties/Personnel 604 

20.2.2.3 Animals 605 

20.2.2.4 Plants 605 

20.2.2.5 Property 605 

20.3 Fatality Management 605 

References 613 

Section VI Additional Information 615 

21 Alphanumeric Indices 617 

Additional References 731 

Index 735 




Preface 


The first edition of this handbook was written primarily as an aid to first responders and 
meant to help bridge the gap between what was known about responding to industrial 
hazardous materials and responding to military chemical and biological agents. At the 
time it was written, it was one of only a few readily available resources that addressed 
the topic. This is no longer the case. There are numerous books that have been written on 
virtually every aspect of a potential response; some are specialized and directed toward a 
specific audience while others are written for the average citizen. However, the world of 
military agents goes well beyond the "dirty thirty" that are usually discussed and there are 
still only a limited number of references that provide rapid access to technical data on a 
wider range of agents. 

On the basis of this assessment of the current literature and on comments received on the 
first edition of this book, this volume has been written to focus on these details. With this 
new information, additional classes of agents have been added. Where it provided clarity, 
multiple classes have been consolidated into a single class. The information in existing 
classes has been updated and expanded. There is a significant increase in the number of 
agents described, as well as in the number of components, precursors, and decomposition 
products. There is more information on health effects and on the chemical, physical, and 
biological properties of these materials. 

As in the first edition, all materials listed in this handbook have been used on the bat- 
tlefield, stockpiled as weapons, received significant interest by research programs, used or 
threatened to be used by terrorists, or have been assessed by qualified law enforcement 
and response organizations as agents of significant concern. To assure accuracy, all data 
have been cross-checked over the widest variety of military, scientific, and medical sources 
available. 

Finally, in presenting this broad spectrum, I do not offer an evaluation of the efficacy or 
viability of the agent classes or any of the individual agents. I have included agents classified 
by the military as obsolete along with those that are still considered a major threat. It is 
important to remember that while an agent may have been a failure on the battlefield, it 
could still be a very successful weapon in the hands of a terrorist. 




Acknowledgments 


I would like to once again thank Pam Ellison, DVM, for her assistance on the biological 
sections of this book. She was a wealth of information on both the technical and practical 
aspects of response to biological agents. She spent a great deal of time challenging my ideas, 
providing guidance, and correcting my drafts. Without her, the quality and content of this 
handbook would have suffered greatly. 

There are numerous others out there who have provided comments, insights, and sug- 
gestions, both on the first edition and on the manuscript for this one. I appreciate them all. I 
have tried to address each of them, and incorporated changes that I believe have improved 
this edition. Any failures or omissions are mine and not due to a lack of vigilance or effort 
on the part of others. 

Finally, I would like to thank my wife and children for their patience as I worked on this 
project. They have endured not only my mental absences during family events, but also 
my attempts to sneak off and get back on the computer. This second edition took far longer 
than I had anticipated and they have suffered the brunt of it. 




Author 


D. Hank Ellison served in the United States Army as a chemical officer and has worked for 
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as both a remedial project manager and federal 
on-scene coordinator under the Superfund Program. He currently is president of Cerberus 
& Associates, Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in response to technological disasters. 

As a private consultant, Ellison has responded to hazardous material incidents involving 
highly poisonous materials, chemical fires, water reactive substances, and shock-sensitive 
materials throughout the state of Michigan. He has provided chemical and biological coun- 
terterrorism training to members of EMS units, hazmat teams, police SWAT teams, and 
bomb squads. During the anthrax events of 2001, he helped state and local governments 
as well as Fortune 500 companies to develop and implement response plans for biolo- 
gical threats. He currently advises clients on issues of hazardous materials, and related 
safety and security concerns. In addition, he is a member of the Department of Health and 
Human Services DMORT-WMD emergency response team, which has the primary mission 
for recovery and decontamination of fatalities contaminated with radiological, biological, 
or chemical materials. 

Ellison earned a master of science in chemistry from the University of California, Irvine. 
His graduate research involved methods to synthesize poisons extracted from Colombian 
poison dart frogs. He has a bachelor of science in chemistry from the Georgia Institute of 
Technology. He is a member of the American Chemical Society and Federation of American 
Scientists. In addition to his works on weapons of mass destruction, he is the author of 
a chapter on the hazardous properties of materials in the sixth edition of the Handbook on 
Hazardous Materials Management, a textbook published in 2002 by the Institute of Hazardous 
Materials Management. 




Explanatory Notes 


In this handbook, information about the agents is divided into classes based on the com- 
mon military groupings of chemical (i.e., nerve, vesicant, blood, pulmonary, incapacitating, 
and riot control), biological (i.e., bacterial, viral, rickettsial, and fungal), and toxin agents. 
In instances where the divisions are too broad to allow appropriate identification of the 
chemical or physiological properties of the individual agents, additional classes (e.g., organ- 
ophosphorus nerve agents and carbamate nerve agents) are provided. There are also classes 
for nontraditional agents that do not fit neatly into one of the common military groupings 
(e.g., convulsants), and for industrial materials that could be used as improvised agents. 
Classes are identified by a number that corresponds to the first 20 chapters in this handbook 
(i.e., C01-C20). Classes contain general information about that specific group of agents. 
Although this book covers most of the major classes of chemical, biological, and toxin 
agents, it does not deal with antiplant chemicals, antimaterial agents, bioregulators or 
modulators, or incendiary and smoke agents. 

At the end of each class is detailed technical information about individual agents, com- 
ponents, or decomposition products within that class. Each of these individual materials 
is assigned a handbook number to allow for rapid identification and cross-referencing 
throughout the book. The first three characters identify the agent class (e.g., C01). The let- 
ter following the hyphen (e.g. C01-A) indicates that the material is primarily an agent (A), 
component or precursor of that class of agents (C), or is a significant decomposition product 
or impurity of that class of agents (D). The three digits that follow the letter indicate the 
specific agent in the order that it appears in the class (e.g., C01-A001). 

Chapter 21 contains four indices to allow easy access to specific agents in this handbook. 
These indices are the Alphabetical Index of names, the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) 
numbers index, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) numbers index, and 
the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) agent numbers index. 
These indices contain synonyms and identifying numbers for the agents in this handbook 
that are cross-referenced to the individual agents via the handbook number. 

Information in classes for chemical agents and toxins is in the following general format: 

General information 

Toxicology (effects, pathways and routes of exposure, general exposure hazards, 
latency period) 

Characteristics (physical appearance/odor, stability, persistency, environmental 
fate) 

Additional hazards (exposure, livestock/ pets, fire, reactivity, hazardous decompos- 
ition products) 

Protection (evacuation recommendations, personal protective requirements, decon- 
tamination) 

Medical [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), case definition, differ- 
ential diagnosis, signs and symptoms, mass-casualty triage recommendations, 
casualty management, fatality management] 



XXX 


Explanatory Notes 


Information in classes for biological (i.e., pathogen) agents is in the following general 
format: 

General information 

Response (personal protective requirements, decontamination, fatality manage- 
ment) 

Information on the individual chemical agents is in the following general format: 
Handbook number 

Name and reference numbers (CAS, RTECS, UN, ERG) 

Formula 

Description of the agent 

Additional information including mixtures with other agents, industrial uses, threat, 
or treaty listing 
Exposure hazards 
Properties 

AEGLs status and exposure values 

Information on the individual toxins is in the following general format: 

Handbook number 

Name and reference numbers (CAS, RTECS) 

Formula and molecular weight (if known) 

Description of the toxin and source 
Routes of exposure and signs and symptoms 

Additional information including medicinal uses, threat, or treaty listing 
Exposure hazards 

Information on the individual pathogens is in the following general format: 

Handbook number 
Name, disease, and ICD-10 

Description of the disease including natural transmission, natural reservoir, and a 
biosafety level if established 
Additional information including threat or treaty listing 

The disease as it appears in people including the CDC case definition, communicab- 
ility, normal routes of exposure, infectious dose, secondary hazards, incubation 
period, signs and symptoms, suggested alternatives for differential diagnosis, 
and the untreated mortality rate 

The disease as it appears in animals including agricultural target species, com- 
municability, normal routes of exposure, secondary hazards, incubation period, 
signs and symptoms, suggested alternatives for differential diagnosis, and the 
untreated mortality rate 

The disease as it appears in plants including agricultural target species, normal 
routes of exposure, secondary hazards, and signs 



Explanatory Notes 


xxxi 


Abbreviations used in identifying individual agent are listed below. 


CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service registry number. It is unique for each chemical 
without inherent meaning that and is assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service, 
a division of the American Chemical Society. It allows for efficient searching of 
computerized databases. 

7CD-10: Tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and 
Related Health Problems. It is the international standard diagnostic classification 
for all general epidemiological and many health management purposes. 

RTECS: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances number is a unique and 
unchanging number used to cross-reference the RTECS database, which is a com- 
pendium of data extracted from the open scientific literature. Six types of toxicity 
data are included in each file: (1 ) primary irritation, (2) mutagenic effects, (3) repro- 
ductive effects, (4) tumorigenic effects, (5) acute toxicity, and (6) other multiple 
dose toxicity. 

UN: United Nations identification number used in transportation of hazardous 
materials. 

ERG: 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook number. As in the Guidebook, the letter 
"P” following the guide number indicates that the material has a significant risk 
of violent polymerization if not properly stabilized. 


Unless otherwise indicated, exposure hazards are for a "standard" man (i.e., a male weigh- 
ing 70 kg/ 154 lbs) with a respiratory tidal volume of 15 L/min (i.e., involved in light 
activity). If a different breathing rate is used, then it is indicated in parentheses. If tem- 
perature is a factor, then the critical values are indicated. The military typically classifies 
moderate temperatures as 65-85°F. Temperatures above 85°F are classified as hot. For any 
given parameters, a dash (i.e., — ) means that the value is unavailable because it has not 
been determined or has not been published. 


Conversion Factor: Ratio of parts per million to milligrams per cubic meter at 77°F. 

LCfso: Is an expression of the dose of vapor or aerosolized agent necessary to kill 
half of the exposed population. These values are expressed as milligram-minute 
per cubic meter (mg-min/m 3 ). The lethal concentration (LC50) is determined 
by dividing the LCtso by the duration of exposure in minutes. Values are for 
inhalation (Inh) and percutaneous (Per) exposures. These dose-response values 
are not universally valid over all exposure periods. For inhalation of agent, time 
parameters are generally 2-8 min. For percutaneous absorption of agent, time 
parameters are generally 30 min to 6 h. Typically, a lethal concentration in parts 
per million (ppm) for a set exposure time is included in parentheses following the 
mg-min/m 3 value. 

LC50: Concentration of vapor or aerosolized agent necessary to kill half of the exposed 
population. Used when a specific set of exposure conditions (i.e., concentration 
and duration of exposure) are known but a generalized dose-response (LCtso) is 
not available. 

LD50: Amount of liquid or solid material required to kill half of the exposed 
population. Values are for ingestion (Ing), percutaneous (Per) exposures, and 
subcutaneous injection (Sub). These values are expressed as total grams per 
individual. 



XXX11 


Explanatory Notes 


Miosis: Concentration in parts per million (ppm) required to induce significant 
constriction of the pupil of the eye following a 2-min exposure to the agent. 

ICtjQ: Is an expression of the dose of vapor or aerosolized agent necessary to 
incapacitate half of the exposed population. These values are expressed as 
milligram-minute per cubic meter (mg-min/m 3 ). The incapacitating concentra- 
tion (IC50) is determined by dividing the ICtso by the duration of exposure in 
minutes. Values are for inhalation (Inh) and percutaneous (Per) exposures; and 
in the case of vesicants, damage to the skin (Skin) and eyes (Eyes). These dose- 
response values are not universally valid over all exposure periods. For inhalation 
of agent, time parameters are generally 2-8 min. For percutaneous absorption of 
agent, as well as damage to the skin and eyes, time parameters are generally 2 min 
to 6 h. Typically, an incapacitating concentration in parts per million (ppm) for a 
set exposure time is included in parentheses following the mg-min/m 3 value. 

Irritation values for eyes, skin, and respiratory system. These values are expressed 
as a concentration (ppm for gases, mg/m 3 for aerosols) for a 2-min exposure. 
"Intolerable" concentrations cited in the literature are also noted. 

Vomiting: Inhaled concentration of vapor or aerosolized agent necessary to induce 
significant nausea and vomiting in half of the exposed population. These values 
are expressed as a concentration (ppm for gases, mg/ m 3 for aerosols) for a 2-min 
exposure. 

MEG: Military exposure guidelines for deployed personnel. Levels reported in this 
handbook are for 1-h exposures and consider three health endpoints. Minimal 
(Min): Continuous exposure to concentrations above these levels could produce 
mild, transient, reversible effects but should not impair military operational per- 
formance. Significant (Sig): Continuous exposure to concentrations above these 
levels could produce irreversible, permanent, or serious health effects, and could 
degrade military operational performance and even incapacitate some individu- 
als. Severe (Sev): Continuous exposure to concentrations above these levels could 
produce life-threatening or lethal effects in some individuals. 

WPL AEL: Worker Population Airborne Exposure Limits developed for the military 
by the CDC. They are based on a time- weighted average exposure over an 8-h 
period and 40-h work week. 

OSHA PEL: Federal Permissible Exposure Limits based on a time-weighted average 
exposure over an 8-h period and 40-h work week. A [Skin] notation indicates that 
percutaneous absorption of the material is a potential hazard and may contribute 
to the overall exposure. 

ACGIH TLV : American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recom- 
mended Threshold Limit Values based on a time-weighted average exposure over 
an 8-h period and 40-h work week. A [Skin] notation indicates that percutaneous 
absorption of the material is a potential hazard and may contribute to the overall 
exposure. 

AIHA WEEL: American Industrial Hygiene Association recommended Workplace 
Environmental Exposure Levels based on a time-weighted average exposure over 
an 8-h period and 40-h work week. 

STEL: Short-Term Exposure Limits based on a time-weighted average exposure of 
15 min (unless otherwise noted). A [Skin] notation indicates that percutaneous 
absorption of the material is a potential hazard and may contribute to the overall 
exposure. 



Explanatory Notes xxxiii 

Ceiling: Exposure limit that specifies the concentration of vapor, dust, or aerosol that 
should not be exceeded at any time during the workday. In some instances, a 
time limit for exposure to the ceiling value is established and is indicated in par- 
entheses. A [Skin] notation indicates that percutaneous absorption of the material 
is a potential hazard and may contribute to the overall exposure. 

IDLH: Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health levels indicate that exposure to the 
listed concentrations of airborne contaminants is likely to cause death, immediate 
or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or prevent escape from the contam- 
inated environment in a short period of time, typically 30 min or less. These values 
constitute a hazardous materials emergency in the workplace and require the use 
of a supplier air respirator (e.g., SCBA). 

Unless otherwise indicated, chemical and physical properties are for the pure or production 
quality material. Properties of mixed, binary, thickened, or dusty agents, even those in 
solutions, will have physical and chemical properties that vary from the listed values. 
These variations will depend on the proportion of agent to other materials (e.g., solvents, 
thickener, etc.) and the properties of these other materials. If available, data on mixtures or 
modified agents (e.g., salts) are included. For any given parameters, a dash (i.e., — ) means 
that the value is unavailable because it has not been determined or has not been published. 

MW: Molecular or formula weight of the material. 

D: Density of the solid or liquid material at 68°F. If the density is reported for another 
temperature, it is indicated in parentheses following the density. Liquefied gases 
are also indicated. 

MP: Melting point of the material in degrees Fahrenheit. A designation of "decom- 
poses" indicates that the agent will thermally decompose before it reaches its 
melting point. 

BP: Boiling point of the material in degrees Fahrenheit at standard pressure (760 
mmHg). If a reduced pressure is reported, it is indicated in parentheses follow- 
ing the boiling point. The designation "decomposes" indicates that the agent will 
thermally decompose before it reaches its boiling point. The designation "sub- 
limes" indicates that the material goes directly from a solid to a gas without 
melting. 

Use: Dynamic viscosity of the material in centistokes (cS). Obtained when the abso- 
lute viscosity, expressed as centipoise, is divided by the specific gravity of the 
material. 

VP: Vapor pressure of the material in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) at 68°F. If 
another temperature is used, it is indicated in parentheses following the vapor 
pressure. 

VD: Relative vapor density of the gaseous agent as compared to air. Unless otherwise 
indicated, these values are calculated based on the standard reference weight of 
air (i.e., 29). 

Vlt: Volatility is the mass of agent in a unit of air that is saturated with the agent 
vapor. The volatility of an agent varies with temperature and it is often used 
to estimate the tendency of a chemical to vaporize or give off fumes. It can be 
calculated using the following formula: 


Vlt = 16,040 



XXXIV 


Explanatory Notes 


where Vlt is the volatility of the agent in mg/m 3 , M is the gram molecular 
weight of the agent, p is the vapor pressure of the agent in mmHg at the ambient 
temperature, and K is the ambient temperature in degrees Kelvin. 

Volatility is also sometimes used to estimate the persistency of an agent. How- 
ever, it does not account for the migration (diffusion) of that vapor out of the 
area to allow more agent to evaporate. A better estimate of persistency is relative 
persistency (RP). 

H 2 O: Solubility of the agent in water. Solubilities are generally given in percent- 
ages, indicating the weight of agent that will dissolve in the complementary 
amount of water. When quantitative solubility data are not available, qualitat- 
ive terms (e.g., negligible, slight) are used to provide an intuitive evaluation of 
agent solubility. The designation "miscible" indicates that the agent is soluble 
in water in all proportions. The designation "insoluble" indicates that no appre- 
ciable amount of the agent will dissolve in water. The designation "decomposes" 
indicates that the agent reacts with water and will decompose into other materi- 
als which may or may not be hazardous. If known, the rate of decomposition is 
indicated. 

Sol : List of common organic solvents in which the material has appreciable solubility. 

FIP: Flashpoint of the material. The flashpoint is the temperature in degrees Fahren- 
heit at which the liquid phase gives off enough vapor to flash when exposed to 
an ignition source. 

LEL : Lower explosive limit in air, expressed as a percentage by volume. 

UEL: Upper explosive limit in air, expressed as a percentage by volume. 

RP: Relative persistency is a mathematical comparison of the evaporation and dif- 
fusion rates of water at 68°F to the evaporation and diffusion rates of the agent. 
The value represents an estimate of the ratio of the time required for a liquid 
or solid agent to dissipate as compared to the amount of time required for an 
equal amount of liquid water to dissipate. A value of "1" indicates that puddle 
of the agent and a similar puddle of water will evaporate at about the same rate. 
The greater the value, the greater the proportional amount of time required for 
the agent to evaporate. For example, a value of "2" would mean that it would 
take about twice as long for the puddle of agent to evaporate as compared to 
a similar puddle of water. Relative persistency is calculated by the following 
formula: 



where RP is the relative persistency of the agent, p is the vapor pressure of the 
agent in mmHg at the temperature K, M is the gram molecular weight of the 
agent, and K is the ambient temperature in degrees Kelvin. 

The relative persistency value does not account for additional factors that could 
impact the stability and persistence of a given agent, such as decomposition due 
to reaction with other chemicals in the environment (e.g., water). 

IP: Ionization potential is the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a 
molecule of chemical vapor. The resultant ion is a charged particle that is detect- 
able by various instrumentation such as photo ionization or flame ionization 
detectors. 

AEGL: Acute Exposure Guideline Levels describe the risk from single, nonrepetit- 
ive exposures to airborne chemicals in a once-in-a-lifetime event. They represent 



Explanatory Notes 


xxxv 


threshold exposure limits for the general public and are applicable to emergency 
exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. In this handbook, only values for 1, 
4, and 8 h are denoted. Values that have not been developed or not recommended 
are annotated as "Not Developed." 

AEGLs appear in three categories. The AEGL-1 is the airborne concentration 
above which the general population could experience notable discomfort, irrita- 
tion, or certain asymptomatic nonsensory effects. Effects are not disabling; they 
are transient and reversible. The AEGL-2 is the airborne concentration above 
which the general population could experience irreversible or other serious, long- 
lasting adverse health effects or an impaired ability to escape. The AEGL-3 is 
the airborne concentration above which the general population could experience 
life-threatening health effects or death. 

The status indicates where the chemical is in the review process and includes 
Draft, Proposed, Interim, and Final. For more information, see the United State 
Environmental Protection Agency website at http:/ / www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/ 
index.htm. 




Section I 
Nerve Agents 




1 

Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


1.1 General Information 

There are four major series of organophosphorus nerve agents. 


1.1.1 G-Series Nerve Agents 

These agents are alkyl phosphonofluoridates, alkyl phosphoramidocyanidates, and alkyl 
phosphonofluoridothiates. They are second generation chemical warfare agents. The 
original agents in this series — tabun (C01-A001), sarin (C01-A002), and soman (C01- 
A003) — were developed by German scientists during the 1930s. Both tabun and sarin were 
stockpiled by Nazi Germany during World War II but were never used. Since the end 
of World War II, modern weapons researchers have evaluated numerous other variations 
of the basic phosphonofluoridate and phosphoramidocyanidate structures. Although G- 
series agents have been stockpiled by most countries that have pursued a chemical weapons 
program, they have been used only a limited number of times on the battlefield. They have 
also been used by terrorists as a mass casualty agent. 

The majority of G-series agents are listed in Schedule 1 of the Chemical Weapons 
Convention (CWC) as long as they are within the following limitations: 

O- Alkyl (less than or equal to CIO, including cycloalkyl) alkyl (methyl, ethyl, propyl, 
or isopropyl) phosphonofluoridates, or 

O- Alkyl (less than or equal to CIO, including cycloalkyl) N,N-dialkyl (methyl, ethyl, 
propyl, or isopropyl) phosphoramidocyanidates. 


1 .1 .2 V-Series Nerve Agents 

These agents are alkyl S-2-dialkylaminoethyl alkylphosphonothiolates, dialkyl S- 2- 
dialkylaminoethyl phosphorothiolates, and alkyl S-2-dialkylaminoethyl alkylphosphono- 
selenoates. They are third generation chemical warfare agents. The first of these agents — 
Amiton (C01-A013) — was developed and patented in Britain in the early 1950s by Imperial 
Chemicals Industries Limited as a pesticide. Since that time, modern weapons researchers 
have evaluated numerous other variations of the basic phosphorothiolate structure. 
Researchers have also developed quaternary amine salts of agents to enhance their ability 
to penetrate into neuromuscular junctions. Although stockpiled by a number of countries. 


3 



4 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


V-series agents have never been used on the battlefield. They have been used in a very 
limited way by terrorists to assassinate individuals. 

A majority of V-series agents are listed in Schedule 1 of the CWC as long as they are 
within the following limitations: 

O-Alkyl (H or less than or equal to CIO, including cycloalkyl) S-2-dialkyl (Me, 

Et, n-Pr, or i-Pr)-aminoethyl alkyl (Me, Et, n-Pr, or i-Pr) phosphonothiolate and 
corresponding alkylated or protonated salts. 

Amiton (C01-A013) is listed under Schedule 2 of the CWC. 


1.1.3 G V-Series Nerve Agents 

These agents are alkyl phosphoramidofluoridates. They are fourth generation chemical 
warfare agents that were developed by the United States in the 1970s. GV-series agents 
were designed to possess the key advantages of the higher volatility of G-series agents 
and the high percutaneous toxicity of V-series agents. Researchers have also developed 
quaternary amine salts of agents to enhance their ability to penetrate into neuromuscu- 
lar junctions. Based on available information, GV-series agents have only been used for 
research purposes. 

GV-series agents are not specifically listed in the CWC, nor are they covered by the lan- 
guage of the general definitions. However, because of their toxicity and lack of commercial 
application, they would be prohibited based on the Guidelines for Schedules of Chemicals. 

1 .1 .4 Novichok-Series Nerve Agents 

These agents are carbonimidic phosphorohalides. They are fourth generation chemical 
warfare agents that were developed by the former Soviet Union. Research on novichok 
agents began in the 1960s and continued through the early 1990s under the Foliant program. 
Minimal information about these agents or this research program has been published in the 
unclassified literature. Although production of several thousand tons for testing purposes 
has been reported, there is no information to indicate that these agents were ever stockpiled 
in the Soviet arsenal. They have never been used on the battlefield. 

Novichok agents are not specifically listed in the CWC, or are they covered by the lan- 
guage of the general definitions in the Schedules. However, because of their toxicity and lack 
of commercial application, they would be prohibited based on the Guidelines for Schedules 
of Chemicals. 

1.1.5 Comments 

With the exception of the novichok series, organophosphorus nerve agents are relatively 
easy to synthesize and disperse. Novichok agents are moderately difficult to synthesize. For 
information on some of the chemicals used to manufacture nerve agents, see the Component 
Section (C01-C) following information on the individual agents in this chapter. Overall, 
nerve agents are easy to deliver. Although no specific information is available on dispersing 
novichok agents, they should perform similar to other organophosphorus nerve agents. 

In addition to the agents detailed in this handbook, the Organization for the Prohibition of 
Chemical Weapons (OPCW) identifies in its Declaration Handbook 2002 for the Convention on 
the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and 
on their Destruction numerous other G-series and V-series organophosphorus nerve agents. 
However, no information is available in the unclassified literature concerning the physical, 
chemical, or toxicological properties of these additional agents. 



Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


5 


1.2 Toxicology 

1.2.1 Effects 

Nerve agents are the most toxic of formerly stockpiled man-made chemical warfare agents. 
These compounds are similar to, but much more deadly than, agricultural organophosphate 
pesticides. Nerve agents disrupt the function of the nervous system by interfering with the 
enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Serious effects are on skeletal muscles and the central nervous 
system. Nerve agents also affect glands that discharge secretions to the outside of the body 
causing discharge of mucous, saliva, sweat, and gastrointestinal fluids. Exposure to solids, 
liquids, or vapors from these agents is hazardous and can result in death within minutes 
of exposure. 


1 .2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Nerve agents are hazardous through any route of exposure including inhalation, exposure 
of the skin and eye to either liquid or vapor, ingestion, and broken, abraded, or lacerated 
skin (e.g., penetration of skin by debris). Thickened agents primarily pose a hazard through 
skin absorption. Dusty agents are primarily an inhalation hazard although percutaneous 
absorption is possible especially if there is contact with bulk agent. 


1.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Organophosphorus nerve agents do not have good warning properties. They have little or 
no odor, and, other than causing miosis, the vapors do not irritate the eyes. Contact with 
liquid agent neither irritates the skin nor causes cutaneous injuries. Exposure to GV-series 
agents produces fewer, milder, and more transient physiological symptoms than seen with 
either the G-series or V-series agents. 

The rate of detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents by the body is very low. 
Exposures are essentially cumulative. 

1.2.3. 1 G-Series 

Lethal concentrations (LC50S) for inhalation of G-series agents are as low as 2 ppm 
for a 2-minutes exposure. 

Lethal percutaneous exposures (LD50S) to liquid G-series agents are as low as 
0.17 grams per individual. 

Miosis from exposure of the eyes to G-series agent vapors occurs after exposures to 
as little as 0.01 ppm for 2 minutes. 

1.2. 3.2 V-Series 

Lethal concentrations (LC50S) for inhalation of V-series agents are as low as 0.69 ppm 
for a 2-minutes exposure. 

Lethal percutaneous exposures (LD50S) to liquid V-series agents are as low as 
0.005 grams per individual. 

Miosis from exposure of the eyes to V-series agent vapors occurs after exposures to 
as little as 0.005 ppm for 2 minutes. 



6 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


1.2.3.3 GV-Series 

Human toxicity data for these nerve agents have not been published or have not been 
established. 

1.2. 3.4 Novichok Series 

Human toxicity data for the Novichok series nerve agents have not been published or 
have not been established. However, available information indicates that under optimum 
conditions novichok agents are 5-10 times more toxic than nerve agent VX (C01-A016). 

1 .2.4 Latency Period 

1.2.4. 1 Vapor/Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 

Depending on the concentration of agent vapor, the effects begin to appear from 30 seconds 
to 2 minutes after initial exposure. 

1.2. 4. 2 Liquids 

Typically, there is a latent period with no visible effects between the time of exposure and the 
sudden onset of symptoms. This latency can range from 1 minutes to 18 hours. Some factors 
affecting the length of time before the onset of symptoms are the amount of agent involved, 
the amount of skin surface in contact with the agent, previous exposure to materials that 
chap or dry the skin (e.g., organic solvents such as gasoline or alcohols), and addition of 
additives designed to enhance the rate of percutaneous penetration by the agents. 

Another key factor affecting the rate of percutaneous penetration by the agent is the part 
of the body that is exposed. It takes the agent longer to penetrate thicker and tougher skin. 
The regions of the body that allow the fastest percutaneous penetration are the groin, head, 
and neck. The least susceptible body regions are the hands, feet, front of the knee, and 
outside of the elbow. 

1. 2.4.3 Solids (Nonaerosol) 

Typically, there is a latent period with no visible effects between the time of exposure and 
the sudden onset of symptoms. This latency can range from 1 minutes to 18 hours and is 
affected by such factors as the amount of agent involved, the amount of skin surface in 
contact with the agent, and the area of the body exposed (see Liquids). Moist, sweaty areas 
of the body are more susceptible to percutaneous penetration by solid nerve agents. 


1.3 Characteristics 

1.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

1.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless with a consistency ranging from water to 
motor oil. Salts are colorless to white crystalline solids. Neither solids nor liquids have any 
significant odor when pure. 

1.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically yellow to brown liquids or solids. As the agent ages and 
decomposes it continues to discolor until it may appear black. Production impurities and 



Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


7 


decomposition products in these agents may give them an odor. Odors for G-series agents 
have been described as fruity, camphor-like, or similar to bitter almonds. Odors for V-series 
agents have been described as resembling rotten fish or smelling of sulfur. Odors for all 
agents may become more pronounced during storage. 

1.3.1. 3 Binary Agents 

Binary versions of all series of organophosphorus nerve agents have been developed. A bin- 
ary agent consists of two components, either solids or liquids, that form a standard nerve 
agent when they are mixed. Since the agent is formed just prior to or as a result of deploy- 
ment, the product formed by mixing the components is crude and will consist of the agent, 
the individual components, and any by-products formed during the reaction. The color, 
odor, and consistency of the resulting agent will vary depending on the quality of the 
components and the degree of mixing. 

The components, by-products of the reaction or solvents used to facilitate mixing the 
components may have their own toxic properties and could present additional hazards. 
They may also change the rate that the binary nerve agent volatilizes or penetrates the 
skin. Residual components may react with common materials, such as alcohols, to produce 
other nerve agents. For data on binary components, see the Component Section (C01-C) 
following information on the individual agents. 

1.3. 1.4 Modified Agen ts 

Solvents have been added to nerve agents to facilitate handling, to stabilize the 
agents, or to increase the ease of percutaneous penetration by the agents. Percutaneous 
enhancement solvents include dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N- 
dimethylpalmitamide, N,N-d i methyldeca na m ide, and saponin. Color and other properties 
of these solutions may vary from the pure agent. Odors will vary depending on the 
characteristics of the solvent(s) used and concentration of nerve agent in the solution. 

Conversely, nerve agents have also been thickened with various substances to enhance 
deployment, increase their persistency, and increase the risk of percutaneous exposure. 
Thickeners include polyalkyl methacrylates (methyl, ethyl, butyl, isobutyl), polyvinyl acet- 
ate, polystyrene, plexiglas, alloprene, polychlorinated isoprene, nitrocellulose, as well as 
bleached montan and lignite waxes. Military thickener K125 is a mixture of methyl, ethyl, 
and butyl polymethacrylates. When thickened, agents become sticky with a consistency 
similar to honey. Typically, not enough thickener is added to significantly affect either the 
color or odor of the agent. 

Nerve agents have also been converted to a "dusty" form by adsorbing the liquid agent 
onto a solid carrier. Dusty carriers include aerogel, talc, alumina, silica gel, diatomite, 
kaolinite, fuller's earth, and pumice. Dusty agents appear as finely ground, free-flowing 
powders with individual particles in the range of 10 /x m or less and are dispersed as a 
particulate cloud. Particles in this range can penetrate clothing and breathable protective 
gear, such as U.S. military mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) garments. Dusty 
agents pose both an inhalation and contact hazard. Color and other physical properties of 
dusty agents will depend on the characteristics of the carrier. Odors may vary from the 
unmodified agent. 


1.3.2 Stability 

Crude G-series agents are relatively stable at low to moderate temperatures. Stability 
increases with purity and distilled materials can be stored even under tropical conditions. 
The presence of moisture facilitates decomposition of agents during storage. Stabilizers 



8 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


may be added to remove moisture and to react with acidic decomposition products. 
Stabilizers are typically diisopropylcarbodiimide or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, but can also 
be tributylamine or dibutylchloramine. For additional information on these stabilizers, see 
the Component Section (C01-C) following information on the individual agents in this 
chapter. Agents can be stored in glass or steel containers. Aluminum is acceptable if the 
agent has been stabilized. 

Crude V-series agents are relatively stable at low to moderate temperatures. Stability 
increases with purity, and distilled materials can be stored even under tropical conditions. 
Agents undergo gradual deterioration during storage that is autocatalytic and accelerated 
by moisture or impurities normal to agent production. Stabilizers may be added to remove 
moisture and to react with acidic decomposition products. Stabilizers are carbodiimides 
such as diisopropylcarbodiimide and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. For additional informa- 
tion on these stabilizers, see the Component Section (C01-C) following information on the 
individual agents in this chapter. Agents can be stored in aluminum, glass, or steel contain- 
ers. Agents can deteriorate in the presence of silver found in some solders or brazes, and 
in the presence of rust. 

Liquid GV-series agents are not as stable as either G-series or V-series agents and tend to 
decompose during storage. Purified salts are stable over extended periods. Agents can be 
stored in glass containers. 

Information on the stability of novichok agents has not been published. 

1 .3.3 Persistency 

Depending on the properties of the specific agent, unmodified G-series agents are classified 
as either nonpersistent or moderately persistent by the military. Evaporation rates range 
from near that of water down to that of light machine oil. 

Unmodified V-series agents are classified as persistent by the military. Evaporation rates 
range from near that of light machine oil down to that of motor oil. 

Depending on the properties of the specific agent, unmodified GV-series agents are clas- 
sified as either moderately persistent or persistent by the military. Evaporation rates range 
from near that of light machine oil down to that of motor oil. 

Information on the persistency of novichok agents has not been published. 

Addition of solvents, thickeners, or conversion to a dusty form may alter the persist- 
ency of these agents. Thickened agents will persist significantly longer after dispersal than 
unmodified agents. Dusty agents can be very persistent depending on the carrier employed 
and can be reaerosolized by ground traffic or strong winds. 

Salts of agents have negligible vapor pressure and will not evaporate. Depending on the 
size of the individual particles and on any encapsulation or coatings applied to the particles, 
they can be reaerosolized by ground traffic or strong winds. 

1.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Organophosphorus nerve agent vapors have a density greater than air and tend to collect 
in low places. Porous material, including painted surfaces, will absorb both liquid and 
gaseous agent. After the initial surface contamination has been removed, agent that has 
been absorbed into porous material can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact 
and vapor hazard. Clothing may emit trapped agent vapor for up to 30 minutes after contact 
with a vapor cloud. 

With the exception of sarin (C01-A002), which is miscible with water, most of these agents 
are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water. V-series agents are unusual in that they tend 
to be more soluble in cold water than in hot water. Elowever, the solubility of any agent 



Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


9 


may be modified (either increased or decreased) by solvents, components, or impurities. 
The specific gravities of unmodified liquid agents are slightly greater than that of water. 
Nerve agents are soluble in most organic solvents including gasoline, alcohols, and oils. 
V-series and GV-series agents are also soluble in mild aqueous acidic solutions. Salts of 
organophosphorus nerve agents are water soluble. 


1.4 Additional Hazards 

1.4.1 Exposure 

Individuals who have had previous exposure to materials that chap or dry the skin, such as 
alcohols, gasoline, or paint thinners, may be more susceptible to percutaneous penetration 
of liquid agents. In these situations, the rate of percutaneous penetration of the agent 
is greatly increased resulting in a decrease in the survival time that would otherwise be 
expected. 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened 
items packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent vapors 
may be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to liquid 
or solid agents should be decontaminated within a few hours postexposure or destroyed. 
Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be 
destroyed. 

Meat from animals that have suffered only mild to moderate effects from exposure to 
nerve agents should be safe to consume. Milk should be discarded for the first 7 days pos- 
texposure and then should be safe to consume. Meat, milk, and animal products, including 
hides, from animals severely affected or killed by nerve agents should be destroyed. 

Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be quarantined until tested and determined 
to be safe to consume. In addition to a direct contact hazard, some G-series agents can 
translocate from roots to other areas (e.g., leaves, fruits, etc.) of some plants and may pose 
an ingestion hazard. 

1 .4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo / soap and water, or a 0.5% household bleach 
solution (see Section 1.5). If the animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they should be 
irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be quarantined until tested. Leaves of forage vegetation could 
still retain sufficient nerve agent to produce mild to moderate effects for several weeks 
post release, depending on the level of contamination and the weather conditions. G-series 
nerve agents that have translocated to the leaves or fruit of plants may pose an extended 
ingestion hazard. 


1.4.3 Fire 

Heat from a fire will increase the amount of agent vapor in the area. A significant amount 
of the agent could be volatilized and escape into the surrounding environment before 
it is consumed by the fire. Actions taken to extinguish the fire can also spread the agent. 
With the exception of sarin, most G-series agents are only slightly soluble or insoluble in 
water. However, because of their extreme toxicity, runoff from firefighting efforts will still 



10 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


pose a significant threat. Some of the decomposition products resulting from hydrolysis 
or combustion of nerve agents are water soluble and highly toxic (see Section 1.4.5). Other 
potential decomposition products include toxic and/ or corrosive gases. 


1 .4.4 Reactivity 

Most organophosphorus nerve agents decompose slowly in water. Raising the pH of an 
aqueous solution of these agents significantly increases the rate of decomposition. Reaction 
with dry bleach may produce toxic gases. 


1 .4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

For information on individual impurities and decomposition products, see the Decompos- 
ition Products and Impurities section (C01-D) at the end of this chapter. 

1.4. 5.1 Hydrolysis 

G-series nerve agents: Agents produce hydrogen fluoride (HF) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) 
when hydrolyzed. Some may produce hydrogen chloride (HC1). 

V-series nerve agents: Extremely toxic decomposition products, including S-[2- 
dialkylaminoethyl] alkylphosphonothioic acids and alkyl pyrophosphonates, may be 
produced by hydrolysis. 

GV-series nerve agents: Agents produce HF when hydrolyzed. Additional products, depend- 
ing on the pH, include amines and complex organophosphates that should be considered 
to be extremely toxic. 

Novichok agents: Agents produce HF, HC1, or HCN when hydrolyzed. They may also 
produce highly toxic oximes. 

1.4. 5. 2 Combustion 

G-series nerve agents: Volatile decomposition products may include HF, HC1, HCN, sulfur 
oxides (SO T ), phosphorous oxides (PO. v ), as well as potentially toxic organophosphates. 
In addition, toxic phosphate residue may remain. 

V-series nerve agents: Volatile decomposition products may include SO_ T , NO x , PO x , as well 
as potentially toxic organophosphates. In addition, toxic phosphate residue may remain. 

GV-series nerve agents: Volatile decomposition products may include HF, NO x , PO x , as well 
as potentially toxic organophosphates. In addition, toxic phosphate residue may remain. 

Novichok agents: Volatile decomposition products may include HF, HC1, HCN, PO x as well 
as potentially toxic organophosphates. In addition, toxic phosphate residue may remain. 


1.5 Protection 

1.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and 



Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


11 


Protective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis 
for the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 
For organophosphorus nerve agents, these recommendations are based on a release scen- 
ario involving either a spray or explosively generated mist of nerve agent that quickly 
settles to the ground and soaks in to a depth of no more than 0.25 millimeters. A second- 
ary cloud will then be generated by evaporation of this deposited material. Under these 
conditions, the difference between a small and a large release of nerve agent is not based 
on the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial hazardous materials listed in the ERG. 
A small release involves 2 kilograms (approximately 2.0 liters) of liquid agent and a large 
release involves 100 kilograms (approximately 26 gallons) of liquid agent. 



Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind 
day (miles) 

Downwind night 
(miles) 

GA (Tabun) C01-A001 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.2 

0.4 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

500 

1.0 

1.9 

GB (Sarin) C01-A002 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

500 

1.0 

2.1 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

3000 

7+ 

7+ 

GD (Soman) C01-A003 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

300 

0.5 

1.1 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

2500 

4.2 

6.5 

GF (Cyclosarin) C01-A004 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.2 

0.4 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

800 

1.4 

3.2 

VX C01-A016 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.1 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

200 

0.4 

0.6 


1.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 
1.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. If chemical protective clothing is not available 
and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' 
gear will provide very limited skin protection against nerve agent vapors. Contact with 
liquids, solids, and solutions should be avoided. 

In the event entry is made into an environment contaminated with nerve agent vapor, 
responders are at a significantly greater risk of exposure and resultant adverse effects. 
Using the 3/30 Rule, operations in structural firefighters' gear should only be undertaken 
if there are known living victims and vapor concentrations have peaked. Entries must be 
limited to 30 minutes. If there are no known living victims, then entries must be limited 
to 3 minutes. Even operating within these constraints, up to 50% of the firefighters who 
enter a contaminated area wearing only structural firefighters' gear may experience mild 
to moderate effects. In addition, since exposures to nerve agents are essentially cumulative, 
all responders who enter the hot zone without appropriate chemical protective clothing are 
at increased risk during the remainder of the emergency. 



12 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


1.5. 2. 2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) 
should have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Chem- 
ical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification since nerve agents can degrade 
the materials used to make some respirators. However, during emergency operations, other 
NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by the manufacturer 
against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the Incident Com- 
mander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a combination 
organic vapor/ acid gas/ particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

1. 5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction per- 
formance testing against the series of nerve agent that has been released. However, there 
is currently no information on performance testing of chemical protective clothing against 
either GV-series or novichok agents . Reported permeation rates may be affected by solvents, 
components, or impurities in munition grade or binary agents. 

In addition to the risk of percutaneous migration of agent following dermal exposure to 
liquid agents, nerve agent vapors can also penetrate the skin and produce a toxic effect. 
However, these concentrations are significantly greater than concentrations that will pro- 
duce similar effects if inhaled. If the concentration of vapor exceeds the level necessary to 
produce effects through dermal exposure, then responders should wear a Level A protective 
ensemble. 


1.6 Decontamination 

1 .6.1 General 

1.6. 1. 1 G-Series Nerve Agents 

These agents are readily destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions). Use an aqueous 
caustic solution (minimum of 10% by weight sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate) or 
use undiluted household bleach. However, hydrolysis of G-series agents produces acidic 
by-products; so a large excess of base will be needed to ensure complete destruction of the 
agents. Due to the extreme volume required, household bleach is not an efficient means of 
decontaminating large quantities of these agents. 

Avoid using highly concentrated caustic solutions because agents can become insoluble. 
Any agent that does not dissolve in the aqueous caustic solution will not be hydrolyzed. 
An agent will also be insoluble if it is dissolved in an immiscible organic solvent or if it 
is thickened such that it forms a protective layer at the agent/ water interface. Addition of 
solvents or mechanical mixing may be required to overcome insolubility problems. 

It is also important to ensure that the pH of the final waste solution remains basic. If 
the pH is below 7, fluoride ions can react with methylphosphonate diesters, a common 
impurity in these agents, to regenerate the nerve agent. 

Solid hypochlorites [e.g., high test hypochlorite (HTH), super tropical bleach (STB), and 
Dutch powder] are also effective in destroying G-series agents. Reaction with hypochlorites, 
including household bleach, may produce toxic gases such as chlorine. 



Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


13 


Reactive oximes and their salts, such as potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate found 
in commercially available Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL), are extremely 
effective at rapidly detoxifying nerve agents. Basic peroxides (e.g., a solution of baking 
soda, 30-50% hydrogen peroxide and an alcohol) also rapidly detoxify G-series agents. 
Some chloroisocyanurates, similar to those found in the Canadian Aqueous System 
for Chemical-Biological Agent Decontamination (CASCAD), are effective at detoxifying 
G-series agents. 

1.6. 1.2 V-Series Nerve Agents 

It is difficult to detoxify V-series agents with aqueous caustic solutions alone due to their 
limited solubility at high pH. Solubility of an agent can be further reduced if it is dissolved 
in an immiscible organic solvent or if it has been thickened such that it forms a protect- 
ive layer at the agent/ water interface. In addition, V-series agents can react with aqueous 
caustic to produce stable and highly toxic S-[2-dialkylaminoethyl] alkylphosphonothiolates 
as by-products. These alkylphosphonothiolates have toxicities near those of the original 
agents. They are persistent and resist further hydrolysis. For additional information on 
these hazardous decomposition products, see the Decomposition Products and Impurities 
Section (C01-D) at the end of this chapter. To prevent the formation of these alkylphos- 
phonothiolates, the reaction must be heated in excess of 180°F. Anhydrous solutions of 
caustic in alcohol are effective for destroying V-series agents without the production of 
alkylphosphonothiolates. 

Household bleach is not an efficient means of decontaminating large quantities of V- 
series agents. In addition to limited solubility in commercial bleach due to the high pH, a 
minimum 10-fold excess of active chlorine to nerve agent is required to ensure destruction 
of the agent. 

V-series agents react vigorously with caustics producing heat and off-gassing. Under 
these conditions, the amount of vapor given off by unreacted agent can increase signific- 
antly. 

V-series agents can be destroyed by aqueous solutions of strong oxidizing agents. If a 
weak oxidizer or if an insufficient amount of a strong oxidizer is used, then toxic by-products 
will remain. However, they cannot be rendered nontoxic by oxidation without the presence 
of water. Basic peroxides (e.g., a solution of baking soda, 30-50% hydrogen peroxide, and 
an alcohol) also rapidly detoxify V-series agents. 

An effective decontamination solution for V-series agents is prepared by mixing aqueous 
HTH slurry (10% by weight HTH) with alcohol in the ratio of 9:1. The solution should 
be prepared just before use. Use a large excess of neutralizing solution to ensure agent 
destruction. The reaction will produce heat and a significant amount of gas. Allow the 
neutralizing agent to remain in contact with the agent for a minimum of 1 hours. Adjust 
the pH of the expended neutralizing solution to 12.5 or more using a 10% aqueous sodium 
hydroxide solution. 

Reactive oximes and their salts, such as potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate found 
in commercially available RSDL, are extremely effective at rapidly detoxifying nerve 
agents. Some chloroisocyanurates, similar to those found in the CASCAD, are effective 
at detoxifying V-series agents and so is oxone, a peroxymonosulfate triple salt. 

1.6. 1.3 GV-Series Nerve Agents 

These agents are readily destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions). Use an aqueous caustic 
solution (minimum of 10% by weight sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate) containing 
20% alcohol or use undiluted household bleach. However, hydrolysis of GV-series agents 
produces acidic by-products; therefore, a large excess of base will be needed to ensure 



14 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


complete destruction of the agents. Due to the extreme volume required, household bleach 
is not an efficient means of decontaminating large quantities of these agents. 

Avoid using highly concentrated caustic solutions because agents can become insoluble. 
Any agent that does not dissolve in the aqueous caustic solution will not be hydro- 
lyzed. An agent will also be insoluble if it is dissolved in an immiscible organic solvent. 
Addition of solvents or mechanical mixing may be required to overcome insolubility 
problems. 

Solid hypochlorites (e.g., HTH, STB, and Dutch powder) are also effective in destroying 
GV-series agents. Reaction with hypochlorites, including household bleach, may produce 
toxic gases such as chlorine. 

Although specific data have not been published in the unclassified literature, prelimin- 
ary studies indicate that reactive oximes and their salts, such as potassium 2,3-butanedione 
monoximate found in commercially available RSDL, are extremely effective at rapidly 
detoxifying GV-series nerve agents. Basic peroxides (e.g., a solution of baking soda, 30-50% 
hydrogen peroxide, and an alcohol) also rapidly detoxify GV-series agents. 


1.6. 1.4 Novichok Agents 

Information on decontaminating novichok agents has not been published. However, on 
the basis of similarities to other organophosphates, it is likely that these agents will be 
destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions). Use an aqueous caustic solution (minimum 
of 10% by weight sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate) or use undiluted household 
bleach. Hydrolysis of novichok agents will produce acidic by-products; therefore, a large 
excess of base will be needed to ensure complete destruction of the agents. Due to the 
extreme volume required, household bleach is not an efficient means of decontaminating 
large quantities of these agents. 

Solid hypochlorites (e.g., HTH, STB, and Dutch powder) should also be effective in 
destroying novichok series nerve agents. Reaction with hypochlorites, including household 
bleach, may produce toxic gases such as chlorine. 

Although specific data have not been published in the unclassified literature, prelimin- 
ary studies indicate that reactive oximes and their salts, such as potassium 2,3-butanedione 
monoximate found in commercially available RSDL, are extremely effective at rapidly 
detoxifying novichok series nerve agents. Also, based on similarities to other organophos- 
phates, basic peroxides (e.g., a solution of baking soda, 30-50% hydrogen peroxide, and an 
alcohol) should rapidly detoxify novichok agents. 


1.6.1. 5 Vapors 

Casualties /personnel: Remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor 
after contact with the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and 
water. Ensure that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped 
vapor. If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to nerve agents, irrigate with 
water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Ventilate to remove the vapors. If condensation is present, decontaminate with 
copious amounts of a decontamination solution as described in Section 1.6.1. Collect and 
place into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Removal of porous 
material, including painted surfaces, may be required because the nerve agent that has been 
absorbed into these materials can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and 
vapor hazard. 



Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


15 


1.6. 1.6 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. Even clothing that has not come 
into direct contact with the agent may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that 
must be pulled over the head. Remove as much of the nerve agent from the skin as fast 
as possible. If water is not immediately available, the agent can be absorbed with any 
convenient material such as paper towels, toilet paper, flour, talc, and so on. To minimize 
both spreading the agent and abrading the skin, do not rub the agent with the absorbent. 
Blot the contaminated skin with the absorbent. 

Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin 
surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot 
water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and 
increase percutaneous absorption of residual agent. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 
If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to nerve agents, irrigate with water 
or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Alternatively, a household bleach solution can be used instead of soap and water. The 
bleach solution should be no more than one part household bleach in nine parts water 
(i.e., 0.5% sodium hypochlorite) to avoid damaging the skin. Avoid any contact with 
sensitive areas such as the eyes. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be absorbed by covering with absorbent material such as 
vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Before sealing the container, cover the 
contents with a decontamination solution as described in Section 1.6.1. Decontaminate the 
area and the exterior of the container with copious amounts of the neutralizing agent. Allow 
it to stand for a minimum of 5 minutes before rinsing with water. Collect and containerize 
the rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. Removal of porous material, including 
painted surfaces, may be required because the nerve agent that has been absorbed into 
these materials can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and vapor hazard. 

1.6. 1.7 Solids, Dusty Agents, or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing as 
this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the 
eyes have been exposed to nerve agents, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a 
minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that could 
create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize the 
agent such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped 
with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home or indus- 
trial vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the contaminated area. 
Vacuum all surfaces with extreme care in a very slow and controlled manner to minimize 
aerosolizing the agent. Place the collected material into containers lined with high-density 
polyethylene. Before sealing the container, cover the contents with a decontamination 
solution described in Section 1.6.1. Decontaminate the area with copious amounts of the 
neutralizing agent. Allow it to stand for a minimum of 5 minutes before rinsing with water. 
Collect and containerize the rinseate. 



16 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


1.7 Medical 

1.7.1 CDC Case Definition 

1) A case in which nerve agents are detected in the urine. Decreased plasma or red blood 
cell cholinesterase levels based on a specific commercial laboratory reference range might 
indicate a nerve agent or organophosphate exposure; however, the normal range levels for 
cholinesterase are wide, which makes interpretation of levels difficult without a baseline 
measurement or repeat measurements over time. 2) Detection of organophosphates in envir- 
onmental samples. The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because 
either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or 
an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 


1.7.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to nerve agents: carbamate and organophosphate pesticides; 
alkaloids such as nicotine or coniine; ingestion of mushrooms containing muscarine; and 
medicinals such as carbamates, cholinomimetic compounds, and neuromuscular blocking 
drugs. 


1 .7.3 Signs and Symptoms 

1.7. 3.1 Vapors/Aerosols 

Pinpointing of pupils (miosis) and extreme nasal discharge (rhinorrhea) may be the first 
indications of exposure. Miosis usually indicates exposure to vapors or aerosols unless the 
individual has had liquid agent in or around their eyes. The casualty may also experience 
difficulty in breathing with a feeling of shortness of breath or tightness of the chest. In 
cases of exposure to high-vapor concentrations, the gastrointestinal tract may be affected 
producing vomiting, urination, or defecation. Inhalation of lethal amounts of nerve agent 
can cause loss of consciousness and convulsions in as little as 30 seconds, followed by 
cessation of breathing and flaccid paralysis after several more minutes. 

In contrast to either the G-series or V-series agents, the observable signs and symptoms of 
exposure to the GV-series agents are more insidious and tend to be very mild and transient. 
Even convulsions occurring just prior to death are usually milder than with G-series or 
V-series agents. 

1.7. 3. 2 Liquids/Solids 

General signs and symptoms of small to moderate exposure include localized sweating, 
nausea, vomiting, involuntary urination/ defecation, and a feeling of weakness. The cas- 
ualty may also experience difficulty in breathing with a feeling of shortness of breath or 
tightness of the chest. Vomiting and uncontrolled urination/ defecation generally indicates 
an exposure to liquid or solid agent and not just agent vapors. Miosis usually does not occur 
unless the individual has had agent in or around their eyes. Exposure to a large amount of 
agent causes copious secretions, loss of consciousness, convulsions progressing into flaccid 
paralysis, and cessation of breathing. 

In contrast to either the G-series or V-series agents, the observable signs and symptoms 
of exposure to the GV-series agents are more insidious and tend to be very mild and 
transient. Even convulsions occurring just prior to death are usually milder. In addition. 



Organophosphorus Nerve Agents 


17 


the progression of typical signs and symptoms of exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting 
substances may be atypical. 

1 .7.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

1.7. 4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with symptoms in two or more organ systems (not including miosis or rhinor- 
rhea), who has a heartbeat and a palpable blood pressure. The casualty may or may not be 
conscious and/ or breathing. 

1.7. 4. 2 Priority 2 

A casualty with known exposure to liquid agent but no apparent signs or symptoms, or a 
casualty who is recovering from a severe exposure after receiving treatment. 

1. 7.4.3 Priority 3 

A casualty who is walking and talking, although miosis and/ or rhinorrhea may be present. 

1. 7.4.4 Priority 4 

A casualty who is not breathing and does not have a heartbeat or palpable blood pressure. 


1 .7.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all nerve agents have been removed. If nerve 
agents have gotten into the eyes, irrigate the eyes with water or 0.9% saline solution 
for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at 
least 10 minutes. However, do not delay treatment if thorough decontamination cannot be 
undertaken immediately. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Ventilate the patient. There may be an increase in airway resistance due to constriction 
of the airway and the presence of secretions. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. As 
soon as possible administer of atropine alone or in combination with pralidoxime chloride 
(2-PAMC1) or other appropriate oxime. Diazepam may be required to prevent or control 
severe convulsions. If diazepam is not administered within 40-minutes postexposure, then 
its effectiveness at controlling seizures is minimal. 

Over time, the nerve agent enzyme complex undergoes an irreversible biochemical 
decomposition known as aging. After aging occurs, the nerve agent molecule can no longer 
be removed from the enzyme by treatment with an oxime. The rate of aging is dependent on 
the chemical structure of the specific nerve agent and ranges from several minutes to several 
days. Soman (C01-A003) ages in about 2 minutes, making treatment for exposure to this par- 
ticular agent difficult. The former Soviet Union is reported to have developed other agents 
that age rapidly, but the specific agents have not been identified in unclassified literature. 


1.8 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects segregating them as either durable or nondurable 
items. Although it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and 
more efficient to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. 
Items that will be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable 



18 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


containers, ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the 
outer one. 

Nerve agents that have entered the body are metabolized, hydrolyzed, or bound to 
tissue and pose little threat of off-gassing. To remove agents on the outside of the body, 
wash the remains with a 2% sodium hypochlorite bleach solution (i.e., 2 gallons of water 
for every gallon of household bleach) ensuring the solution is introduced into the ears, 
nostrils, mouth, and any wounds. This concentration of bleach will not affect remains but 
will neutralize organophosphorus nerve agents. Higher concentrations of bleach can harm 
remains. Pay particular attention to areas where agent may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, 
pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. The bleach solution should remain on 
the cadaver for a minimum of 5 minutes. Wash with soap and water. Ensure that all the 
bleach solution is removed before embalming as it will react with embalming fluid. All 
wash and rinse waste must be contained for proper disposal. Screen the remains for agent 
vapors and residual liquid at the conclusion of the decontamination process. If the remains 
must be stored before embalming, then place them inside body bags designed to contain 
contaminated bodies or in double body bags. If double body bags are used, seal the inner 
bag with duct tape, rinse, then place in the second bag. After embalming is complete, place 
the remains in body bags designed to contain contaminated bodies or in double body bags. 
Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any additional risks, and 
should be contained and handled according to established procedures. 

Standard burials are acceptable when contamination levels are low enough to allow 
bodies to be handled without wearing additional protective equipment. Cremation may be 
required if remains cannot be completely decontaminated. Although organophosphorus 
nerve agents are destroyed after 15 minutes at the operating temperature of a commercial 
crematorium (i.e., above 1000°F), the initial heating phase may volatilize some of the agents 
and allow vapors to escape. 


C01-A 

G-SERIES AGENTS 


C01-A001 


Tabun (Agent GA) 

CAS: 77-81-6; 93957-09-6 (Isomer); 93957-08-5 (Isomer) 
RTECS: TB4550000 


\ 

N 


/ 


O 

p — 

CN 


C5H1IN2O2P 

Colorless to brown liquid that is odorless when pure; impurities may give a faintly fruity 
or bitter almonds odor. Undergoes considerable decomposition when explosively dissem- 
inated. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.63 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCtsodnh)'- 70 mg-min/ m 3 (5 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCt50(Per) : 15,000 mg-min/ m 3 (2 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LD 5 0: 1 g 



G-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


19 


Miosis: 0.03 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

MEG a h^Min: 0.00042 ppm; Sig: 0.0053 ppm; Sev: 0.039 ppm 

WPL AEL: 0.000005 ppm 

STEL: 0.000015 ppm 

IDLH: 0.015 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 162.1 

D: 1.073 g/mL (77° F) 

MP: — 58°F 

BP: 473°F 

Vsc: 2.18 cS (77° F) 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.0004 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.005 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.04 ppm 


VP: 0.037 mmHg 
VD: 5.6 (calculated) 

Vlt: 49 ppm 
H 2 0: 7.2% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: 172°F 
LEL:- 
UEL: - 
RP: 210 
IP: < 10.6 eV 


4 h, 0.0002 ppm 
4 h, 0.003 ppm 
4 h, 0.02 ppm 


8 h, 0.0002 ppm 
8 h, 0.002 ppm 
8 h, 0.02 ppm 


C01-A002 

Sarin (Agent GB) 

CAS: 107-44-8; 6171-94-4 (Isomer) 
RTECS: TA8400000 



F 


c 4 h 10 fo 2 p 


Colorless liquid that is odorless when pure. 


Also reported stockpiled as a mixture with Cyclosarin (C01-A004). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.73 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCt^oonhy 35 mg-min/m 3 (3 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCtso(Per )'■ 12,000 mg-min/ m 3 (1 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
ED 50 : 1.7 g 

Miosis: 0.03 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

MEGq h)Min: 0.00048 ppm; Sig: 0.0060 ppm; Sev: 0.022 ppm 

WPL AEL: 0.000005 ppm 

STEL: 0.00002 ppm 

IDLH: 0.02 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 140.1 
D: 1.102 g/mL 
MP: — 69°F 
BP: 316°F 
Vsc: 1.28 cS (77° F) 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.0005 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.006 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.02 ppm 


VP: 2.9 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 4.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 2800 ppm 
H 2 0: Miscible 
Sol: Most organic solvents 

4 h, 0.0002 ppm 
4 h, 0.003 ppm 
4 h, 0.01 ppm 


PIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 3 

IP: -10.6 eV 


8 h, 0.0002 ppm 
8 h, 0.002 ppm 
8 h, 0.009 ppm 



20 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C01-A003 

Soman (Agent GD) 

CAS: 96-64-0; 22956-47-4 (Isomer); 255842-00-3 (Isomer); 255841-99-7 (Isomer); 89254-46- 
6 (Isomer); 89254-45-5 (Isomer); 66429-60-5 (Isomer); 66429-59-2 (Isomer); 24753-16-0 
(Isomer); 24753-15-9 (Isomer); 22956-48-5 (Isomer) 

RTECS: TA8750000 



C 7 Hi 6 F0 2 P 

Colorless to brown liquid that is relatively odorless when pure; impurities may give a fruity 
or camphor odor. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.45 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
This agent "ages" rapidly. 

LCt^QQnh ) : 35 mg-min/ m 3 (2.3 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCf 50 (p er ): 3000 mg-min/ m 3 (0.2 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LD 50 : 0.35 g 

Miosis: 0.01 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

MEG a h) Min: 0.00018 ppm; Sig : 0.0022 ppm; Sev: 0.017 ppm 

WPLAEL: 0.000004 ppm 

STEL: 0.000007 ppm 

IDLH: 0.007 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 182.2 VP: 0.40 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 250°F 

D: 1.022 g/mL (77° F) VD: 6.2 (calculated) LEE: - 

MP: — 44°F Vlt: 520 ppm (calculated) UEL: - 

BP: 388°F H 2 0: 2.1% RP: 19 (77°F) 

Vsc: 3.10 cS (77°F) Sol: Hydrocarbons; Alcohols IP: <10.6 eV 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.0002 ppm 4 h, 0.00009 ppm 8 h, 0.00007 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.002 ppm 4 h, 0.001 ppm 8 h, 0.0009 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 0.02 ppm 4 h, 0.009 ppm 8 h, 0.007 ppm 

C01-A004 

Cyclosarin (Agent GF) 

CAS: 329-99-7; 111422-21-0 (Isomer); 111422-20-9 (Isomer) 

RTECS: — 



F 


C7H14FO2P 

Clear, colorless liquid that is odorless. 

Also reported stockpiled as a mixture with Sarin (C01-A002). 



G-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


21 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.37 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCtsoQnhy 35 mg-min/m 3 (2 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

L Cf 50 (p e r) : 3000 mg-min/ m 3 (0.2 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
LD 50 : 0.35 g 

Miosis: 0.03 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

MEG a h)Min: 0.00020 ppm; Sig: 0.0024 ppm; Sev: 0.018 ppm 

WPLAEL: 0.000004 ppm 

STEL: 0.000007 ppm 

IDLH: 0.007 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 180.2 
D: 1.133 g/ mL 
MP: 10°F 
BP: 462°F 
Vsc: 4.27 cS (77° F) 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.0002 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.002 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.02 ppm 


VP: 0.044 mmHg 
VD: 6.2 (calculated) 

Vlt: 59 ppm 
H 2 0: 3.7% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: 201°F 
LEU — 

UEL: — 

RP: 110 
IP: <10.6 eV 


4 h, 0.0001 ppm 
4 h, 0.001 ppm 
4 h, 0.01 ppm 


8 h, 0.00007 ppm 
8 h, 0.0009 ppm 
8 h, 0.007 ppm 


C01-A005 

Ethyl sarin (Agent GE) 
CAS: 1189-87-3 
RTECS: — 


o 



c 5 h 12 fo 2 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.30 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately 90% as toxic as 
Sarin (C01-A002). 


Properties: 


MW: 154.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 165°F (16 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A006 

O-Cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridothiate (Agent EA 2223) 
CAS: 4241-34-3 
RTECS: — 



22 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


S 

II 




C 7 H 14 FOPS 

Water-white to yellow liquid that is odorless. This agent will hydrolyze to produce 
Cyclosarin (C01-A004). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.02 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

This agent is refractory to treatment. 

LQso , 100 mg-min/ m 3 (6 ppm for a 2 -min exposure) 

LD 50 : 0.18 g 


Properties: 

MW: 196.2 FIP: 234°F FIP: 234°F 

D: 1.12 g/mL (77°F) LEL: — LEL: — 

MP: -16°F UEL: — UEL: — 

BP: 441°F RP: 60 RP: 60 

Vsc: 3.53 cS (77°F) IP: — IP: — 


C01-A007 

2-Methylcyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Agent EA 1356 or Agent EA 3534) 
CAS: 85473-32-1; 193090-56-1 (Isomer); 193090-30-1 (Isomer) 

RTECS: — 



c 8 h 16 fo 2 p 

Water- white to light straw colored liquid that is odorless. There are two configurational 
isomers of this agent that have been studied. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

This agent is refractory to treatment. 

LCt^dnhy 70 mg-min/ m 3 (4 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LD 50 : 0.17 g 


Properties: 


MW: 194.2 

VP: 0.055 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.1 g/mL (77° F) 

VD: 6.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: 15°F 

Vlt: 64 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 455°F 

H 2 0: 1% 

RP: 130 

Vsc: 4.78 cS (77°F) 

Sol: Most organic solvents 

IP: — 



G-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


23 


C01-A008 

Isopropyl dimethylamidocyanidophosphate (Agent EA 4352) 
CAS: 63815-55-4 
RTECS: — 



C 6 H 13 N 2 0 2 P 
Odorless liquid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.21 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. How- 
ever, based on available information, this agent appears to be as toxic as Sarin 
(C01-A002). 

Properties: 


MW: 176.2 

VP: 0.055 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.0425 g/mL (77° F) 

VD: 6.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 76 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 453°F 

H 2 0: — 

RP: 130 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A009 

Methyl ethylphosphonofluoridate 

CAS: 665-03-2 
RTECS: — 


O 



c 3 h 8 fo 2 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 126.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 117°F (12 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



24 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C01-A010 

Ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate 

CAS: 673-97-2 
RTECS: — 


O 



c 3 h 8 fo 2 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 126.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

(TEL: — 

BP: 127°F (12 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP : — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A011 


Ethyl ethylphosphonofluoridate 

CAS: 650-20-4 
RTECS: — 


O 



C4H10FO2P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.73 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 140.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 115°F (9 mmHg) 

HiO: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A012 

Fluorotabun 

CAS: 358-29-2 
RTECS: — 



V-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


25 


o 



C 4 HhFN0 2 P 

Specific information is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.34 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Fluman toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be less than half as toxic as Tabun 
(C01-A001). 


Properties: 


MW: 155.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 5.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MF:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 167°F (18 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


V-SERIES AGENTS 


C01-A013 

Amiton (Agent VG) 

CAS: 78-53-5; 3734-96-1 (p-Toluenesulfonate salt); 3734-97-2 (Oxalate salt) 
RTECS: — 



C 10 H 2 4NO 3 PS 


Oily liquid. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.01 mg/m 3 at 77°F 


Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 

MW: 269.3 VP: 0.01 mmHg (176°F) 

D: — VD: 9.3 (calculated) 

MP: — Vlt: 11 ppm 

BP: 230°F (0.2 mmHg) H 2 0: "Highly soluble" 

Vsc: — Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 730 (176°F) 
IP: — 



26 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Oxalate salt p-Toluenesulfonate salt 

MW: 359.4 MW: 441.5 

MP: 190°F MP: 205°F 

C01-A014 

O-Ethyl S-(2-diethylaminoethyl) methyl-phosphonothiolate (Agent VM) 
CAS: 21 770-86-5; 107059-49-4 (p-Toluenesulfonate salt) 

RTECS: — 



C 9 H 22 NO 2 PS 

Water-white to dark-yellow oily liquid that is odorless. Various salts (solids) have been 
reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.79 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoQnhy. 50 mg-min/m 3 (3 ppm for a 2-min exposure). This value is for resting 


individuals. 

Properties: 

MW: 239.3 VP: 0.0021 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 457°F 

D: 1.0312 g/mL(77°F) VD: 8.3 (calculated) TEL: — 

MP: — 58°F Vlt: 2.9 ppm UEL: — 

BP: "Near 560°F" H 2 0: Miscible RP: 3100 

Vsc: 5.67 cS (77°F) Sol: Most organic solvents; IP: <10.6 eV 

Dilute mineral acids 


p-Toluenesulfonate salt 

MW: 411.5 
MP: 147°F 

C01-A015 

O-Isobutyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (Agent VR) 
CAS: 159939-87-4 
RTECS: — 



CuH2 6 N0 2 PS 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. Various salts 
(solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 



V-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


27 


Properties: 

MW: 267.4 VP: 0.00062 mmHg (77°F) PIP: — 

D: 1.003 g/mL VD: 9.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 0.81 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 187° F (0.001 mmHg) H 2 0 : — RP: 9900 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-A016 

O-Ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (Agent VX) 
CAS: 50782-69-9; 65167-63-7 (Isomer); 65167-64-8 (Isomer) 

RTECS: TB1 090000 



C n H 26 N0 2 PS 

Colorless oily liquid that is odorless. Similar in appearance to motor oil. Various salts 
(solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCtsoanhy 15 mg-min/m 3 (0.7 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCt$o(p er ) : 150 mg-min/m 3 (0.5 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LD 50 : 0.005 g 

Miosis: 0.005 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

MEG ( i hjMin: 0.000016 ppm; Sig: 0.00027 ppm; Sev: 0.00091 ppm 
WPL AEL: 0.00000008 ppm 
STEL: 0.0000009 ppm 
IDEH: 0.0003 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 267.4 VP: 0.0007 mmHg 

D: 1.0083 g/mL (77°F) VP: 0.00004 mmHg (32°F) PIP: 318°F 

MP: -38.2°F VD: 9.2 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: <-60° F with impurities Vlt: 1.2 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes H 2 0: 3% (77°F) RP: 8800 

Vsc: 9.96 cS (77°F) H 2 Q: Miscible (<49°F) IP: <10.6 eV 


Sol: Most organic solvents; 

Dilute mineral acids 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.000016 ppm 4 h, 0.0000091 ppm 8 h, 0.0000065 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.00027 ppm 4 h, 0.00014 ppm 8 h, 0.000095 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 0.00091 ppm 4 h, 0.00048 ppm 8 h, 0.00035 ppm 

C01-A017 

O-Ethyl S-2-dimethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (Agent Vx) 
CAS: 20820-80-8 
RTECS: — 



28 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 



C 7 Hi 8 N0 2 PS 

Amber colored oily liquid that is odorless. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.64 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 


this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 

Properties: 

MW: 211.3 VP: 0.0042 mmHg FIP: — 

D: 1.062 g/mL (77° F) VD: 73 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 5.6 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 490°F (approx.) H 2 0: "Slight" RP: 1600 

Vsc: — H 2 0: Miscible ("Cooler temperatures") IP: <10.6 eV 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


C01-A018 

O-Cyclopentyl S-(2-diethylaminoethly) methylphosphonothiolate (Agent EA 3148) 
CAS: 93240-66-5 
RTECS: — 



Ci 2 H 26 N0 2 PS 

Colorless to pale yellow liquid that is odorless. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.43 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 

MW: 279.4 VP: 0.0004 mmHg (77°F) FIP: >500°F 

D: 1.05 g/mL (77° F) VD: 9.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 0.5 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 232°F (0.05 mmHg) H 2 0: "Low" RP: 15,000 

Vsc: 1.96 cS (77° F) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 


C01-A019 


O-Cyclopentyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (Agent EA 3317) 
CAS: 85473-33-2; 102490-57-3 (Isomer); 102490-59-5 (Isomer) 

RTECS: — 





V-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


29 


Q 4 H 30 NO 2 PS 
Odorless liquid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.57 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 

MW: 307.4 VP: 0.00014 mmHg (77°F) FIP: — 

D: 1.02 g/mL (77° F) VD: 11 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 0.2 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 235°F (0.08 mmHg) H 2 0: — RP: 41,000 

Vsc: 35.1 cS Sol: — IP: — 


C01-A020 

O-Cyclohexyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 71293-89-5 
RTECS: — 



C13H28NO2PS 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.00 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 293.4 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 0.9451 g/mL 

VD: 10 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 194°F (0.3 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A021 

O-Ethyl S-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] ethylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 98543-25-0; 110422-92-9 (Oxalate salt) 

RTECS: — 

/ 

N 

\ 


C 8 H 2 oN0 2 PS 

Oily liquid. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 




30 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.21 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 225.3 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 7.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 167°F (0.005 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP : — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Oxalate Salt 

MW: 315.3 
MP: 226°F 


C01-A022 

O-Isopropyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 91134-95-1 
RTECS: — 



C 10 H 24 NO 2 PS 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.36 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 253.3 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 250°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A023 

O-Ethyl S-[2-(piperidylamino)ethyl] ethylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 108753-95-3; 109100-20-1 (Oxalate salt) 

RTECS: — 



C11H24NO2PS 

Oily liquid. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 


V-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


31 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.85 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 265 A 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 230°F (0.006 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 

Oxalate salt 



MW: 355.4 



MP: 264° F 




C01-A024 

O-Ethyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] isopropylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 99991-06-7; 101884-85-9 (p-Toluenesulfonate salt) 

RTECS: — 



C n H 26 N0 2 PS 

Oily liquid. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 267.4 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 180°F (0.0007 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


p-ToIuenesu donate salt 

MW: 439.6 
MP: 241°F 


C01-A025 

O-Ethyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] propylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 99991-07-8; 101884-86-0 (p-Toluenesulfonate salt) 
RTECS: — 




32 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C n H 26 N0 2 PS 

Oily liquid. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 267.4 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 212°F (0.015 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


p-Toluenesulfonate salt 

MW: 439.6 
MP: 232°F 


C01-A026 

O-Ethyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] butylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 100454-47-5; 102180-38-1 (p-Toluenesulfonate salt) 
RTECS: — 



Ci 2 H 28 N0 2 PS 

Oily liquid. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.51 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 281.4 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 194°F (0.0025 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


p-Toluenesulfonate salt 

MW: 453.6 
MP: 226°F 


C01-A027 

O-Ethyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] hexylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 102444-87-1; 109644-82-8 (Oxalate Salt); 102444-88-2 (p-Toluenesulfonate salt) 
RTECS: — 



GV-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


33 



C14H32NO2PS 

Oily liquid. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.66 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this agent is a powerful cholinesterase inhibitor. 


Properties: 


MW: 309.5 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 11 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 244° F (0.003 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Oxalate salt 

MW: 399.5 
MP: 185°F 


p-Toluenesulfonate salt 

MW: 481.7 
MP: 149°F 


GV-SERIES AGENTS 


C01-A028 


2-Dimethylaminoethyl N, N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate (Agent GP) 
CAS: 141102-74-1 
RTECS: — 



c 6 h : 6 fn 2 o 2 p 


Colorless liquid to white semisolid depending on purity. Salts are odorless white solids. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.15 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly less toxic than VX 
(CO 1 -AO 16). 


Properties: 

MW: 198.2 

D: 1.15 g/mL (77°F) 

MP: -166°F 

BP: 102°F (0.015 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


VP: 0.049 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 64 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 O: "Very soluble" 

Sol: — 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 150 (77°F) 
IP: — 



34 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Methyl Iodide Quaternary Amine salt 

MW: 340.1 

MP: 223°F (decomposes) 

C01-A029 

3-Quinuclidyl N, N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate (Agent EA 5488) 
CAS: - 
RTECS: — 



C9H18FN2O2P 

Liquid. Other descriptive information has not been published. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.66 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be less than one half as toxic as VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 236.3 VP: 0.0044 mmHg (77°F) PIP: — 

D: — VD: 8.2 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: — Vlt: 5.8 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 581°F H 2 0: — RP: 1500 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-A030 

2-Dimethylaminoethyl N, iV-diethylphosphoramido fluoridate (Agent GV1) 
CAS: 141102-75-2 
RTECS: — 



C8H20FN2O2P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.25 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be less than one half as toxic as VX 
(C01-A016). 



GV-Series Nerve Agents C01-A 


35 


Properties: 


MW: 226.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.072 g/mL 

VD: 7.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: -140°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 134°F (0.049 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A031 

2-Diethylaminoethyl N, JV-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate (Agent GV2) 
CAS: 141102-77-4 
RTECS: — 



Cs H 20 FN 2 O 2 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.25 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately one-tenth as 
toxic as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 


MW: 226.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.046 g/ mL 

VD: 7.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: -119°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 127°F (0.002 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A032 

2-Diethylaminoethyl N, N-diethylphosphoramidofluoridate (Agent GV3) 
CAS: 141102-78-5 
RTECS: — 


C10H24FN2O2P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.40 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately one-twentieth 
as toxic as VX (CO 1 -AO 16). 





36 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 254.3 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.018 g/mL 

VD: 8.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: -132°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 133°F (0.0008 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A033 

3-Dimethylamionpropyl N, N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate (Agent EA 5414) 
CAS: 158847-17-7 
RTECS: — 


O 



C7H18FN2O2P 

Liquid. Other descriptive information has not been published. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.68 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately one-fifth as toxic 
as VX (C01-A016). 

Properties: 


MW: 212.2 

VP: 0.014 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.037 g/mL 

VD: 7.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: -116°F 

Vlt: 24 ppm (77°F) 

UEL: — 

BP: 435°F 

H 2 0: — 

RP: 100 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A034 

2-Dimethylaminopropyl N, N-diethylphosphoramido fluoridate (Agent GV5) 
CAS: 158847-18-8 
RTECS: — 



C9H22FN2O2P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.83 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be less than one-twentieth as toxic 
as VX (C01-A016). 



Novichok Nerve Agents C01-A 


37 


Properties: 


MW: 240.3 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.019 g/mL 

VD: 8.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: -122°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 136°F (0.034 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


NOVICHOK AGENTS 


C01-A035 

[(Fluoromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic dichloride 

CAS: 17642-31-8 
RTECS: — 


o 



C 2 H 3 C 12 FN 03 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.59 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 209.9 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.488 g/mL 

VD: 7.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 600 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 135°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A036 

[(Fluoromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 17642-26-1 
RTECS: — 



C 2 H 3 CIF 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.91 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



38 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 193.5 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.51 g/mL 

VD: 6.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 2000 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 158°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP : — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A037 

[(Fluoromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic difluoride 

CAS: 18016-10-9 
RTECS: — 



C2H3F3NO3P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.24 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 177.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.424 g/mL 

VD: 6.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 10,000 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 136°F (20 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A038 

2,2-Difluoro-N-[(fluoromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]-2-nitroethanimidoyl fluoride 

CAS: 17642-29-4 
RTECS: — 



C 3 H 3 F4N 2 05P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.39 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 254.0 
D: 1.639 g/ mL 
MP: — 


VP: — 

VD: 8.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 900 ppm (calculated) 


FIP: — 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 



Novichok Nerve Agents C01-A 


39 


BP: 169°F (3 mmHg) H 2 0: — RP: — 

Hsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-A039 

[(Ethoxyfluorophosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic dichloride 

CAS: 17642-32-9 
RTECS: — 



Cl 


C3H5C12FN03P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 224.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.366 g/ mL 

VD: 7.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 200 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 189°F (4 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A040 

[(Ethoxyfhiorophosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 17642-27-2 
RTECS: — 

Cl 

F 

C 3 H 5 CIF 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.49 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 207.5 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.45 g/mL 

VD: 7.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 1000 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 167°F (4 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-A041 

[(Ethoxyfhiorophosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic difluoride 

CAS: 17642-28-3 
RTECS: — 



40 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 



C 3 H 5 F 3 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.81 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 191.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 4000 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 129°F (5 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A042 

iV-[(Ethoxyfluorophosphinyl)oxy]-2,2-difluoro-2-nitroethanimidoyI fluoride 

CAS: 17642-30-7 
RTECS: — 


o 



C 4 H 5 F4N 2 05P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.96 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 268.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.506 g/ mL 

VD: 9.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 200 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 178°F (5 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A043 

[[(2-Chloroethoxy)fluorohydroxyphosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 26102-97-6 
RTECS: — 




Novichok Nerve Agents C01-A 


41 


C 3 H 4 CI 2 F 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.90 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 241.9 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 60 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A044 

[[(2-Chloro-l-methylethoxy)fluorophosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 26102-98-7 
RTECS: — 



C4H 6 Cl2F 2 N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.47 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 256.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 40 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

HiO: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A045 

[[(2-Chloro-l-methylpropoxy)fluorophosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 26102-99-8 
RTECS: — 



C 5 H 8 Cl2F2N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 



42 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.04 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 270.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.3 (calculated) 

LED.— 

MP: — 

Vlt: 20 ppm (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C 

COMPONENTS AND PRECURSORS 


C01-A046 

Methylphosphonic dichloride (DC) 

CAS: 676-97-1 
RTECS: — 

UN: 9206 
ERG: 137 

O 

li 

^-P~C\ 

Cl 


CH 3 Cl 2 OP 


Clear solid or liquid with a pungent, stinging, disagreeable odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

May cause severe and painful irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Severe exposure 
can cause accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Inhalation toxicity similar 
to hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. May cause second or third degree burns 
upon short contact with skin surfaces. Oral ingestion may result in tissue destruction of the 
gastrointestinal tract. Decreased blood cholinesterase levels have been reported in animals. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. It may appear as a mixture with 
Methylphosphonic difluoride (C01-C047), known as Didi, that is used as a constituent for 
binary G-series nerve agents. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm 
WPL AEL: 0.006 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 132.9 

D: 1.64 g/mL (79°F) 

MP: 88°F 
BP: 331°F 

BP: 127°F (15 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


5.44 mg/m 3 at 77°F 


VP: 10 mmHg (122°F) 
VD: 4.6 (calculated) 

Vlt: 12,000 ppm (122°F) 
H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: — 


FIP: 300°F 
TEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 0.95 (122°F) 
IP: — 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


43 


C01-A047 

Methylphosphonic difluoride (DF) 

CAS: 676-99-3 
RTECS:T01840700 

O 

— F 
\ 

F 


CH 3 F 2 OP 


Liquid with a pungent, acid-like odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

May cause severe and painful irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Severe exposure 
can cause accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Inhalation toxicity similar 
to hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. May cause second or third degree burns 
upon short contact with skin surfaces. Oral ingestion may result in tissue destruction of the 
gastrointestinal tract. Fligh overexposure may inhibit cholinesterase. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 1 of the CWC. 

This material is a constituent in GB2, which is the binary version of Sarin (C01-A002). It 
is also commonly found as a decomposition product /impurity in unitary sarin. It may 
appear as a mixture with Methylphosphonic dichloride (C01-C046), known as Didi, that is 
also used as a constituent for binary G-series nerve agents. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.09 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 100.1 

D: 1.359 g/mL (77° F) 

MP: -35° F 

BP: 212°F 

Vsc: — 


VP: 36 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 3.5 (calculated) 
Vlt: 36,000 ppm 
H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.28 
IP: — 


C01-A048 

Diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) 
CAS: 1445-75-6 
RTECS: SZ9090000 


C 7 H 17 O 3 P 

Colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetra- 
tion through broken skin, and ingestion. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 





44 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


This material is a precursor for Sarin (C01-A002) and is also commonly found as a 
decomposition product /impurity (up to 20% ) in sarin. If fluoride ion is present and the 
pH falls below 7, sarin will be formed. This material has been used as a simulant for nerve 
agents in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.37 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 180.2 

VP: 0.17 mmHg (77° F) 

FIP: — 

D: 0.976 g/mL (77°F) 

VD: 6.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 220 ppm (77° F) 

UEL: — 

BP: 345° F 

H 2 0: 1.6% (77° F) 

RP: 44 

BP: 250°F (10 mmHg) 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A049 

Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCDI) 
CAS: 538-75-0 
RTECS: FF2 160000 



C13H22N2 

Colorless to white crystalline solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Causes severe eye irritation, skin irritation, nausea, headache, and vomiting. Inhalation is 
irritating to the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. May cause sensitization 
by skin contact. 

This material is on the FBI threat list. 

This material is a stabilizer for G-series and V-series nerve agents, usually within the range 
of 2-10% by weight. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.44 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 206.3 VP: — FIP: 235°F 

D: — VD: 7.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 93°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 316°F (12 mmHg) H 2 O: Decomposes RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: Methylene chloride IP: — 


C01-A050 

Diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIPC) 
CAS: 693-13-0 
RTECS: FF21 75000 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


45 


N N 

C7H14N2 

Clear, colorless to yellow to faint brown liquid with a foul odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Causes severe eye irritation that can progress to severe corneal edema. Temporary blindness 
has been reported. Causes skin irritation, nausea, headache, and vomiting. Inhalation is 
irritating to the mucous membrane and upper respiratory tract. May cause sensitization by 
skin contact. 

Used industrially as an activating reagent in solid-phase synthesis. 

This material is on the FBI threat list. 

This material is a stabilizer for G-series and V-series nerve agents, usually within the range 
of 2-10% by weight. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 126.2 VP: — FIP: 91°F 

D: 0.815 g/mL VD: 4.4 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 296°F H 2 O: Decomposes RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: eV 




C01-A051 

Methanephosphonic acid (MPA) 

CAS: 993-13-5 
RTECS: — 

o 

— OH 

\ 

OH 

CH5O3P 

White solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially for organic synthesis and in the manufacture of lubricant additives and 
for treating textiles. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents and is also commonly found as a 
decomposition product/ impurity resulting from hydrolysis of G-series nerve agents. This 
material has been used as a simulant for nerve agents in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.93 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



46 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 96.0 

VP: 0.000002 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 221 °F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes 

H 2 0: >100% 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: Ethanol; Ether 

IP: — 


C01-A052 

Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) 
CAS: 756-79-6 
RTECS: SZ9 120000 

o 


c 3 h 9 o 3 ps 

Description of the agent including appearance including odor and colorless liquid. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken 
skin, and ingestion. 

Used industrially as a fire retardant, gasoline additive, antifoam agent, plasticizer, plastic 
stabilizer, textile conditioner, antistatic agent, and hydraulic fluid additive. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 
This material is a precursor for G-series nerve agents and has been used as a simulant for 
nerve agents in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.08 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 124.1 

UP: 0.61 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.1589 g/mL 

UD: 4.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 800 ppm (77° F) 

UEL: — 

BP: 360°F 

H 2 0: Soluble 

RP: — 

BP: 145°F (10 mmHg) 

Use: — 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether 

IP: — 


C01-A053 


Sulfur (NE) 

CAS: 7704-34-9 
RTECS: WS4250000 
UN: 1350 
ERG: 133 

S — s 
/ \ 

s s 

I I 

s s 

\ / 

S — s 

Ss 

Fine, pale yellow, amorphous, or microcrystalline powder. May come as sublimed, washed, 
or precipitated. Pure sulfur exists in two stable crystalline forms and at least two amorphous 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


47 


(liquid) forms. The rhombic form is the principle material used in binary V-series agents. 
Pure sulfur is odorless but traces of hydrocarbon impurities may impart an oily and/ or 
rotten egg odor to commercial material. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially in manufacturing drugs and pharmaceuticals, medicated cosmetics and 
shampoos, sulfuric acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, sulfites, 
insecticides, plastics, enamels, metal-glass cements, dyes, detergents, gunpowder, pyro- 
technics, explosives, matches, and phosphatic fertilizers. Used in petroleum refining, 
vulcanizing rubber, photographic film, cement sealant, binder and asphalt extender in 
road paving, for bleaching dried fruits, wood pulp, straw, wool, silk, felt, and linen. Used 
as a medication, fungicide, acaricide, and as an electrical insulator. 


This material is a constituent in VX2, which is the binary version of VX (C01-A016). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.49 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Rhombic Sulfur Properties: 

MW: 256.5 VP: 0.00000395 mmHg (87°F) 

D: 2.07 g/cm 3 VD: — 

MP: 235°F Vlt: 0.01 ppm (87° F) 

BP: 832°F H 2 0: Insoluble 

Use: — Sol: Carbon disulfide; Aromatic 

hydrocarbons 


FIP: 405°F 
LEL: 35 g/m 3 
UEL: 1,400 g/m 3 
RP: 680,000 
IP: — 


C01-A054 


Dimethylpolysulfide (NM) 
CAS: 73062-48-3 
RTECS: — 



c 2 H 6 s 5 

Liquid with a very noxious odor. This material poses a "considerable risk" from inhalation 
of high concentrations. 

This material is a constituent in VX2, which is the binary version of VX (C01-A016). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.79 mg/m 3 at 77°F (based on average molecular weight) 
Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 190.4 (average) VP: — FIP: 221°F 

D: 1.3895 g/mL (77° F) VD: 6.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: -40° F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 243°F H 2 0: Insoluble RP: "Very persistent" 

Use: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-A055 

Isopropyl alcohol and isopropyl amine mixture (OPA) 
CAS: — 

RTECS: — 



48 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Mixture 

Clear liquid with an odor that is a mixture of alcohol and ammonia. This material is 
hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
Inhalation of the agent may cause irritation of the lower respiratory tract, coughing, dif- 
ficulty in breathing and, in high concentration, loss of consciousness. It causes severe 
irritation in contact with the skin and eyes. If ingested it causes nausea, salivation, and 
severe irritation of the mouth and stomach. 

A similar mixture is used industrially in processing cutting oils. 

This material is a constituent in GB2, which is the binary version of Sarin (C01-A002). 
Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: Mixture VP: 197 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 15°F 

D: 0.7443 g/mL (77°F) VD: 2.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: <-126°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 140°F H 2 0: Soluble RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-A056 


O-Ethyl 2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonite (QL) 
CAS: 57856-11-8 
RTECS: — 



CuH 26 N0 2 P 


Viscous liquid with a strong fishy odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. Hydrolysis product TR is formed when 
there is only a limited amount of water present. It is highly reactive and toxic. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 1 of the CWC. 
This material is a constituent in VX2, which is the binary version of VX (C01-A016). 
Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.62 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 235.3 VP: 0.01 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 192°F 

D: 0.908 g/mL (77° F) VD: 8.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 13 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 450°F H 2 0: Decomposes RP: 660 

Vsc: 2.237 cS (77°F) Sol: — IP: — 


Hydrolysis product TR: 

MW: — VP: 11 mmHg 

MP: — VD: — 

BP: 248° F Vlt: — 


PIP: 82°F 

Autoignition temperature: 104°F 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


49 


C01-A057 

Methylphosphinyl dichloride (SW) 

CAS: 676-83-5 
RTECS: — 

Cl 

/ 

— p 

x ci 

CH3C12P 

Clear colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
Spontaneously flammable in air at or slightly above normal temperature. 

Used industrially for organic synthesis. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 
This material is used to synthesize precursors for all series of nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.78 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 116.9 VP: — FIP: 118°F 

D: 1.2941 g/mL VD: 4.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 176°F HoO: Decomposes RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: 9.85 eV 


C01-A058 

Methylphosphonothioic dichloride (SWS) 

CAS: 676-98-2 
RTECS: TB2100000 

S 

II 

^p— ci 
\ 

Cl 

CH3C12PS 

Specific information is not available for this agent. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is used to synthesize precursors to V-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.09 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 149.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.422 g/mL 

VD: 5.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 111°F (9 mmHg) 

H 2 O: Decomposes 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



50 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C01-A059 

Tributylamine (TBA) 
CAS: 102-82-9 
RTECS: YA0350000 



N 


C12H27N 

Pale yellow hygroscopic liquid with an ammonia odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/ eye impacts. 

Causes irritation to skin, eyes, and respiratory system, CNS stimulation, skin irritation, 
sensitization. Causes severe eye and skin burns. May cause severe tearing, conjunctivitis, 
and corneal edema. Inhalation may cause difficulties ranging from coughing and nausea 
to accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). 

Used industrially as a solvent, inhibitor in hydraulic fluids, polymerization catalyst, 
insecticide, emulsifying agent, and as a chemical intermediate. 

This material is a stabilizer for nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.58 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 185.4 VP: 0.0934 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 187°F 

D: 0.7782 g/mL VD: 6.4 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: -94° F Vlt: 120 ppm (77° F) UEL: — 

BP: 422°F H 2 0: 0.014% (77° F) RP: 79 

BP: 244° F (25 mmHg) H 2 Q : 0.004% (64° F) IP: — 


Vsc: 1.7 cS (77° F) Sol: Most organic solvents 

Use: 0.91 cS (60°F) 

C01-A060 

Isopropylphosphonic difluoride 

CAS: 677-42-9 
RTECS: — 

O 

II 

P- F 
F 

C 3 H 7 F 2 OP 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 






Components and Precursors C01-C 


51 


May cause severe and painful irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Severe exposure 
can cause accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Inhalation toxicity similar 
to HC1 and HF. May cause second or third degree burns upon short contact with skin 
surfaces. Oral ingestion may result in tissue destruction of the gastrointestinal tract. High 
overexposure may inhibit cholinesterase. 

This material is on Schedule 1 of the CWC. 

This material is a binary constituent in G-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.24 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 128.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.1748 g/mL 

VD: 4.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 234° F 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A061 

Ethyl methylphosphonothioic acid 

CAS: 18005-40-8; 22307-81-9 (Sodium salt); 73790-51-9 (Dicyclohexylamine salt) 
RTECS: — 


O 



C 3 H 9 O 2 PS 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. Various salts 
(solids) have been reported. 

Used industrially for organic synthesis and the manufacturing of pesticides. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a binary constituent in V-series nerve agents. It is also commonly found as 
a decomposition product /impurity from hydrolysis of V-series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.73 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 140.1 

VP: 0.043 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 58 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 0.11% 

RP: 200 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A062 

Diethylphosphoramidic difluoride 

CAS: 359-94-4 
RTECS: — 



52 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


O 

II 

-P— F 

\ 

F 

c 4 h 10 f 2 nop 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for agent material. This mater- 
ial is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

May cause severe and painful irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Severe exposure 
can cause accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Inhalation toxicity similar 
to HC1 and HF. May cause second or third degree burns upon short contact with skin 
surfaces. Oral ingestion may result in tissue destruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Fligh 
overexposure may inhibit cholinesterase. 

This material is a binary constituent in G-series and GV-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.43 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 157.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 113°F (15 mmHg) 

H 2 0: Decomposes 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-A063 

Potassium fluoride 

CAS: 7789-23-3 
RTECS: TT0700000 
UN: 1812 
ERG: 154 

KF 

Colorless to white hygroscopic crystals that are odorless. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a cleaning agent, disinfecting agent, insecticide, to etch glass, and as a 
welding flux. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for G-series and GV-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 58.1 
D: 2.48 g/cm 3 


VP: — 
VD: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


53 


MP: 1576°F Vlt: — UEL: None 

BP: 2741 °F H 2 0 : 92.3% (64°F) RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: — 

C01-A064 

Sodium fluoride 

CAS: 7681-49-4 
RTECS: WB0350000 
UN: 1690 
ERG: 154 

NaF 

Colorless to white hygroscopic crystals that are odorless. Pesticide grade is often dyed 
blue. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through 
broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a fungicide, rodenticide, fluoridation agent in drinking water, a tooth- 
paste ingredient, a glass frosting agent, an agent in ore flotation, a stainless steel pickling 
agent, a component of bitreous enamels, in removal of FIF from exhaust gases, in the 
manufacture of coated paper, for disinfecting fermentation apparatus in breweries and dis- 
tilleries, in electroplating, as a component of glues and adhesives, a component of wood 
preservatives, as a "sour" in laundering cloth, and as a flux in the manufacture of rimmed 
steel, aluminum, and magnesium. Used medically as an anticoagulant for blood. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for G-series and GV-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

OSHA PEL: 2.5 mg/ m 3 as fluoride 
IDLH: 250 mg/ m 3 as fluoride 

Properties: 

MW: 42.0 VP: — PIP: None 

D: 2.78 g/cm 3 VD: — LEE: None 

MP: 1819°F Vlt: — UEL: None 

BP: 3099°F H 2 0 : 4% RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: — 

C01-A065 

Potassium bifluoride 

CAS: 7789-29-9 
RTECS: TS6650000 
UN: 1811 
ERG: 154 

khf 2 

White to light gray hygroscopic crystals that are odorless. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as welding flux, wood preservative, and in the ceramic industry. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for G-series and GV-series nerve agents. 



54 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 78.1 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: 2.37 g / cm 3 

VD : — 

LEL: — 

MP: 460 °F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 39% 

RP: — 

Use — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A066 

Sodium bifluoride 

CAS: 1333-83-1 
RTECS: WB0350010 
UN: 2439 
ERG: 154 

NaHF 2 

Colorless to white crystalline powder. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially for etching glass, as an antiseptic and disinfectant, as a leather bleach, in 
the production of tin plate, for rust removal, as a welding flux, as a neutralizer in laundry 
rinsing operations, and as a cleaner for stone and brick building faces. Used to preserve 
zoological and anatomical specimens. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for G-series and GV-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 62.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 2.08 g/cm 3 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: "Soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-A067 

Ammonium bifluoride 

CAS: 1341-49-7 
RTECS: BQ9200000 
UN: 1727 
ERG: 154 

(NH 4 )HF 2 

White deliquescent crystalline solid that is odorless. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a fungicide, in the manufacture magnesium fluoride, ceramics and in 
the production of fluorine, used industrially in electroplating and treating metals, in oil 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


55 


well acidizing, as a "sour" in laundering cloth, for brightening aluminum, etching glass, 
processing of beryllium, for cleaning and sterilizing beer, dairy, and other food equipment. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for G-series and GV-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 57.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.50 g/cm 3 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 258°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 463°F 

H 2 0: 41.5% (77° F) 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: Slightly in Ethanol 

IP: — 


C01-A068 


Phosphorous trichloride 

CAS: 7719-12- 
RTECS: TH3675000 
UN: 1809 
ERG: 137 

PC1 3 

Colorless to yellow, fuming liquid with an irritating, pungent, acrid odor like hydrochloric 
acid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially for the manufacture of phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentachlor- 
ide, phosphites, organophosphorus pesticides, surfactants, gasoline additives, plasticizers, 
dyestuffs; used as a chlorinating agent and catalyst. Used to prepare rubber surfaces for 
electrodeposition of metal. Used as an ingredient of textile finishing agents. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list, Australia Group Export Control list, and 
Schedule 3 of the CWC. 


This material is a general precursor for nerve agents and a chlorinating agent for sulfur and 
nitrogen vesicants. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LD 50 (j ng y. 1 g (estimate) 

MEG(\h)Min: — ; Sig: — ; Sev: 0.87 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 0.5 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.2 ppm 

ACGIH STEL: 0.5 ppm 

NIOSH STEL: 0.5 ppm 

IDLH: 25 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 137.4 

D: 1.574 g/mL (70°F) 

MP: -170°F 

BP: 169°F 

Use: — 


VP: 100 mmHg (70°F) 

VD: 4.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 130,000 ppm (70°F) 

H 2 O : Decomposes 

Sol: Benzene; Chloroform; Ether 


F1P: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.085 
IP: 9.91 eV 



56 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.62 ppm 4 h, 0.39 ppm 8 h, 0.26 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 2.0 ppm 4 h, 1.3 ppm 8 h, 0.83 ppm 

AEGL-3: 1 h, 5.6 ppm 4 h, 3.5 ppm 8 h, 1.8 ppm 

C01-A069 

Phosphorous pentachloride 

CAS: 10026-13-8 
RTECS: TB6125000 
UN: 1806 
ERG: 137 

PC1 5 

White to pale yellow, crystalline solid with a pungent, unpleasant odor. This material is 
hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chlorinating agent, dehydrating agent, catalyst, in the manufacture 
of pharmaceuticals, and in aluminum metallurgy. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents and a chlorinating agent for sulfur and 
nitrogen vesicants. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.52 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSH A PEL: 0.12 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.10 ppm 
IDLH: 8.2 ppm 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this material appears to have approximately 
the same toxicity as Phosgene (C10-A003). 


Properties: 

MW: 208.2 VP: 0.012 mmHg FIP: None 

D: 3.60 g/cm 3 VP: 1 mmHg (132°F) LEL: None 

MP: 324° F VD: 7.2 (calculated) UEL: None 

BP: Sublimes Vlt: 16 ppm RP: 574 

Use: — H 2 O: Decomposes IP: — 


Sol: Carbon disulfide; Carbon tetrachloride 


C01-A070 

Phosphorous oxychloride 

CAS: 10025-87-3 
RTECS: TH4897000 
UN: 1810 
ERG: 137 

POCI3 

Clear, colorless to yellow, oily fuming liquid with a pungent, musty odor that is disagreeable 
and lingering. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/eye impacts. May ignite combustible materials. 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


57 


Used industrially for the manufacture of organophosphorus compounds (Insecticides, 
dyes, pharmaceuticals, defoliants) as well as esters for plasticizers, gasoline additives, 
and hydraulic fluids; used in industry as a chlorinating agent, catalyst, dopant for 
semiconductor grade silicon, fire retarding agent, and solvent in cryoscopy. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list, Australia Group Export Control list, and 
Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents and a chlorinating agent for sulfur and 
nitrogen vesicants. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.27 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(\h)Min: — ; Sig: — ; Sev: 0.85 ppm 
ACGIHTLV: 0.1 ppm 
NIOSH STEL: 0.5 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 153.3 
D: 1.645 g/mL (77° F) 

MP: 34°F 
BP: 222°F 
Use: — 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 
AEGL-2: Not Developed 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.85 ppm 


VP: 40 mmHg (8T °F) 
VD: 5.3 (calculated) 
Vlt: 52,000 ppm 
H 2 O : Decomposes 
Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.21 
IP: — 


4 h, 0.54 ppm 8 h, 0.27 ppm 


C01-A071 

Phosphorus pentasulfide 

CAS: 1314-80-3 
RTECS: TH4375000 
UN: 1340 
ERG: 139 

P4S10 

Greenish-gray to yellow, deliquescent crystalline solid, with an odor of rotten eggs due 
to the formation of hydrogen sulfide. Olfactory fatigue may occur at high concentrations. 
This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 

Phosphorus pentasulfide autoignites at 287°F. It may spontaneously ignite in the presence 
of moisture. 

Used industrially for manufacture of pyrotechnics, safety matches, lubricating oil additive, 
pesticides, and in organic synthesis. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 18.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 1 mg/m 3 
ACGIH TLV: 1 mg/m 3 



58 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


ACGIH STEL: 3 mg/m 3 
NIOSH STEL : 3 mg/m 3 
IDLH : 250 mg/m 3 


Properties: 


MW: 444.6 

VP: 1 mmHg (572°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 2.090 g/cm 3 

VD: 15 (calculated) 

LED — 

MP: 550°F 

Vlt: Negligible 

UEL: — 

BP: 957°F 

H 2 0: Decomposes 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: Carbon disulfide; aqueous bases 

IP: — 


C01-A072 

Dimethyl phosphite 

CAS: 868-85-9 
RTECS: SZ7710000 


OH 



c 2 h 7 o 3 p 

Mobile, colorless liquid with a "mild" odor. This material is hazardous through inhala- 
tion, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a lubricant additive, flame retardant in textiles, to manufacture 
adhesives, and as a chemical intermediate. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 
This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. This material has been used as a 
simulant for nerve agents in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.50 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 110.1 VP: — FIP: 85°F 

D: 1.1941 g/mL VD: 3.8 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 338°F H 2 0: "Soluble" RP: — 

BP: 162°F (25 mmHg) Sol: Most Organic solvents IP: — 

Use: — 


C01-C073 

Trimethyl phosphite 

CAS: 121-45-9 
RTECS: TH 1400000 
UN: 2329 
ERG: 130 

/ 

0 

1 


o 


o 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


59 


c 3 h 9 o 3 p 

Colorless liquid with a distinctive, pungent, irritating, oily odor that smells like pyridine at 
higher concentrations. The odor is detectable at 0.1 ppb. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pesticides and phos- 
phosilicate glass. Used as a gasoline additive, catalyst, and as a fireproofing agent in the 
production of textiles and flame-retardant polymers for polyurethane foams. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.08 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 124.1 VP: 24 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 130°F 

D: 1.0520 g/mL VD: 4.3 (calculated) LET: — 

MP: -108°F Vlt: 32,000 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 232°F HoO: Decomposes RP: 0.38 

Use: — Sol: Hydrocarbons; Ethanol; Ether; Acetone IP: — 


C01-C074 

Diethyl phosphite 

CAS: 762-04-9 
RTECS: TG7875000 


OH 



C 4 H n 0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a textile finishing agent, antioxidant, paint solvent, additive for adhes- 
ives, additive for extreme pressure lubricant; chemical intermediate for organic phosphorus 
compounds. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. This material has been used as a 
simulant for nerve agents in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.65 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 138.1 
D: 1.073 g/mL 
MP: — 


VP: — 

VD: 4.8 (calculated) 
Vlt: — 


FIP: 180°F 
LEE: — 
UEL: — 



60 Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 

BP: 160°F (10 mmHg) H 2 0: — RP: — 

BP: 122°F (2 mmHg) Sol: — IP: — 

Vsc: — 


C01-C075 

Triethyl phosphite 

CAS: 122-52-1 
RTECS: TH 11 30000 
UN: 2323 
ERG: 130 



c 6 h 15 o 3 p 

Colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetra- 
tion through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a plasticizer, vinyl stabilizer, grease additive, color inhibitor for resins, 
and as a chemical intermediate for insecticides. Used in agriculture to ripen sugarcane. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. This material has been used as a 
simulant for nerve agents in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.80 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 166.2 VP: — FIP: 130°F 

D: 0.9629 g/mL VD: 5.7 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 313°F H 2 0: "Insoluble" RP: — 

BP: 144°F (25 mmHg) Sol: Ethanol; Ether IP: — 

Use: — 


C01-C076 

Diethyl methylphosphonate 

CAS: 683-08-9 
RTECS: SZ9085000 


O 




Components and Precursors C01-C 


61 


c 5 h 13 o 3 p 

Clear, colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used in organic synthesis. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. It is also commonly found as 
a decomposition product /impurity and degradation product from hydrolysis of nerve 
agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm =mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 152.1 VP: — FIP: 167°F 

D: 1.041 g/mL VD: 5.2 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 374°F H 2 0: — RP: — 

BP: 165°F (10 mmHg) Sol: — IP: — 

BP: 122°F (1 mmHg) 

Use: — 


C01-C077 

Diethyl ethylphosphonate 

CAS: 78-38-6 
RTECS: SZ7925000 


O 



c 6 h :5 o 3 p 

Colorless liquid with a sweet odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially as a solvent to extract heavy metals, a gasoline additive, antifoam agent, 
plasticizer, chelating agent, and as a textile conditioner and antistatic agent. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. It is also commonly found as a 
decomposition product/ impurity and degradation product from hydrolysis of some nerve 
agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.80 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



62 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 166.2 VP: — PIP: 221 °F 

D: 1.0259 g/mL VD: 5.7 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 388°F H 2 0: "Slightly" RP: — 

BP: 162°F (10 mmHg) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 

Vsc: — 


C01-C078 

Diethyl isopropylphosphonate 

CAS: 1538-69-8 
RTECS: — 


C 7 H 17 O 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent material. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken 
skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. It is also commonly found as a 
decomposition product/ impurity and degradation product from hydrolysis of some nerve 
agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.37 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Fluman toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 180.2 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 138°F (25 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-C079 

Dibutyl methylphosphonate 

CAS: 2404-73-1 
RTECS: — 


O 




Components and Precursors C01-C 


63 


C 9 H 21 O 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.52 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 208.2 

UP: 0.0106 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 7.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 14 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 0.8% (77° F) 

RP: 660 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C080 

Ethyldichlorophospine 

CAS: 1498-40-4 
RTECS: TB2465000 



Cl 


C 2 H 5 CI 2 P 

Colorless to yellow liquid with a strong disagreeable odor (stench). This material is 
hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially for organic synthesis. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 
This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.36 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 130.9 VP: — FIP: 90°F 

D: 1.26 g/ mL VD: 4.5 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 239°F H 2 O: Decomposes RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-C081 

Ethylphosphonyl dichloride 

CAS: 1066-50-8 
RTECS: TA1 780000 



64 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


O 

. II 

\^-p— Cl 

Cl 

c 2 h 5 c 1 2 op 

Clear colorless to light yellow liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially for organic synthesis. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list, Australia Group Export Control list and 
Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a precursor for general nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.01 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 146.9 VP: — FIP: >230°F 

D: 1.3760 g/mL VD: 5.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 216° F (68 mmHg) fHO: Decomposes RP: — 

BP: 160°F (12 mmHg) Sol: — IP: — 

Vsc: — 


C01-C082 


O 

II 

P x ~ Cl 
Cl 

C3H7C120P 

Clear yellow liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.58 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 161.0 VP: — FIP: >230°F 

D: 1.29 g/mL VD: 5.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 190°F (50 mmHg) H 2 O : Decomposes RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: — 


Propylphosphonic dichloride 

CAS: 4708-04-7 
RTECS: — 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


65 


C01-C083 

2-Propanephosphonyl chloride 

CAS: 1498-46-0 
RTECS: — 

O 

\^R-CI 

I Cl 

C 3 H 7 CI 2 OP 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent material. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye 
impacts. 

This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a general precursor for nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.58 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 161.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.3 g/ mL 

VD: 5.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 176°F (20 mmHg) 

H 2 O: Decomposes 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C084 

Dimethylamine 

CAS: 124-40-3; 506-59-2 (Hydrochloride Salt) 

RTECS: IP8750000 
UN: 1032 
ERG: 118 

. N 

C 2 H 7 N 

Colorless gas with an ammonia or fish like odor detectable at 0.53 ppm. Shipped as a 
liquefied compressed gas. Various salts have been reported. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially for manufacture of detergents, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. Used as 
a gasoline additive and solvent. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for some G-series, GV-series, and V-series nerve agents and is 
also commonly found as a decomposition product /impurity resulting from hydrolysis of 
Tabun (C01-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.84 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 10 ppm 



66 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm 
ACGIH STEL : 15 ppm 
IDLH : 500 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 45.1 VP: 1300 mmHg PIP: 20°F 

D: 0.67 g/mL (liq. gas, 44°F) VP: 1520 mmHg (77°F) LEE: 2.8% 

MP: -134°F VD: 1.6 (calculated) UEL: 14.4% 

BP: 44°F Vlt: — RP: 0.001 

Vsc: — H 2 0: 24% (140°F) ff : 8.24 eV 

Sol: Alcohols; Ether 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 10 ppm 4 h, 10 ppm 8 h, 10 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 120 ppm 4 h, 74 ppm 8 h, 59 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 460 ppm 4 h, 280 ppm 8 h, 220 ppm 


C01-C085 

Dimethylamino ethyl chloride 

CAS: 107-99-3; 4584-46-7 (Hydrochloride salt); 69153-76-0 (Sulfate salt) 
RTECS: KQ9020000 



C4H10CIN 

Oil is unstable and decomposes on storage. Hydrochloride is colorless to light beige crys- 
talline powder with a "characteristic" odor. Various salts (solids) have been reported. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
This material is on Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a precursor for some GV-series and V-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.40 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 107.6 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEE: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: Decomposes 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 144.1 

MP: 397°F 

H 2 0: 200% 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C086 


Methyl t-butyl ketone 

CAS: 75-97-8 
RTECS: EL7700000 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


67 



c 6 h 12 o 


Colorless liquid with an odor like peppermint or camphor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion. 

Used industrially for manufacture of fungicides and herbicides. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material can be reduced to pinacolyl alcohol (C01-C087), which is an intermediate for 
production of Soman (C01-A003). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 100.2 

D: 0.7229 g/mL (77°F) 
MP: -63° F 
BP: 223°F 
Use: 3.42 cS (-63°F) 


VP: 31.5 mmHg (77° F) 

VD: 3.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: 41,000 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 0: 2.44% (59° F) 

Sol: Alcohols; Ether; Acetone 


FIP: 63°F 
LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 0.32 (77° F) 
IP: 9.14 eV 


C01-C0087 


Pinacolyl alcohol 

CAS: 464-07-3 
RTECS: EL2276000 



CgHuO 

Clear, colorless liquid. Hazardous routes of exposure for this material have not been 
established. 


Used industrially for organic synthesis. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 
This material is an intermediate for production of Soman (C01-A003). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.81 mg/m 3 at 77°F 


Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 102.2 VP: 8.81 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 0.812 g/ mL VD: 3.5 (calculated) 

MP: 41 °F Vlt: 12,000 ppm (77° F) 

BP: 246° F H 2 0: 2.43% (77° F) 

Vsc: — Sol: — 


FIP: 82°F 
LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 1.1 (77° F) 
IP: — 



68 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C01-C088 

Diethylaminoethanol 

CAS: 100-37-8 
RTECS: KK5075000 
UN: 2686 
ERG: 132 


\ .OH 

NT 



c 6 h :5 no 

Colorless hygroscopic liquid with a nauseating odor similar to ammonia and detectable at 
0.011-0.04 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially for the manufacture of emulsifying agents, flocculants, soaps, textiles 
softeners, cosmetics, in pharmaceuticals and crop protection agents, in the preparation of 
chemicals for the paper and leather industries, and in the production of plastics. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for production of GV and V series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.79 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 10 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 100 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 117.2 VP: 1.4 mmHg FIP: 140°F 

D: 0.8921 g/mL VD: 4.0 (calculated) LEL: 6.7% 

MP: -94° F Vlt: 1900 ppm UEL: 11.7% 

BP: 325°F H 2 0: Miscible RP: 6.6 

BP: 212°F (80 mmHg) Sol: Alcohols; Acetone; Ether; Benzene IP: 8.58 eV 

BP: 131°F (10 mmHg) 

Use: 5.6 cS 


C01-C089 


2-(Diisopropylamino)ethanol 

CAS: 96-80-0 
RTECS: KK5950000 


C 8 H 19 NO 



Clear colorless liquid with a nauseating odor similar to ammonia. Various salts (solids) have 
been reported. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


69 


Used industrially as a catalyst; emulsifying agent; and for manufacture of pharmaceuticals. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is an intermediate for production of VX (C01-A016) and is also commonly 
found as a decomposition product resulting from hydrolysis of VX. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 145.2 VP: 1.8 mmHg FIP: 316°F 

D: 0.826 g/mL VD: 5.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 2400 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 374°F H 2 0: — RP: 4.6 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-C090 

[(Dibromophosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 18262-26-5 
RTECS: — 



CBr 2 ClFN0 2 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.40 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 303.3 

VP: 0.03 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 2.2030 g/mL 

VD: 10 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 140°F (0.1 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C091 

[(Dichlorophosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic difluoride 

CAS: 18262-24-3 
RTECS: — 



F 



70 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


cci 2 f 2 no 2 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.09 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 197.9 

VP: 0.9 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.6360 g/ mL 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 149°F (20 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Slightly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C092 

[(Dichlorophosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 18425-23-5 
RTECS: — 

o 

N~0- P ~ CI 
Cl 
F 

cci 3 fno 2 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.77 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 214.4 

VP: 0.2 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.7080 g/mL 

VD: 7.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 142°F (6 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-C093 


[(Dichlorophosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic dichloride 

CAS: 17642-35-2 
RTECS: — 



O 


N— O \ 


-Cl 


Cl 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


71 


CCI 4 NO 2 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.44 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 230.8 

VP: 0.04 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.7360 g/mL 

VD: 8.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 167°F (5 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C094 

N-[(DichIorophosphinyl)oxy]-2,2-difluoro-2-nitroethanimidoyI fluoride 

CAS: 18262-25-4 
RTECS: — 



C 2 CI 2 F 3 N 2 O 4 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.24 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 274.9 

VP: 0.08 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.7470 g/mL 

VD: 9.5 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 149°F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C095 

2-Chloro-N-[(dichIorophosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 111203-62-4 
RTECS: — 



72 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 



O 


N— O \ 


-Cl 


Cl 


C2H2CI4NO2P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.01 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 244.8 

VP: 0.01 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 8.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MF:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 210°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP : — 


C01-C096 

[(Chloromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 17650-48-5 
RTECS: — 



F 


C 2 H 3 CI 2 FNO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.58 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 209.9 

VP: 0.5 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.5790 g/mL 

VD: 7.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 203°F (6 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


73 


C01-C097 

JV-[(Dichlorophosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 120932-13-0 
RTECS: — 

O 


C 2 H 3 CI 3 NO 2 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.61 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 210.4 

VP: 0.1 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 7.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 160°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-C098 

[(Chloromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic dichloride 

CAS: 17642-33-0 
RTECS: — 



Cl 


C 2 H 3 CI 3 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



74 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 226.4 

VP: 0.1 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

PIP: — 

D: 1.5830 g/mL 

VD: 7.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 180°F (1 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C099 

[(Chloromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic difluoride 

CAS: 18262-30-1 
RTECS: — 



F 


C 2 H 3 CIF 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.91 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published 


Properties: 


MW: 193.5 

VP: 2 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.5490 g/mL 

VD: 6.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 138°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C100 


2,2-Dichloro-lV-[(dichlorophosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 114700-94-6 
RTECS: — 



C 2 HCI 5 NO 2 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


75 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.42 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 279.3 

VP: 0.008 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 201°F (1.5 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

So/: — 

IP: — 


C01-C101 

/V-[(Chloromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]-2,2-difluoro-2-nitroethanimidoyl fluoride 

CAS: 18262-33-4 
RTECS: — 


O 




C 3 H 3 CIF 3 N 2 O 5 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.06 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 270.5 

VP: 0.2 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.6270 g/mL 

VD: 9.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 189°F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C102 

[(Chloro-2-chloroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 23233-25-2 
RTECS: — 



F 



76 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 3 H 4 CI 3 FNO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.57 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 258.4 

VP: 0.01 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.5980 g/mL 

VD: 8.9 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 163°F (0.01 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C103 

[(Bromoethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 17642-25-0 
RTECS: — 

o 
II 

N— 0^ P \‘ 

E 

C 3 H 5 BrClFN0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.98 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 268.4 

VP: 0.07 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.6970 g/mL 

VD: 9.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 214°F (1 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 




C01-C104 

[(Chloroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 18262-27-6 
RTECS: — 



F 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


77 


C 3 H 5 CI 2 FNO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 224.0 

VP: 0.2 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.4490 g/mL 

VD: 7.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 170°F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP : — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C105 

N-[(Dichlorophosphinyl)oxy]propanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 121951-54-0 
RTECS: — 



C 3 H 5 CI 3 NO 2 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 224.4 

VP: 0.04 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 7.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 153°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C106 

2-Chloro-N-[(chIoromethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyI chloride 

CAS: 114700-91-3 
RTECS: — 


Cl 




78 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C3H 5 C1 3 N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.83 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 240.4 

VP: 0.03 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 244° F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C107 

[(Chloroethoxyphosphinyl)oxylcarbonimidic difluoride 

CAS: 18262-31-2 
RTECS: — 


o 



c 3 h 5 cif 2 no 3 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.49 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 207.5 

VP: 0.8 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.4050 g/mL 

VD: 7.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 149°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C108 


AM(Chloroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]-2,2-difluoro-2-nitroethanimidoyl fluoride 

CAS: 18262-34-5 
RTECS: — 




Components and Precursors C01-C 


79 


C 4 H 5 C1F3N 2 05P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.64 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 284.5 

VP: 0.05 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.5140 g/mL 

VD: 9.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 163°F (0.1 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C109 

2,2-Dichloro-N-[(chIoroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyI chloride 

CAS: 114700-93-5 
RTECS: — 


ci 

Cl 

C 4 H 6 Cl4N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.82 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 288.9 

VP: 0.006 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 10 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MR:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 234°F (1.5 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-C110 

[[Chloroisopropylphosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 18262-28-7 
RTECS: — 


Cl 


F 




80 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 4 H 7 CI 2 FNO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.73 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 238.0 

VP: 0.09 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.3690 g/mL 

VD: 8.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 147°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C111 

[[Chloropropylphosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 18262-29-8 
RTECS: — 


o 



C 4 H 7 CI 2 FNO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.73 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 238.0 

VP: 0.06 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.3480 g/mL 

VD: 8.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 212°F (10 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C112 

N-[(DichIorophosphinyl)oxy]-2-methyIpropanimidoyI chloride 

CAS: 121951-56-2 
RTECS: — 


o 




Components and Precursors C01-C 


81 


C 4 H 7 C1 3 N02P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.75 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 238.4 

VP: 0.02 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 154°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C113 

AM(Dichlorophosphinyl)oxy]butanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 121951-55-1 
RTECS: — 


o 



C 4 H 7 C1 3 N02P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.75 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 238.4 

VP: 0.02 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 180°F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C114 

[[Chloroisopropylphosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic dichloride 

CAS: 17642-34-1 
RTECS: — 




82 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 4 H 7 CI 3 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.40 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 254.4 

VP: 0.02 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.40 g/mL 

VD: 8.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 194°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C115 

2-ChIoro-N-[(chloroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 114700-92-4 
RTECS: — 



C 4 H 7 CI 3 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.40 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 254.4 

VP: 0.01 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 253°F (1.5 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C116 

[(Chloropropoxyphosphinyboxylcarbonimidic dichloride 

CAS: 37990-97-9 
RTECS: — 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


83 



C 4 H 7 Cl3N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.40 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 254.4 

VP: 0.01 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 8.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MT:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

HoO: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C117 

[(Chloropropoxyphosphinyl)oxylcarbonimidic difluoride 

CAS: 37990-84-4 
RTECS: — 


O 



F 


C 4 H 7 C1F2N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.06 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 221.5 

VP: 0.3 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 7.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

HiO: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



84 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C01-C118 

[(Chloroisopropoxyphosphinyl)oxy]carbonimidic difluoride 

CAS: 18262-32-3 
RTECS: — 



C 4 H 7 CIF 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.06 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 221.5 

VP: 0.4 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.3720 g/mL 

VD: 7.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 142°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C119 

AM(Chloroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 114700-90-2 
RTECS: — 



C 4 H 8 Cl2N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.00 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 220.0 VP: 0.08 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) FIP: — 

D: — VD: 7.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


85 


BP: 205°F (3 mmHg) H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" RP: — 

Hsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-C120 

AM(Chloropropoxyphosphinyl)oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 129003-90-3 
RTECS: — 


O 



C 5 H 10 Cl 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.57 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 234.0 

VP: 0.03 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 221°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C121 

N-[[ChIoro(l-methylethoxy)phosphinyI]oxy]ethanimidoyI chloride 

CAS: 128981-16-8 
RTECS: — 



C 5 H 10 Cl 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.57 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



86 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 234.0 

VP: 0.04 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 210°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP : — 


C01-C122 

AM(Chloroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]propanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-18-0 
RTECS: — 



C 5 H 10 CI 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.57 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 234.0 

VP: 0.03 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 219°F (2.5 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C123 

2-Chloro-lV-[[chloro(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)phosphinyl]oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 114967-39-4 
RTECS: — 


Cl 



F 


c 5 H5C1 3 f 4 no 3 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


87 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 13.92 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 340.4 

VP: 0.003 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 12 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 244° F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C124 

[[2-Chloro-l-methylpropylphosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride 

CAS: 24946-19-8 
RTECS: — 

Cl 

F 

C 5 H 8 Cl3FN0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.72 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 286.5 

VP: 0.004 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.4811 g/mL 

VD: 9.9 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 183°F (0.3 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-C125 

Al-[[Chloro(l-methylethoxy)phosphinyl]oxy]propanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-20-4 
RTECS: — 



C 6 H 12 C1 2 N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 



88 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.14 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 248.0 

VP: 0.02 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 207°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C126 

Al-[[Chloro(2-methylpropoxy)phosphinyl]oxy]ethanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-17-9 
RTECS: — 

Cl 


c 6 h :2 ci 2 no 3 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.14 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 248.0 

VP: 0.02 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 226°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C01-C127 

N-[(Chloropropoxyphosphinyl)oxy]propanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-19-1 
RTECS: — 


O 



c 6 h :2 ci 2 no 3 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


89 


This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.14 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 248.0 

VP: 0.01 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.6 (calculated) 

TEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 216°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C128 


!V-[(ChIoroethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]-2-methylpropanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-25-9 
RTECS: — 



C 6 H 12 C1 2 N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.14 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 248.0 

VP: 0.02 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.6 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 207°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C129 

N-[(ChIoropropoxyphosphinyl)oxy]butanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-22-6 
RTECS: — 




90 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 7 H u CbN0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.72 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 262.1 

VP: 0.004 mmHg (77° F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 226°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C130 

N-[[Chloro(2-methylpropoxy)phosphinyl]oxy]propanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-21-5 
RTECS: — 

N — O' 

C 7 H 14 CI 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.72 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 262.1 

VP: 0.006 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 228°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 




C01-C131 

N-[[Chloro(l-methylethoxy)phosphinyl]oxy]butanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-23-7 
RTECS: — 

o 

Cl x II 

p— o 
\ 

Cl 



= N — O 



Components and Precursors C01-C 


91 


C 7 H 14 CI 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.72 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 262.1 

VP: 0.006 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 221°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C132 

N-[[ChIoro(l-methylethoxy)phosphinyI]oxy]-2-methylpropanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-27-1 
RTECS: — 



C7H :4 Cl2N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.72 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 262.1 

VP: 0.008 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 214°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C133 

AM(Chloropropoxyphosphinyl)oxy]-2-methylpropanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-26-0 
RTECS: — 



92 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


O 



C 7 H 14 CI 2 NO 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.72 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 262.1 

VP: 0.006 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 9.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MF:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 225°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-C134 

AM[Chloro(2-methylpropoxy)phosphinyl]oxy]butanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-24-8 
RTECS: — 

O 



c 8 h 16 ci 2 no 3 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.29 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 276.1 

VP: 0.002 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 9.5 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BE: 226°F (1.5 mmHg) 

H 2 O: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



Decomposition Products and Impurities C01-D 


93 


C01-C135 

JV-[[Chloro(2-methylpropoxy)phosphinyl]oxy]-2-methylpropanimidoyl chloride 

CAS: 128981-28-2 
RTECS: — 


O 



C 8 H 16 C1 2 N0 3 P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is a precursor for Novichok series agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.29 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 276.1 

VP: 0.003 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 9.5 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 228°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: "Sparingly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP : — 


C01-D 

DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS AND IMPURITIES 


C01-D136 

Bis(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)sulfide ([DE2]S) 
CAS: 110501-56-9 
RTECS: — 




Ci 6 H 36 N 2 S 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is a degradation product from hydrolysis of V-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 





94 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 288.5 

VP: 0.00000027 mmHg 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 10 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0 : 0.00012% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D137 


Bis[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] disulfide (Agent EA 4196) 
CAS: 65332-44-7 
RTECS: — 



Cl6H 36 N2S2 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is a degradation product from hydrolysis of V-series nerve agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 320.6 

VP: 0.0000000059 mmHg 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 11 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 0.00095% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D138 


Ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) 
CAS: 1832-53-7 
RTECS: — 


O 



c 3 h 9 o 3 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. Various salts 
(solids) have been reported. 

This material is a degradation product from hydrolysis of VX (C01-A016) and Ethyl Sarin 
(C01-A005). 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Decomposition Products and Impurities C01-D 


95 


Properties: 


MW: 124.1 

VP: 0.00036 mmHg 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 226°F (0.4 mmHg) 

H 2 0: 18% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D139 

0,S-Diethyl methylphosphonothioate (Agent EA 5533) 
CAS: 2511-10-6 
RTECS: — 


O 



c 5 h 13 o 2 ps 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 

This material is commonly found as an impurity and degradation product from hydrolysis 
of VX (C01-A016). This material has been used as a simulant in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.88 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 168.2 

VP: 0.081 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: 17°F 

Vlt: 100 ppm (77°F) 

UEL: — 

BP: 445° F 

H 2 0: 1.55% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D140 

N,N'-Dicyclohexylurea 

CAS: 2387-23-7 
RTECS: — 



C13H24N2O 

White crystalline powder. 

This material is commonly found as a degradation product from hydrolysis of VX stabilizer 
Dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (C01-C049). 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



96 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 224.3 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: 1.34 g/ cm 3 

VD : — 

LEL: — 

MP: 448 °F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D141 

N -Chloroisopropylamine 

CAS: 26245-56-7 
RTECS: — 



N — Cl 


c 3 h 8 cin 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 

This material is a degradation product from the reaction of VX (C01-A016) with 
hypochlorites. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 93.6 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.019 g/mL (77°F) 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 99°F (100 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D142 

Diethyl hydrogen phosphate 

CAS: 598-02-7 
RTECS: TC0665000 


O 



C4H11O4P 

Clear, colorless liquid. 

This material is commonly found as a degradation product from hydrolysis of Tabun (C01- 
A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.30 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Decomposition Products and Impurities C01-D 


97 


Properties: 

MW: 154.1 VP: — PIP: 196° F 

D: 1.29 g/mL VD: — LED — 

MP: 43°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 397°F H 2 0: "Slightly soluble" RP: — 

BP: 212°F (0.1 mmHg) So/:— IP: — 

Vsc: — 


C01-D143 

Diisopropylamine 

CAS: 108-18-9; 819-79-4 (Hydrochloride Salt); 30321-74-5 (Hydrobromide Salt); 6143-52-8 
(Nitrate Salt) ; 65087-26-5 (Sulfate Salt) 

RTECS: IM4025000 
UN: 1158 
ERG: 132 



c 6 h 15 n 


Colorless liquid with an odor like ammonia or fish. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 
This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken 
skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. Concentrations between 25 and 
50 ppm can cause vision disturbances (e.g., colored haloes to be seen around lights). 

Used industrially for organic synthesis; as an antifoam agent, as a stabilizer for mesityl 
oxide; and as a chemical intermediate for detergents; dyes; pesticides; and pharmaceuticals. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 


This is commonly found as an impurity in VX (C01-A016) and from decomposition of VX 
with hypochlorite. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.14 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 5 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 200 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 101.2 
D: 0.7169 g/mL 
MP: -78°F 
BP: 183°F 
Use: 0.558 cS (77°F) 

Sol: Acetone; Benzene; Ether; Ethanol 


VP: 70 mmHg 

VP: 79.4 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 3.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: 100,000 ppm (77°F) 
H 2 0: Miscible 


PIP: 30°F 
LED 1.1% 
UEL: 7.1% 
RP: 0.13 
IP: 7.73 eV 


C01-D144 

Triethyl phosphate 

CAS: 78-40-0 
RTECS: — 



98 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


O 



C6H15O4P 

Clear, colorless liquid with a mild odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for organophosphorus insecticides, as a cata- 
lyst in the production of acetic anhydride by the ketene process; and used in industry as a 
plasticizer, fire-retarding agent, antifoaming agent, and desensitizing agent for peroxides. 

This material is commonly found as degradation product of Tabun (C01-A001). This mater- 
ial has been used as a simulant in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.45 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 182.2 VP: 0.39 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 240°F 

D: 1.0689 g/mL VD: 6.3 (calculated) LEL: — 

D: 1.0725 g/mL (66°F) Vlt: 510 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

MP: -70°F H 2 0: 50% RP: 19 

BP: 419°F Sol: Most organic solvents IP: ~10 eV 

Use: — 


C01-D145 

N,N -D iisopr opylethylamine 

CAS: 7087-68-5 
RTECS: — 



C 8 H :9 N 

Clear colorless to yellow liquid with an amine odor. Various salts (solids) have been repor- 
ted. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used as a reagent in organic chemistry. 

This material is commonly found as an impurity and degradation product in VX (C01- 
A016). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.28 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Decomposition Products and Impurities C01-D 


99 


Properties: 

MW: 129.2 VP: 31 mmHg (100°F) PIP: 43° F 

D: 0.782 g/mL VD: 4.5 (calculated) LEL: 3% 

MP: -51°F Vlt: 39,000 ppm (100°F) UEL: 17% 

BP: 261°F H 2 0: Miscible RP: 0.30 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C01-D146 

Hydrogen S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (Agent EA 2192) 
CAS: 73207-98-4 
RTECS: — 



C 9 H 22 NO 2 PS 


Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion. 

This material is on Schedule 1 of the CWC. 

This material is a degradation product from hydrolysis of VX (C01-A016), a V-series nerve 
agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.79 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to have nearly the same toxicity 
as the parent compound. 


Properties: 


MW: 239.3 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEE: — 

BP: — 

H 2 O: Miscible 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D147 

Hydrogen S-2-dimethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: 34256-71-8 
RTECS: — 




100 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


c 5 h 14 no 2 ps 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken 
skin, and ingestion. 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 

This material is on Schedule 1 of the CWC. 

This material is a degradation product from hydrolysis of VX (C01-A017), a V-series nerve 
agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.49 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to have nearly the same toxicity 
as the parent compound. 

Properties: 


MW: 183.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 6.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MF:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C01-D148 

Hydrogen S-2-dimethylaminoethyl ethylphosphonothiolate 

CAS: — 

RTECS: — 



c 6 h :6 no 2 ps 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion. 

This material is on Schedule 1 of the CWC. 

This material is a degradation product from hydrolysis of ethyl S-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] 
ethylphosphonothiolate (C01-A021), a V-series nerve agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.07 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to have nearly the same toxicity 
as the parent compound. 


Properties: 


MW: 197.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP:— 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


References 


101 


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. "Counter Terrorism Card for GF." 2000. 

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Epstein, J., K.E. Levy, and H.O. Michel. "Production of Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds," 
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Fusek, J. and J. Bajgar. "Antidotal Treatment of Intoxication with New Nerve Agent GV." In Proceedings 
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Ghosh, R. "New Basic Esters of Thiophosphonic Acids and Salts Thereof," Great Britain Patent 797603, 
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Gordon, J.J., R.H. Inns, M.K. Johnson, L. Leadbeater, M.P. Maidment, D.G. Upshall, G.H. Cooper, 
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International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) Division of Occupational Health, Safety and Medi- 
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Kruglyak, Yu.L., S.I. Malekin, and I.V. Martynov. "Phosphorylated Oximes. XII. Reactions of 
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Lyashenko, Yu.E. and V.B. Sokolov. "Reactions of 0-(Alkylchloroformoimino)trichloromethylphos- 
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Malekin, S.I., V.I. Yakutin, M.A. Sokal'skii, Yu.L. Kruglyak, and I.V. Martynov. "Mechanism of the 
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Marrs, T.C., R.L. Maynard, and F.R. Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment. 
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. "Reaction of Phosphorus Trichloride with 1,1,2-Trichloro-l-nitrosoethane in Sulfur Dioxide." 

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. "Reaction of Polychloronitrosoethanes with Phosphorous Acid Derivatives." Seriya 

Khimicheskaya 5 (1987): 1086-1089 (In Russian). 

Martynov, I.V., Yu.L. Kruglyak, and S.I. Malekin. "Carbonyl Halide Oxime /S-Chloroalkyl Fluoro- 
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Martynov, I.V., Yu.L. Kruglyak, and N.F. Privezentseva. "Phosphorylated Oximes. I. Reaction of 
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. "Phosphorylated Oximes. II. Reaction of Halodialkyl Phosphites with ce-Chloronitro 

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. "Reaction of Alkyl Phosphites with a'-Halonitroso and a-Halonitro Compounds." Edited by 

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety 
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2 

Carbamate Nerve Agents 


2.1 General Information 

This class of agents is not covered by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Because of the 
toxicity of the agents and lack of commercial application, carbamate nerve agents would 
be prohibited based on the Guidelines for Schedules of Chemicals. 

These materials are fourth generation chemical warfare agents. They contain one or more 
quaternary amine centers that increase the ability of the agent to penetrate into neuromus- 
cular junctions. They are relatively simple to synthesize although the starting materials 
are not commonly available. Because they produce negligible vapor, they are somewhat 
difficult to deliver in a manner that will produce immediate casualties. 

Although the United States began investigating carbamates as warfare agents in the late 
1950s, there is no information to indicate that these agents have ever been used other than 
for research purposes. 


2.2 Toxicology 
2.2.1 Effects 

Nerve agents are the most toxic of formerly stockpiled man-made chemical warfare agents. 
These compounds are similar to, but much more deadly than, agricultural carbamate pesti- 
cides. Nerve agents disrupt the function of the nervous system by interfering with the 
enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Serious effects are on skeletal muscles and the central nervous 
system. Nerve agents also affect glands that discharge secretions to the outside of the body 
causing discharge of mucous, saliva, sweat, and gastrointestinal fluids. Exposure to solids, 
solutions, or aerosols from these agents is hazardous and can result in death within minutes 
of exposure. 


2.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Nerve agents are hazardous through any route of exposure including inhalation, exposure 
of the skin and eye, ingestion, and broken, abraded, or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of 
skin by debris). 


105 



106 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


2.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Carbamate nerve agents do not have good warning properties. They have no odor, and, 
other than causing miosis, aerosols do not irritate the eyes. Contact neither irritates the skin 
nor causes cutaneous injuries. 

Human toxicity data for the carbamate nerve agents has not been published or has not 
been established. 

These agents are rapidly detoxified or eliminated from the body and there is little or no 
cumulative toxicity. Some agents are refractory to treatment. 

2.2.4 Latency Period 

2.2. 4.1 Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 

Depending on the concentration of agent aerosols, the effects begin to appear 30 seconds 
to 2 minutes after initial exposure. 

2.2. 4.2 Solids/Solutions (Nonaerosol) 

Typically, there is a latent period with no visible effects between the time of exposure and 
the sudden onset of symptoms. This latency can range from 1 minutes to 18 hours and is 
affected by factors such as the amount of agent involved, the amount of skin surface in 
contact with the agent, and previous exposure to materials that chap or dry the skin (e.g., 
organic solvents such as gasoline or alcohols). Moist, sweaty areas of the body are more 
susceptible to percutaneous penetration by solid nerve agents. 

Another key factor is the part of the body that is exposed to the agent. It takes more time 
for the agent to penetrate areas of the body that are covered by thicker and tougher skin. 
The regions of the body that allow the fastest percutaneous penetration are the groin, head, 
and neck. The least susceptible body regions are the hands, feet, front of the knee, and 
outside of the elbow. 


2.3 Characteristics 

2.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

2.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically white, to pale yellow crystalline solids. Some are 
hygroscopic or deliquescent. They have little or no odor. 

2. 3. 1.2 Modified Agents 

Carbamate nerve agents have been dissolved in both water and organic solvents to facilitate 
handling, enhance dispersal, or increase the ease of percutaneous penetration by the agents. 
Percutaneous enhancement solvents include dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, 
N ,N-d i methylpal m i ta m ide, N ,N-d i methyldeca na m ide, and saponin. Color and other 
properties of these solutions may vary from the pure agent. Odors will be dependent on 
the characteristics of the solvent(s) used. 

2.3.2 Stability 

Dry carbamate nerve agents are stable over a wide range of temperatures. Stabilizers are 
not required. Agents can be stored in glass, steel, stainless steel, or aluminum containers. 
Agents in solution are much more susceptible to hydrolysis and decomposition. 



Carbamate Nerve Agents 


107 


2.3.3 Persistency 

For military purposes, unmodified carbamate nerve agents are classified as extremely per- 
sistent. Agents have negligible vapor pressure and they will not evaporate. Depending on 
the size of the individual particles and on any encapsulation or coatings applied to the 
particles, they can be reaerosolized by ground traffic or strong winds. 


2.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Carbamate nerve agents are nonvolatile and do not pose a vapor hazard. Although these 
agents may be dissolved in volatile solvents, evaporation of the solvent does not increase 
the evaporation of the agent itself. Porous material, including painted surfaces, may absorb 
solutions of agents. After the initial surface contamination has been removed, the agent that 
has been absorbed into porous material can migrate back to the surface posing a contact 
hazard. 

Although these nerve agents are water soluble, agent solubility may be modified (either 
increased or decreased) by solvents. These agents are also soluble in some polar organic 
solvents such as alcohols and acetonitrile. 


2.4 Additional Hazards 
2.4.1 Exposure 

Individuals who have had previous exposure to materials that chap or dry the skin, such 
as alcohols, gasoline, or paint thinners, may be more susceptible to percutaneous exposure 
from dermal contact with these agents. In these situations, the rate of percutaneous pen- 
etration of the agent is greatly increased resulting in a decrease in the survival time that 
would otherwise be expected. 

All foodstuffs in the area of release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent aerosols solid 
agents may be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to 
solid agents or solutions of agents should be decontaminated within a few hours postex- 
posure or destroyed. Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or 
cardboard, should be destroyed. 

Meat from animals that have suffered only mild to moderate effects from exposure to 
nerve agents should be safe to consume. Milk should be discarded for the first 7 days pos- 
texposure and then should be safe to consume. Meat, milk, and animal products, including 
hides, from animals severely affected or killed by nerve agents should be destroyed. 

Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains exposed to carbamate nerve agents should be 
quarantined until tested. 


2.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/soap and water (see Section 2.5.3). If the 
animals' eyes have been exposed to the agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline 
solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be quarantined until tested. Carbamate nerve agents are very 
persistent and forage vegetation could still retain sufficient agent to produce severe effects 



108 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


for several weeks postrelease, depending on the level of contamination and the weather 
conditions. 

2. 4.2.1 Fire 

Heat from a fire will destroy carbamate nerve agents before generating any significant 
concentration of agent vapor. However, actions taken to extinguish the fire can spread 
the agent. Carbamates are water-soluble and runoff from firefighting efforts will pose a 
significant threat. Some of the potential decomposition products include toxic or corrosive 
gases or both. 

2.4. 2.2 Reactivity 

Carbamate nerve agents are stable in water. However, at high-pH they are rapidly 
destroyed. 


2.4.3 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

2. 4. 3.1 Hydrolysis 

Agents produce dimethylamine [(CH3)2NH], carbon dioxide (CO2), and complex organic 
compounds. 

2.4. 3.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include hydrogen chloride (HC 1 ), hydrogen bromide 
(HBr), hydrogen iodide (HI), CO2, aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). 


2.5 Protection 

2.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

There are no published recommendations for isolation or protective action distances for 
carbamate nerve agents released in mass casualty situations. 


2.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

2.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. However, since carbamate nerve agents have 
negligible vapor pressure, they do not pose a vapor hazard. The primary risk of exposure is 
through contact with aerosolized agents, solids, or solutions of agents. If chemical protective 
clothing is not available and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, 
then structural firefighters' gear will provide some skin protection against nerve agent 
aerosols. Contact with solids and solutions should be avoided. 

Even though carbamate nerve agents are rapidly detoxified or eliminated from the body, 
exposures may have a cumulative effect in the short-term, placing all responders who 
entered the hot zone without appropriate chemical protective clothing at increased risk 
during the remainder of the emergency. 



Carbamate Nerve Agents 


109 


2.5. 2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chem- 
ical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification. However, during emergency 
operations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by 
the manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
Incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor /acid gas/particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. However, IDLH levels have not been established for carbamate nerve 
agents. Therefore, any potential exposure to aerosols of these agents should be regarded 
with extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

2.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Currently, there is no information on performance testing of chemical protective cloth- 
ing against carbamate nerve agents. Evaluation of fabrics used to prevent exposure to 
carbamate pesticides may provide guidance on selection of appropriate protective clothing. 

Because these agents do not produce any significant concentration of vapor, the primary 
risk of exposure is through inhalation of aerosols or by the percutaneous migration of agents 
following dermal exposure to solid agents or solutions containing these agents. However, 
aerosolized agents can also penetrate the skin and produce a toxic effect. If there is any 
possibility of contact with aerosolized agent, then responders should consider wearing a 
Level A protective ensemble. 


2.5.3 Decontamination 

2.5.3. 1 General 

Carbamate nerve agents are readily destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions). Use an 
aqueous caustic solution (minimum of 10% by weight sodium hydroxide or sodium car- 
bonate) or use undiluted household bleach. Basic peroxides also rapidly detoxify carbamate 
nerve agents. 

2.5. 3. 2 Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Remove as much of the nerve agent from the skin as fast as possible. If 
water is not immediately available, the agent can be absorbed with any convenient material 
such as paper towels, toilet paper, flour, or talc. To minimize both spreading the agent and 
abrading the skin, do not rub the agent with the absorbent. Blot the contaminated skin with 
the absorbent. 

Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin 
surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot 
water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and 
increase percutaneous absorption of residual agent. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 
If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to nerve agents, irrigate with water 
or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such 
as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material 



110 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Before sealing the container, cover 
the contents with an aqueous caustic solution or undiluted household bleach (see Section 
2. 5. 3.1). Wash the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the 
rinseate. Removal of porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required because 
the nerve agent that has been absorbed into these materials can migrate back to the surface 
and pose a contact hazard. 

2.5. 3.3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing as 
this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the 
eyes have been exposed to nerve agents, then irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution 
for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that could 
create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize the 
agent such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped 
with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home or industrial 
vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the affected area. Vacuum all 
surfaces with extreme care in a very slow and controlled manner to minimize aerosolizing 
the agent. Place the collected material into containers lined with high-density polyethyl- 
ene. Before sealing the container, cover the contents with an aqueous caustic solution or 
undiluted household bleach (see Section 2.5.3.1). Wash the area with copious amounts of 
the soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. 


2.6 Medical 

2.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has not published a specific case 
definition for intoxication by carbamates. However, the case definition for nerve agents 
and organophosphates states 


1) A case in which nerve agents are detected in the urine. Decreased plasma or red blood cell 
cholinesterase levels based on a specific commercial laboratory reference range might indicate a 
nerve agent or organophosphate exposure; however, the normal range levels for cholinesterase 
are wide, which makes interpretation of levels difficult without a baseline measurement or repeat 
measurements over time. 2) Detection of organophosphates in environmental samples. The case can 
be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a predominant amount of clinical 
and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent 
is known. 


2.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to nerve agents: carbamate and organophosphate pesticides; 
alkaloids such as nicotine or coniine; ingestion of mushrooms containing muscarine; and 



Carbamate Nerve Agents 


111 


medicinals such as carbamates, cholinomimetic compounds, and neuromuscular blocking 
drugs. 


2.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

2.6.3. 1 Aerosols 

Pinpointing of pupils (miosis) and extreme nasal discharge (rhinorrhea) may be the first 
indications of exposure. The casualty may also experience difficulty in breathing with a 
feeling of shortness of breath or tightness of the chest. In cases of exposure to high aerosol 
concentrations, the gastrointestinal tract may be affected, resulting in vomiting, urination, 
or defecation. Inhalation of lethal amounts of nerve agent can cause loss of consciousness 
and convulsions in as little as 30 seconds, followed by cessation of breathing and flaccid 
paralysis after several more minutes. 

2. 6.3. 2 Solutions/Solids 

Localized sweating, nausea, vomiting, involuntary urination/ defecation, and a feeling of 
weakness are signs of small to moderate nerve agent exposure. Miosis usually does not 
occur unless the individuals have had agent in or around their eyes. Exposure to a large 
amount of agent causes copious secretions, loss of consciousness, convulsions progressing 
into flaccid paralysis, and cessation of breathing. 


2.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

2.6.4. 1 Priority 1 

A casualty with symptoms in two or more organ systems (not including miosis or rhinor- 
rhea), who has a heartbeat and a palpable blood pressure. The casualty may or may not be 
conscious and/ or breathing. 

2. 6. 4. 2 Priority 2 

A casualty with a known expossure to a solid agent or solution but no apparent signs or 
symptoms, or a casualty who is recovering from a severe exposure after receiving treatment. 

2. 6. 4. 3 Priority 3 

A casualty who is walking and talking, although miosis and/ or rhinorrhea may be present. 

2. 6. 4. 4 Priority 4 

A casualty who is not breathing and does not have a heartbeat or palpable blood pressure. 


2.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all nerve agents have been removed. If nerve 
agents have gotten into the eyes, irrigate the eyes with water or 0.9% saline solution 
for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at 
least 10 minutes. However, do not delay treatment if thorough decontamination cannot be 
undertaken immediately. 

Although these agents do not produce any significant vapor, aerosolization of residual 
dusts on casualties could cause impacts to medical responders. Once the casualty has been 



112 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter from wounds, medical personnel 
do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Ventilate the patient. There may be an increase in airway resistance due to constriction 
of the airway and the presence of secretions. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. 
As soon as possible administer atropine. Severely poisoned individuals may exhibit toler- 
ance to atropine and require large doses. Oximes such as pralidoxime chloride (2-PAMC1) 
do not significantly increase the effectiveness of atropine and in some cases may be con- 
traindicated. Diazepam may be required to prevent or control severe convulsions or both. 
If diazepam is not administered within 40 minutes postexposure, then its effectiveness at 
controlling seizures is minimal. These agents are rapidly detoxified or eliminated from the 
body and aging of these agents is not an issue. 


2.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects segregating them as either durable or nondurable 
items. While it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and more 
efficient to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. Items that 
will be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable containers, 
ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the outer one. 

Carbamate nerve agents that have entered the body are metabolized, hydrolyzed, or 
bound to tissue and pose little threat of off-gassing. To remove agents on the outside of the 
body, wash the remains with copious amounts of soap and water. Pay particular attention 
to areas where agent may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of 
skin, and wounds. All wash and rinse waste must be contained for proper disposal. Body 
fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any additional risks and should 
be contained and handled according to established procedures. 

Use standard burial procedures. 


C02-A 

AGENTS 


C02-A001 


l,10-Bis[methyl-2-(3-dimethyl-carbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]decane 
dimethobromide (Agent EA 3887) 

CAS: 110913-97-8 
RTECS: — 



O. 



Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


113 


C 32 H 54 N 6 O 4 • Br? 

White odorless solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

This agent is refractory to treatment. 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately twice as toxic as 
VX (C01-A016). The iodine salt is slightly more toxic than VX. 


Properties: 

MW: 746.7 
D: 1.4 g/cm 3 
MP: Decomposes 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: "Soluble" 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

TEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 'Extremely persistent" 
IP: — 


Iodide salt 

MW: 840.6 
MP: 320°F 


C02-A002 

l,6-Bis[methyl-2-(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]hexane dimethobromide 

(Agent EA 3948) 

CAS: 110913-93-4 
RTECS: — 



C 2 8 H 4 fl N 6 04 • Br? 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately half as toxic as VX 
(CO! -AO 16). 


Properties: 

MW: 690.5 
D: — 

MP: 293-297°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 



114 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C02-A003 

l-(iV,iV-Dimethylamino)-10-[/V-(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy-2-pyridylmethyl)- 
A-methylamino]decane dimethobromide (Agent EA 3966) 

CAS: 110913-86-5 
RTECS: — 



C24H46N4O2 • Br2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 582.5 VP: Negligible 

D: — MP: Decomposes VD: — 

BP: — Vlt: — 

Vsc: — H 2 0: Soluble 

Sol: Acetonitrile 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A004 

l,8-Bis[methyl-2(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]octane dimethobromide 

(Agent EA 3990) 

CAS: 110913-95-6 
RTECS: — 



C 30 H5oN fl 04 • Br2 

White, odorless crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately three times more 
toxic than VX (C01-A016). 



Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


115 


Properties: 

MW: 718.7 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: 1.33 g/ cm 3 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: Decomposes 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 82% (77°F) 

RP: "Extremely persistent' 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetic acid; 
Chloroform 

IP: — 


C02-A005 


l,5-Bis[methyl-2(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]pentane dimethobromide 

(Agent EA 4026) 

CAS: 110913-92-3 


RTECS: — 



C 27 H 44 N 6 O 4 • Br? 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately one-fifth as toxic 
as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 676.5 
D: — 

MP: 370-381 °F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A006 

l,4-Bis[methyl-2(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]butane dimethobromide 

(Agent EA 4038) 

CAS: 110913-91-2 
RTECS: — 



C26H42N6O4 • Br2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 



116 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately 200 times less toxic 
than VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 662.5 
D:— 

MP: 338-347°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A007 


l,3-Bis[methyl-2(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]propane dimethobromide 

(Agent EA 4048) 

CAS: 110913-90-1 
RTECS: — 

o 




Br B r 


C25H40N6O4 • Br2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to have minimal toxicity. 

Properties: 

MW: 648.4 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D:— VD: — LEL: — 

MP: 388°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 0: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol:— IP: — 


C02-A008 

l,9-Bis[methyl-2(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]nonane dimethobromide 

(Agent EA 4056) 

CAS: 110913-96-7 
RTECS: — 



Br 


Br 



Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


117 


C 31 H 52 N 6 O 4 • Br? 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately three times more 
toxic than VX (CO 1 -AO 16). 


Properties: 

MW: 732.6 
D: — 

MP: 212-221°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A009 

l,ll-Bis[methyl-2(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]undecane 
dimethobromide (Agent EA 4057) 

CAS: 110913-98-9 
RTECS: — 



C33H56N6O4 • Br2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 760.7 
D: — 

MP: 266-270°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 



118 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C02-A010 

l,7-Bis[methyl-2(3-dimethylcarbamoxypyridyl)methylamino]heptane dimethobromide 

(Agent EA 4181) 

CAS: 110913-94-5 
RTECS: — 



Br B r 

C 2 c } H 48 N fi 04 • Br 2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(CO 1 -AO 16). 


Properties: 

MW: 704.5 
D: — 

MP: 320-325°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A011 

l-(4-Dimethylaminophenoxy)-2-(3-dimethylamino-5-dimethylcarbamoxyphenoxy)- 
ethane dimethiodide 

CAS: 57169-76-3 
RTECS: — 

|- 


N + 



C 23 H 35 N 3 O 4 • I 2 

Pale yellow crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 



Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


119 


Properties: 

MW: 671.4 
D: — 

MP: 266°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: — 

Sol: — 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A012 

l-(3-Dimethylaminophenoxy)-3-(3-dimethylamino-5-dimethylcarbamoxyphenoxy)- 
propane dimethiodide 

CAS: 57168-28-2 
RTECS: — 


N+ N+ 



C 24 H 37 N 3 O 4 ■ I 2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (CO 1 -AO 16). 


Properties: 



MW: 685.4 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 360°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 

C02-A013 


Decamethylene-(3-hydroxyquinuclidinium bromide) [(2-dimethylcarbamoxy-ethyl)- 
dimethylammonium bromide] 

CAS: 58619-61-7 
RTECS: — 



C 24 H 49 N 3 O 3 • Br 2 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. Various other 
salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately 50 times less toxic 
than VX (C01-A016). 



120 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 587.5 
D: — 

MP: 286°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A014 

l^-BislN-O-dimethylcarbamoxy-a-picolyD-^A-dimethylammonioloctane^y-dione 

dibromide 

CAS: 77104-01-9 
RTECS: — 



C30H46N6O6 • Br2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately three times more 
toxic than VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 746.5 
D:— 

MP: 410°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A015 

Octamethylene-bis(5-dimethylcarbamoxyisoquinolinium bromide) 

CAS: 110203-40-2 
RTECS: — 




Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


121 


C32H40N4O4 • Br2 

Solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 704.5 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: 250-257°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 

C02-A016 

l,8-Bis[A r -(2-dimethyIcarbamoxybenzyl)-iY,iV-dimethylammonio]octane-2,7-dione 

dibromide 

CAS: 110801-39-3 
RTECS: — 


°Y- n 


ij ^ 1 0 

Br" 

a \ 

0 N 

1 1 

N + 


1 1 


N + 

rl 

Br 

0 1 



C32H48N4O6 • Br2 

White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 744.6 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: 329-336°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: Acetonitrile IP: — 

C02-A017 

l,10-Bis[iY-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy-a-picolyl)-iV,iV-dimethylammonio]decane-2,9-dione 

dibromide 

CAS: 77103-99-2 
RTECS: — 


°y N ' 


(l 'Af 


0 


l + 




A 

N 

| 

/ 


o 

A . 

O N 


□ 1 




If ^ 

|| 

O 1 




122 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C32H50N6O6 • Br2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately three times more 
toxic than VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 774.6 
D: — 

MP: 336°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: — 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A018 

l,8-Bis[(3-dimethylcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)ethylamino]octane dimethobromide 

CAS: 113402-83-8 
RTECS: — , 



C32H54N6O4 • Br2 
White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately twice as toxic as 
VX (C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 746.3 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: 282°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 0: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: Acetonitrile IP: — 


C02-A019 

l,10-Bis[V-(2-dimethyIcarbamoxybenzyl)-iV,iV-dimethylammonio]decane-2,9-dione 

dibromide 

CAS: 110801-36-0 
RTECS: — 






124 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C34H56N4O4 • Br2 

White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 744.3 
D: — 

MP: 349°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A022 


l,10-Bis[(3-dimethylcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)ethylamino]decane dimethobromide 

CAS: 113402-82-7 
RTECS: — 1 



C34H58N6O4 • Br2 

White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately twice as toxic as 
VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 774.3 
D:— 

MP: 343 °F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A023 


l,10-Bis!iV-[l-(2-dimethylcarbamoxyphenyl)ethyl]-iV,/V-dimethylammonio}decane- 
2,9-dione tetraphenylboronate 


CAS: 110801-38-2 


RTECS: — 



o 



Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


125 


C 36 H % N 4 0 6 • B 2 C 48 H 40 

Crystalline solid. Bromide salt is a hygroscopic white solid. Various other salts have been 
reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX (C01- 
A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 1279.3 
D: — 

MP: 180-183°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 

Bromide Salt 

MW: 800.7 
H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Insoluble 
Sol: — 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A024 

Bis{a-[(3-dimethylcarbamoxyphenyl)methylamino]}-4,4 / -biacetophenone 
dimethobromide 

CAS: 113402-23-6 
RTECS: — 



C38H44N4O6 • Br 2 

Light yellow crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately half as toxic as VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 812.2 
D: — 

MP: 302°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 



126 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C02-A025 

l,10-Bis[(2-dimethylcarbamoxybenzyl)propylamino]decane dimethobromide 

CAS: 117569-53-6 
RTECS: — 



C38H 6 4N4C>4 • Br2 

White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 800.4 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — - 

MP: 180°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: Acetonitrile IP: — 


C02-A026 

Bis{a-[(3-dimethylcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)pyrrolidinio]}4,4 , -biacetophenone dibromide 

CAS: 113402-25-8 
RTECS: — 



C42H50N6O6 • Br2 

Crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately half as toxic as VX 
(C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 893.3 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: Decomposes Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: Alcohols IP: — 



Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


127 


C02-A027 

l-(4-Dimethylcarbamoxy-2-dimethylaminophenoxy)-3-(4-dimethylaminophenoxy)- 
propane dimethiodide 

CAS: 58149-55-6 
RTECS: — 


\ 


N 





C 24 H 37 N 3 O 4 ■ I 2 

Solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately one-fifth as toxic 
as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 685.4 
D: — 

MP: 349-360°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: — 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


Oxalate salt 

MW: 591.4 
MP: 329°F 


C02-A028 

l-(iV,/V,iV-Trimethylammonio)-8-[A T -(2-dimethylcarbamoxybenzyl)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]octane dibromide 

CAS: 77104-70-2 
RTECS: — 



C 23 H 43 N 3 O 2 • Br 2 

Hygroscopic white crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (CO 1 -AO 16). 



128 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 553.4 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A029 

l-(iV,i\ T ,iV-Trimethylammonio)-10-[iV-(5-dimethylcarbamoxy)isoquinolinio]decane 

dibromide 

CAS: 77223-00-8 
RTECS: — 



C 25 H 41 N 3 O 2 • Br 2 

Deliquescent crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately one-third as toxic 
as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 575.4 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A030 

l-[/V-(2-DimethyIcarbamoxybenzyl)pyrrolinio]-8-(iV,.V,iV-trimethylammonio)octane 

dibromide 

CAS: 77111-74-1 
RTECS: — 


O 



C 25 H 43 N 3 O 2 • Br 2 

Deliquescent white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 



Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


129 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 


(C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 577.4 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt : — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A031 


l-(iV,A 7 -Dimethyl-iV-cyanomethylammonio)-10-[iV-(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 109973-92-4 


RTECS: — 




C 25 H 45 N 5 O 2 • Br 2 

White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 


(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 607.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A032 

l-[/V-(3-Dimethylcarbamoxy-o'-picolyl)-iV,.V-dimethylammonio]-10- 
(iV-carbamoxymethyl-V,.V-dimethyIammonio)decane dibromide 

CAS: 78297-56-0 
RTECS: — 



O 



130 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C25H46N4O4 • Br2 

Deliquescent white crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately half as toxic as VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 626.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A033 


l-(iV,i\ T ,.V-Trimethylammonio)-10-[iV-(2-dimethylcarbamoxybenzyI)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 77104-68-8 
RTECS: — 



C 25 H 47 N 3 O 2 • Br 2 

White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 581.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A034 

l-[/V,iV-Dimethyl-/V-(2-hydroxy)ethylammonio]-10-[A'-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy- 
<Y-picolinyl)-iV,iV-dirnethylarnmonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 77104-62-2 
RTECS: — 




Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


131 


C 25 H 48 N 4 O 3 • Br? 

White crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately twice as toxic as 
VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 612.5 
D: — 

MP : — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A035 


l-Pyridinio-10-[A r -(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy-<Y-picolinyl)-iY,.V-dimethylammonio]decane 

dibromide 

CAS: 77223-01-9 
RTECS: — 



C26H42N4O2 • Br2 

Deliquescent crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 602.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

Sol: Alcohols; Pyridine 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A036 


l-(iV-Methyl)pyrroIidinio-10-[iV-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy-o'-picolinyl)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 


CAS: 110344-83-7 


RTECS: — 




132 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C26H48N4O2 • Br2 

Deliquescent white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 608.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A037 


l-[iV,iV-Dimethyl-/V-(3-hydroxy)propylammonio]-10-[A-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy- 
a-picolinyl)-A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 77104-63-3 
RTECS: — 



C26H50N4O3 • Br2 

Deliquescent white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 626.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A038 

l-[iV,iV-Di(2-hydroxy)ethyl-/V-methylammonio]-10-[/V-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy- 
a-picolinyl)-A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 77104-64-4 
RTECS: — 




Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


133 


C 26 H 50 N 4 O 4 • Br? 

Deliquescent white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 642.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A039 


l-(4-AIdoximino)pyridinio-10-[.V-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy-<y-picolinyl)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]decene dibromide 

CAS: 77223-02-0 
RTECS: — 



C 27 H 43 N 5 O 3 • Br 2 

Deliquescent crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(CO! -AO 16). 


Properties: 

MW: 645.5 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A040 

f-[/V-(2-Dimethylcarbamoxybenzyl)pyrroIinio]-10-(.V,iV,iV-trimethylammonio)decane 

dibromide 

CAS: 77111-71-8 
RTECS: — 




134 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 27 H 47 N 3 O 2 • Br 2 

Deliquescent white crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 605.5 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: Acetonitrile IP: — 


C02-A041 


l-[A 7 ,iY-Dimethyl-A r -(3-cyanopropyl)ammonio]-10-[/Y-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy- 
a-picolinyl)-A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 109973-93-5 
RTECS: — 



C 27 H 49 N 5 O 2 • Br 2 

Deliquescent white crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 635.5 
DI- 
ME:— 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetonitrile 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A042 

l-(3-Hydroxy)quinuclidinio-10-[AM3-dimethylcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 110344-82-6 
RTECS: — 




Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


135 


C 28 H 50 N 4 O 3 • Br? 

Deliquescent white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 650.5 VP: Negligible FIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: Alcohols IP: — 


C02-A043 

l-[/V,iV-Dimethyl-iV-(2-acetoxy-2-methylethyl)ammonio]-10-[/V-(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy- 
a-picolinyl)-A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 110914-01-7 
RTECS: — 

o 




C28H52N4O4 • Br2 

Deliquescent white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 

Properties: 

MW: 668.6 VP: Negligible FIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Vsc: — Sol: Acetonitrile IP: — 


C02-A044 

l-[/V-(3-Hydroxy-a-picolyl)-iV,iV-dimethylammonio]-10-[iV-(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy- 
a-picolyl)-A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 77104-09-7 
RTECS: — 





136 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 29 H 49 N 5 O 3 • Br 2 

Deliquescent white crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 675.6 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A045 


l-(iY,iY-Dimethyl-iV-cyclohexyIammonio)-10-[A ? -(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 


CAS: 109973-95-7 


RTECS: — 



C 29 H 54 N 4 O 2 • Br 2 

White solid. Various other salts have been reported. 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately half as toxic as VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 650.6 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A046 


l-[/Y,iY-Dimethyl-iV-(2-butyroxyethyl)ammonio]-10-[/Y-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy- 
a-picolinyl)-A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 110914-02-8 


RTECS: — 




Carbamate Nerve Agents C02-A 


137 


C 29 H 54 N 4 O 4 • Br? 

Hygroscopic white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 682.6 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 

Sol: Acetonitrile; Chloroform 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A047 


l-(A,iV,iV-TributyIammonio)-10-[iV-(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy-o'-picolinyl)- 
A,A-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 109973-94-6 

RTECS: — , 



C 33 H 54 N 4 O 2 • Br? 

Deliquescent white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be slightly more toxic than VX 
(C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 708.7 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible PIP: — 

VD: — LEL: — 

Vlt: — UEL: — 

H 2 0: Soluble RP: Persistent 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetonitrile; Chloroform IP: — 


C02-A048 

l-[A'-(4-Dimethylcarbamoxymethyl)benzyl-iV,.V-dimethylammonio]- 
10-[A ? -(3-dimethyIcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)-AvV-dimethylammonio]decane dibromide 

CAS: 77104-59-7 
RTECS: — 



o 



138 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 34 H 57 N 5 O 4 • Br 2 

Deliquescent white crystalline solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 759.7 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


C02-A049 

l,10-Bis{[10-(3-dimethylcarbamoxy-a-picolinyl)methylaminodecyl]methylamino}- 
decane tetramethodbromide 

CAS: 110255-20-4 
RTECS: — 



Hygroscopic white solid. Various other salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 

MW: 1275.1 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Acetonitrile 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: Persistent 
IP: — 


References 


139 


References 

Sommer, Harold Z. "Method for Methylating and Quaternizing," United States Patent 3,903,135, 
September 2, 1975. 

. "Carbamates," United States Patent 3,919,289, November 11, 1975. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,692,530, September 8, 1987. 

Sommer, Harold Z., and John Krenzer. "Quaternary Carbamates," United States Patent 3,901,937, 
August 26, 1975. 

Sommer, Harold Z., John Krenzer, Omer O. Owens, and Jacob I. Miller. "Chemical Agents," United 
States Patent 4,677,204, June 30, 1987. 

Sommer, Harold Z., and Jacob I. Miller. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,675,411, June 23, 
1987. 

. "Haloalkyl-carbamoxyalkyl Derivatives," United States Patent 3,956,365, May 11, 1976. 

. "Hydroxyquinuclidine Derivatives," United States Patent 3,919,241, November 11, 1975. 

Sommer, Harold Z., and Omer O. Owens. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,686,293, August 
11, 1987. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent H443, March 1, 1988. 

Sommer, Harold Z., Omer O. Owens, and Jacob I. Miller. "Isoquinilinium Chemical Agents," United 
States Patent 4,673,745, June 16, 1987. 

Sommer, Harold Z., and George E. Wicks, Jr. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,241,209, 
December 23, 1980. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,241,210, December 23, 1980. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,241,211, December 23, 1980. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,241,212, December 23, 1980. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,241,218, December 23, 1980. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,672,119, June 9, 1987. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,672,122, June 9, 1987. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,672,123, June 9, 1987. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,672,124, June 9, 1987. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,672,069, June 9, 1987. 

. "Chemical Agents," United States Patent 4,677,205, June 3, 1987. 

. "Picolyl Unsymmetrical Bis-quaternary Carbamates," United States Patent 4,246,415, January 

20,1981. 

. "Unsymmetrical Bis-quaternary Amino Acids," United States Patent 4,246,418, January 20, 

1981. 

. "Unsymmetrical Pyrrolino Benzyl Quaternary Compounds," United States Patent 4,240,965, 

December 23, 1980. 

Sommer, Harold Z., George E. Wicks, Jr., and Omer O. Owens. "Chemical Agents," United States 
Patent 4,246,416, January 20, 1981. 

. "Ketobenzylcarbamates," United States Patent 4,677,222, June 30, 1987. 

Sommer, Harold Z., George E. Wicks, Jr., and Benjamin Witten. "Chemical Agents," United States 
Patent 4,672,120, June 9, 1987. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume II, Edgeivood Arsenal Special 
Report No. EO-SR-74002. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 




Section II 

Vesicant/Urticant Agents 





Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 


3.1 General Information 

The agents in this class are beta-halogenated thioethers, beta-halogenated alkylamines, 
and alkylating sulfates. The thioether agents are listed in Schedule 1 of the Chemical 
Weapons Convention (CWC). Only three beta-halogenated alkylamine agents, HN1 (C03- 
A011), HN2 (C03-A012), and HN3 (C03-A013), are specifically listed in Schedule 1. 
However, because of the toxicity of the agents and limited commercial application, the 
remaining alkylamines would be prohibited based on the Guidelines for Schedules of 
Chemicals. 

Sulfur vesicants are first generation chemical warfare agents employed in World War I. 
Mustard gas (dichloroethylsulfide) was discovered in 1822. It was first employed by the 
Germans in 191 7 at the third battle of Ypres and has been considered a major chemical agent 
ever since. Nitrogen vesicants are second generation chemical warfare agents developed 
just prior to World War II. In addition to their vesicant properties, nitrogen agents were 
studied as a means of poisoning an enemies' water supply because dilute aqueous solutions 
will rapidly decompose and form neurotoxic products. Several of these agents, including 
HN3 (C03-A013), were stockpiled by Nazi Germany during World War II but were never 
used. Modern weapons researchers have isolated and evaluated numerous other variations 
of the basic thiol and amine structures. 

Both sulfur and nitrogen vesicants are easy to synthesize and disperse. For information on 
some of the chemicals used to manufacture vesicants, see the Component Section (C03-C) 
following information on the individual agents. 

In addition to the agents detailed in this handbook, the Organisation for the Prohibition 
of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) identifies in its Declaration Handbook 2002 for the Convention 
on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons 
and on their Destruction another five agents in this class. However, there is no information 
available in the unclassified literature concerning the physical, chemical, or toxicological 
properties of these additional agents. 

Sulfur vesicants have been stockpiled by all countries that have pursued a chemical 
weapons program and have been used numerous times on the battlefield. In contrast, 
although nitrogen vesicants have been investigated by the United States and many 
other countries, concern over agent stability and a lack of a clear strategic, tactical, or 
production advantage over sulfur vesicants has prevented further stockpiling of these 
agents. 


143 



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3.2 Toxicology 
3.2.1 Effects 

Sulfur and nitrogen vesicants produce their toxic effects by forming a highly reactive inter- 
mediate cyclic structure that alkylates nucleophiles in the cell structure. This disrupts the 
normal function of the affected biochemical. Although the actual damage caused by these 
vesicants occur within minutes of exposure, most clinical effects have a latent period ran- 
ging from hours to days. Vesicants affect both exterior and interior parts of the body causing 
inflammation, blisters, and general destruction of tissues. They have a greater impact on 
moist areas of the body. Healed burns may be hypersensitive to mechanical trauma. 

Eyes are especially susceptible to vesicants. In addition to the immediate corrosive effects, 
the cornea of the eye can become inflamed (keratitis) after a latency of 6-10 years. This 
condition can progress to blindness. Corneal lesions may reoccur even after receiving a 
corneal transplantation. 

Inhalation of vesicants can cause lung membranes to swell and become filled with liquid 
(pulmonary edema). Death may result from lack of oxygen. 

Vesicants are also systemic agents and readily pass through the skin to affect susceptible 
tissue including those that produce blood. For this reason they are often described as radio- 
mimetic poisons. In severe cases, systemic effects can include cardiovascular shock and 
multiorgan failure. Nitrogen vesicants can also cause central nervous system depression 
and cardiovascular shock. Both sulfur and nitrogen vesicants are carcinogenic. 


3.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Vesicants are hazardous through any route of exposure including inhalation, skin and eye 
exposure, ingestion, and broken, abraded, or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin by 
debris). Thickened agents primarily pose a hazard through skin absorption. Dusty agents 
are primarily an inhalation hazard but may also cause minor skin / eye impacts. Contact 
with bulk dusty vesicants can produce more classical blistering and system effects. 


3.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Pure vesicants have little or no odor. However impurities can give them an easily detectable 
and identifiable smell. The odor of sulfur vesicants has been described as similar to garlic, 
horseradish, onions, or mustard. The odor of nitrogen vesicants has been described as fishy, 
fruity, musty, or even soap-like. 

Agent vapors of both series cause eye irritation. However, there is no significant difference 
in the concentration that will irritate the eyes and the one that will produce eye injury. 
Although impacts from exposure to vesicants occur almost at once, contact with vapors or 
the liquid agent neither irritates the skin nor produces visible dermal injuries until after a 
substantial latency period. In contrast, HL (C03-A010), sulfur mustard mixed with lewisite, 
produces immediate pain due to the arsenic mustard component. 

3.2.3. 1 Sulfur Series 

Lethal concentrations (LCsqs) for inhalation of these agents are as low as 11 ppm for 
a 2 -minutes exposure. 

Lethal percutaneous exposures (LD 50 S) to liquid are as low as 1.4 grams per 
individual. 



Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 


145 


Incapacitating concentrations (ICtso) for dermal exposure to these agents at moder- 
ate temperatures (i.e., between 65 and 85°F) are as low as 2 ppm for a 30-minutes 
exposure. Temperatures above 85°F reduce the concentration necessary to 
produce similar effects. 

Eye irritation from exposure to agent vapors occurs at concentrations as low as 2 ppm 
after a 2 -minutes exposure; an incapacitating concentration (ICtso) for exposure 
of the eyes is as low as 5 ppm for a 2-minutes exposure. 

3. 2. 3. 2 Nitrogen Series 

Lethal concentrations (LC 50 S) for inhalation of these agents are as low as 60 ppm for 
a 2 -minutes exposure. 

Lethal percutaneous exposures (LD 50 S) to liquid are as low as 1.4 grams per 
individual. 

Incapacitating concentrations (ICtso) for dermal exposure to these agents at moder- 
ate temperatures (i.e., between 65 and 85°F) are as low as 2 ppm for a 30-minutes 
exposure. Temperatures above 85°F reduce the concentration necessary to 
produce similar effects. 

Eye irritation from exposure to agent vapors occurs at concentrations as low as 2 ppm 
after a 2-minutes exposure; an incapacitating concentration (IQ 50 ) for exposure 
of the eyes is as low as 4 ppm for a 2-minutes exposure. 

The rate of detoxification of vesicants by the body is very low. Exposures are essentially 
cumulative. 

3.2.4 Latency Period 

3.2.4. 1 Vapor/Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 

Eye irritation may become noticeable in a matter of minutes. Other signs and symptoms of 
exposure, including reddening of the skin (erythema), blistering (vesication), and accumu- 
lation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), do not occur until after a substantial latency 
period. Mixtures such as EIL (C03-A010) contain lewisite (C04-A002) and will produce an 
immediate burning sensation on contact with the skin or eyes. 

3.2.4. 2 Liquids 

Tissue damage occurs within minutes of exposure to vesicants, but clinical effects may not 
appear for up to 24 hours. Mixtures such as EIL (C03-A010) contain lewisite (C04-A002) 
and will produce an immediate burning sensation on contact with the skin or eyes. Some 
agents are rapidly absorbed through the skin and extensive skin contamination may cause 
systemic damage. 

3.2.4.3 Solids (Nonaerosol) 

Tissue damage occurs within minutes of exposure to vesicants, but clinical effects may not 
appear for up to 24 hours. Some agents are rapidly absorbed through the skin and extensive 
skin contamination may cause systemic damage. 

A key factor affecting the length of time before the onset of symptoms as well as the sever- 
ity of the symptoms is the part of the body that is exposed to the agent. Apart from mucous 
membranes, the regions of the body that are the most sensitive to vesicants are warm, moist 
areas, and areas with thin skin such as the face, armpits, inside of the elbow, genitalia, neck, 
skin between the fingers, and the nail beds. The least susceptible body regions are the palms 
of the hands, soles of the feet, front of the knee, and outside of the elbow. 



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3.3 Characteristics 

3.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

3.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless oily liquids or solids. They have little or no 
odor. Salts of nitrogen vesicants are typically white odorless solids. High concentrations 
of vesicants can cause eye irritation. Because of the lewisite (C04-A002) component, HL 
(C03-A010) vapors cause immediate irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin. 

3.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically amber to dark brown liquids or solids. As the agent ages 
and decomposes, it continues to discolor until it may appear black. Production impurities 
and decomposition products in these agents may give them an odor. The odor of muni- 
tion grade sulfur vesicants has been described as similar to garlic, horseradish, onions, or 
mustard; while the odor of munition grade nitrogen vesicants has been described as fishy, 
fruity, or soapy. Odors may become more pronounced during storage. Nitrogen vesicant 
agents tend to form crystalline decomposition products that precipitate out of solution on 
prolonged storage. 

3.3. 1.3 Modified Agents 

Solvents have been added to vesicants to facilitate handling, to stabilize the agents, 
or to increase the ease of percutaneous penetration by the agents. Percutaneous 
enhancement solvents include dimethyl sulfoxide, N, N-d i methyl forma m ide, N, N- 
dimethylpalmitamide, N, N-d i m e th y 1 d eca n a m ide, and saponin. Color and other prop- 
erties of these solutions may vary from the pure agent. Odors will vary depending on the 
characteristics of the solvent(s) used and concentration of vesicants in the solution. 

Conversely, vesicants have also been thickened with various substances to enhance 
deployment, increase their persistency, and increase the risk of percutaneous exposure. 
Thickeners include polyalkyl methacrylates (methyl, ethyl, butyl, isobutyl), poly(vinyl 
acetate), polystyrene, plexiglas, alloprene, polychlorinated isoprene, nitrocellulose, as well 
as bleached montan and lignite waxes. Military thickener K125 is a mixture of methyl, 
ethyl, and butyl polymethacrylates. When thickened, agents become sticky with a consist- 
ency similar to honey. Typically, not enough thickener is added to affect either the color or 
odor of the agent. 

Vesicants have also been converted to a "dusty" form by adsorbing the liquid agent onto 
a solid carrier. Dusty carriers include aerogel, talc, alumina, silica gel, diatomite, kaolinite, 
fuller's earth, and pumice. Dusty agents appear as finely ground, free-flowing powders 
with individual particles in the range of 10 /im or less and are dispersed as a particulate 
cloud. Particles in this range can penetrate clothing and breathable protective gear, such 
as United States military mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) garments. Dusty 
agents pose both an inhalation and contact hazard. Color and other physical properties of 
dusty agents will depend upon the characteristics of the carrier. Odors may vary from the 
unmodified agent. 

3.3. 1.4 Mixtures with Other Agents 

In addition to mixtures containing both sulfur and nitrogen vesicants, individual mem- 
bers of this class have been mixed with other agents such as lewisite (C04-A002) and 



Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 


147 


bis(chloroethyl)ether to prevent them from freezing in the munition as well as to enhance 
their toxicity. Details on HL, the standardized sulfur mustard / lewisite mixture, are reported 
under listing C03-A010. 

3.3.2 Stability 

Crude sulfur vesicants are relatively stable and stability increases with purity. Distilled 
materials show very little decomposition on storage. Solvents such as carbon tetrachloride 
and chlorobenzene have been added to enhance stability of crude material. Agents can be 
stored in glass or steel containers, although pressure may develop in steel containers. Sulfur 
vesicants rapidly corrode brass and cast iron, and permeate into ordinary rubber. 

Nitrogen vesicants are relatively unstable and tend to dimerize or polymerize on storage. 
Polymerization is accelerated by both heat (as low as 1 22°F) and light. Polymerization can be 
self-accelerating through production of heat and may even generate enough heat to cause an 
explosion. Polymerization is also accelerated by the presence of polar solvents. Stabilizers, 
such as carbon disulfide and triphenylcarbinol, may be added to inhibit polymerization. 
Stabilized agents can be stored in glass or steel containers. 

3.3.3 Persistency 

For military purposes, unmodified vesicants are classified as persistent. Under proper 
conditions, agents can remain hazardous in soil and even in water for several years. Limited 
solubility slows the hydrolysis of liquid agents. Some hydrolysis products are highly toxic 
and extremely persistent. Evaporation rates range from near that of light machine oil to 
that of heavy motor oil. 

Agents modified with thickeners last significantly longer. Dusty agents can be very per- 
sistent depending on the carrier employed and can be reaerosolized after deployment by 
ground traffic or strong winds. 

3.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Vesicant vapors have a density greater than air and tend to collect in low places. Porous 
material, including painted surfaces, will absorb both liquid and gaseous agent. After the 
initial surface contamination has been removed, agent that has been absorbed into porous 
material can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and vapor hazard. Clothing 
may emit trapped agent vapor for up to 30 minutes after contact with a vapor cloud. 

Most of these agents are insoluble in water and this limited solubility slows their hydro- 
lysis. On standing, however, aqueous solutions of nitrogen vesicants will decompose 
forming neurotoxic products. Flydrolysis of agents may be further reduced if they are 
thickened such that a protective layer forms at the agent/ water interface. Conversely, agent 
solubility may be increased by solvents. The specific gravities of unmodified liquid agents 
are much greater than that of water. These agents are soluble in most organic solvents 
including gasoline, oils, acetone, and alcohols. 


3.4 Additional Hazards 
3.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent vapors may 



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be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to liquid or 
solid agents should be decontaminated within a few hours postexposure or destroyed. 
Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be 
destroyed. 

Meat, milk, and animal products, including hides, from animals affected or killed by 
vesicants should be destroyed or quarantined until tested and determined to be safe to use 
or consume. 


3.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Although vesicants do not produce the same type of dermal damage in animals as they do 
in humans, they are still susceptible to the cytotoxic and systemic toxicities of these agents. 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/soap and water, or a 0.5% household 
bleach solution (see Section 3.5.3). If the animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they 
should be irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

Unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. Leaves of forage veget- 
ation could still retain sufficient vesicant agent to produce effects for several weeks post 
release, depending on the level of contamination and the weather conditions. 


3.4.3 Fire 

Heat from a fire will increase the amount of agent vapor in the area. A significant amount 
of the agent could be volatilized and escape into the surrounding environment before it 
is consumed by the fire. Actions taken to extinguish the fire can also spread the agent. 
Vesicants may react with steam or water during a fire to produce toxic and/ or corrosive 
vapors. In addition, nitrogen vesicants tend to polymerize during storage and the poly- 
merization products may present an explosion hazard. HL (C03-A010) contains an arsenic 
component and combustion or hydrolysis will also produce toxic arsenical decomposition 
products. 


3.4.4 Reactivity 

Vesicants are incompatible with strong oxidizers, such as dry high-test hypochlorite (HTH) 
pool bleach, and will spontaneously ignite. Although these agents will decompose if 
dissolved in water, a lack of solubility inhibits this process. Nitrogen vesicants tend to 
polymerize on storage. Polymerization may generate enough heat to cause an explosion. 
In addition, polymerized components may present an explosion hazard. 


3.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

For information on individual impurities and decomposition products, see the Decompos- 
ition Products and Impurities section (C03-D) at the end of this chapter. 

3.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 

Vesicants produce acidic products including hydrogen chloride (HC1), hydrogen brom- 
ide (HBr), or hydrogen fluoride (HF), and ethanolamines, thioglycols, or thioethers when 
hydrolyzed. Arsenous oxide decomposition products from HL (C03-A010) are toxic and 
may also have vesicant properties. HL will also produce acetylene at higher pH. 



Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 


149 


3.4. 5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include HC1, HBr, HF, and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) or 
sulfur oxides (SO T ). Decomposition vapors from nitrogen vesicants may form explosive 
mixtures in air. In addition, a corrosive and toxic residue may remain. HL (C03-A010) will 
also produce toxic arsenic oxides. 


3.5 Protection 

3.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Protect- 
ive Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis for the 
"when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 
For vesicants, these recommendations are based on a release scenario involving either a 
spray or explosively generated mist of vesicant that quickly settles to the ground and soaks 
into a depth of no more than 0.25 millimeters. A secondary cloud will then be generated 
by evaporation of this deposited material. Under these conditions, the difference between 
a small and a large release of vesicant is not based on the standard 200 liters spill used for 
commercial hazardous materials listed in the ERG. A small release involves 2 kilograms 
(approximately 1.5 liters of liquid sulfur vesicant and 1.7 liters of liquid nitrogen vesic- 
ant) and a large release involves 100 kilograms (approximately 20 gallons of liquid sulfur 
vesicant and 23 gallons of liquid nitrogen vesicant). 

Because of uncertainties in defining the composition of EIL, a mixture of sulfur mustard 
FID (C03-A001) and lewisite (C04-A002), the evacuation recommendations were based 
strictly on the lewisite component. A small release of EIL involves 2 kilograms (approx- 
imately 1.3 L of liquid agent) and a large release involves 100 kilograms (approximately 
17 gallons of liquid agent). 



Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind 
day (miles) 

Downwind 
night (miles) 

HD (sulfur mustard) C03-A001 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.1 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

200 

0.4 

0.7 

HN1 C03-A011 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.1 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

200 

0.4 

0.8 

HN2 C03-A012 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.1 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

200 

0.3 

0.7 

HN3 C03-A013 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.1 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.2 

HL (mustard/lewisite 
mixture) C03-A010 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.2 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

300 

0.6 

1.1 



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3.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

3.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is 
not effective in spill situations or release events and should never be used as the primary 
chemical protective garment to enter an area contaminated with vesicants. 

3. 5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chem- 
ical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification since vesicants can be absorbed 
into or degrade the materials used to make some respirators. However, during emergency 
operations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by 
the manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
Incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor/ acid gas/ particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

3.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction per- 
formance testing against sulfur or nitrogen vesicant agents or both. Reported permeation 
rates may be affected by solvents, components, or impurities in munition grade or modified 
agents. 

Because of the extreme dermal hazard posed by vesicants, responders should wear a 
Level A protective ensemble whenever there is a potential for exposure to any solid or 
liquid agent, or to an elevated or unknown concentration of agent vapor. 


3.5.3 Decontamination 
3.5.3. 1 General 

Sulfur vesicants: These agents are insoluble in water and form self-protecting decompos- 
ition products at the water /agent interface that prevent hydrolysis of the agent. These 
decomposition products are stable and some of them have toxic and/ or vesicant properties. 

Solubility of an agent will be decreased further if it is dissolved in an immiscible organic 
solvent or if it is thickened such that it forms a protective layer at the agent/ water inter- 
face. Addition of solvents or mechanical mixing may be required to overcome insolubility 
problems. 

Dissolved vesicants are readily destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions), especially 
when used in combination with a strong oxidizing agent. For this reason, undiluted house- 
hold bleach is an excellent agent for decontamination of these agents. Ensure that the bleach 
solution remains in contact with the agent for a minimum of 5 minutes. However, a large 
excess will be needed to ensure complete destruction of the agents. The lewisite component 
of HL (C03-A010) will react with basic solutions, including household bleach, to produce 
acetylene gas. 

Sulfur vesicants are easily oxidized. However, over oxidation produces the sulfone (e.g., 
C03-D050), which is nearly as powerful a vesicant as the parent compound. These sulfones 
are also less reactive than the parent compounds and much more slowly hydrolyzed. A 



Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 


151 


slurry that is 10% by weight of either super tropical bleach (STB) or HTH in water is 
an effective agent for oxidizing sulfur vesicants. Never use dry STB or HTH since they 
will react violently with vesicants and may spontaneously ignite. Basic peroxides (e.g., a 
solution of baking soda, 30-50% hydrogen peroxide, and an alcohol) also rapidly detoxify 
sulfur vesicants. Nonreactive, nonporous materials such as glass can be decontaminated 
with concentrated nitric acid. 

Reactive oximes and their salts, such as potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate found in 
commercially available Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL), are extremely effective 
at rapidly detoxifying sulfur vesicants. Some chloroisocyanurates, similar to those found 
in the Canadian Aqueous System for Chemical-Biological Agent Decontamination (CAS- 
CAD), are effective at detoxifying sulfur vesicants, and so is oxone, a peroxymonosulfate 
triple salt. 

Nitrogen vesicants: These agents are essentially insoluble in water. They will decompose 
on standing in water but form neurotoxic products. Some of these toxic decomposition 
products can last for extended periods. 

Solubility of an agent will be decreased further if it is dissolved in an immiscible organic 
solvent or if it is thickened such that it forms a protective layer at the agent /water inter- 
face. Addition of solvents or mechanical mixing may be required to overcome insolubility 
problems. 

Dissolved vesicants are readily destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions), especially 
when used in combination with a strong oxidizing agent. For this reason, undiluted house- 
hold bleach is an excellent agent for decontamination of these agents. Ensure that the bleach 
solution remains in contact with the agent for a minimum of 5 minutes. However, a large 
excess will be needed to ensure complete destruction of the agents. 

Nitrogen vesicants are easily oxidized. However, incomplete oxidation produces the 
N-oxide, which is still highly toxic and relatively stable. A slurry that is 10% by weight of 
either STB or HTH in water is also an effective agent for oxidizing nitrogen vesicants. Never 
use dry STB or HTH since they will react violently with vesicants and may spontaneously 
ignite. Basic peroxides (e.g., a solution of baking soda, 30-50% hydrogen peroxide, and an 
alcohol) also rapidly detoxify nitrogen vesicants. 

Although specific data have not been published in the unclassified literature, prelimin- 
ary studies indicate that reactive oximes and their salts, such as potassium 2,3-butanedione 
monoximate found in commercially available RSDL, are extremely effective at rapidly 
detoxifying nitrogen vesicants. 

3.5. 3. 2 Vapors 

Casualties/personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. To be effective, 
decontamination must be completed within 2 minutes after postexposure. However, decon- 
tamination after the initial 2 minutes should still be undertaken in order to prevent 
additional percutaneous absorption of the agent leading to systemic toxicity. Remove all 
clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor after contact with the vapor cloud 
has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and water. Ensure that the hair has been 
washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped vapor. To be effective, decontamination 
must be completed within 2 minutes of exposure. If there is a potential that the eyes have 
been exposed to vesicants, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 
15 minutes. 

Small areas : Ventilate to remove the vapors. If condensation is present, decontaminate with 
copious amounts of undiluted household bleach (see Section 3. 5. 3.1). Allow it to stand for 
a minimum of 5 minutes before rinsing with water. Collect and place into containers lined 
with high-density polyethylene. Removal of porous material, including painted surfaces. 



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may be required because vesicants that have been absorbed into these materials can migrate 
back to the surface posing both a contact and vapor hazard. 


3. 5. 3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. To be effective, 
decontamination must be completed within 2 minutes postexposure. However, decontam- 
ination after the initial 2 minutes should still be undertaken in order to prevent additional 
percutaneous absorption of the agent leading to systemic toxicity. Remove all clothing 
immediately. Even clothing that has not come into direct contact with the agent may con- 
tain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of the head, neck, and face to the agent, 
cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be pulled over the head. Remove as 
much of the vesicant from the skin as fast as possible. If water is not immediately available, 
the agent can be absorbed with any convenient material such as paper towels, toilet paper, 
flour, and/ or talc. To minimize both spreading the agent and abrading the skin, do not rub 
the agent with the absorbent. Blot the contaminated skin with the absorbent. 

Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin 
surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot 
water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and 
increase percutaneous absorption of residual agent. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 
If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to vesicants, irrigate with water or 
0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Alternatively, a household bleach solution can be used instead of soap and water. The 
bleach solution should be no more than one part household bleach in nine parts water (i.e., 
0.5% sodium hypochlorite) to avoid damaging the skin. Avoid any contact with sensitive 
areas such as the eyes. Ensure that the bleach solution remains in contact with the agent for 
a minimum of 5 minutes. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 

Small areas : Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such 
as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material 
into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Before sealing the container, cover 
the contents with undiluted household bleach or an HTH/ water slurry (see Section 3. 5. 3.1). 
If HL (C03-A010) is involved, then flammable acetylene gas will be generated during the 
neutralization process. Take appropriate actions to disperse the vapors. Decontaminate the 
area with copious amounts of the neutralizing agent. Ensure that it remains in contact with 
the agent for a minimum of 5 minutes before rinsing with water. Collect and containerize 
the rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. Removal of porous material, including 
painted surfaces, may be required because vesicants that have been absorbed into these 
materials can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and vapor hazard. 


3.5. 3.4 Solids, Dusty Agents, or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties / personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. To be effective, decon- 
tamination must be completed within 2 minutes after postexposure. Do not attempt to brush 
the agent off the individual or their clothing as this can aerosolize the agent. If possible, 
dampen the agent with a water mist to help prevent aerosolization. Remove all clothing 
immediately. To avoid further exposure of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off 
potentially contaminated clothing that must be pulled over the head. Wash the skin sur- 
face and hair at least three times with copious amounts of soap and water. Do not delay 
decontamination to find warm or hot water if it is not readily available. Rinse with copious 
amounts of water. If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to vesicants, irrigate 
with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 



Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 


153 


Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that 
could create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioners, etc.). Avoid actions that could aero- 
solize the agent such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agents using a vacuum cleaner 
equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home 
or industrial vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the affected 
area. Vacuum all surfaces with extreme care in a very slow and controlled manner to 
minimize aerosolizing the agent. Place the collected material into containers lined with 
high-density polyethylene. Before sealing the container, cover the contents with undiluted 
household bleach or the HTH/water slurry (see Section 3. 5.3.1). Decontaminate the area 
with copious amounts of the neutralizing agent. Insure that it remains in contact with the 
agent for a minimum of 5 minutes before rinsing with water. Collect and containerize the 
rinseate. 


3.6 Medical 

3.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

A case in which a vesicant is detected in biologic samples. The case can be confirmed if 
laboratory testing is not performed because either a predominant amount of clinical and 
nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the 
agent is known. 


3.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to vesicant agents: chemical burns from contact with strong 
acids or bases; barbiturates, chemotherapeutic agents, carbon monoxide; reactions to drugs 
producing Stevens-Johnson syndrome and/or toxic epidermal necrolysis; autoimmune 
diseases such as bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris; and staphylococcus scalded 
skin syndrome. 


3.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 
3.6.3 . 7 Vapors/Aerosols 

Feeling of irritation and grittiness in the eyes are generally the first indications of exposure. 
These symptoms usually occur 30 minutes to 3 hours postexposure and, depending on the 
amount of agent involved, progress to soreness with a bloodshot appearance. These symp- 
toms can be followed by swelling, pain, tearing, involuntary blinking (blepharospasm), 
and sensitivity to light (photophobia). Eye symptoms may be accompanied by an increase 
in nasal secretion, sneezing, sore throat, coughing, and hoarseness. Individuals who have 
been exposed to a large amount of agent may experience nausea, retching, and vomiting. 

There is an asymptomatic latent period, usually 4-24 hours before skin impacts appear. 
With minimal exposure, skin impacts may be limited to reddening of the skin (erythema). 
Otherwise, it progresses to large blisters typically filled with a clear yellow fluid. Blisters 
do not contain active vesicant agent. These blisters usually break leaving the skin open to 
secondary infection. Blistering from a vapor-only exposure is generally comparable to a 
first-degree or second-degree burn. The skin may darken on and around the burned area. 



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If HL (C03-A010) is involved, then exposure of the eyes to even small amounts of vapor 
will produce immediate tearing, pain, and involuntary blinking (blepharospasm). Eye 
symptoms are rapidly followed by coughing, sneezing, and vomiting. Exposure of the 
skin to HL produces an immediate burning sensation. Reddening of the skin (erythema) 
may appear in as short a time as 5 minutes although full progression to blisters may not 
develop for up to 18 hours. 

3. 6. 3. 2 Liquids/Solids 

There is an asymptomatic latent period, usually 4-24 hours before skin impacts appear. 
With minimal exposure, skin impacts may be limited to reddening of the skin (erythema). 
Otherwise, erythema progresses to large blisters typically filled with a clear yellow fluid 
or further to lesions with a central zone of localized death of cells or tissues (necrosis) and 
peripheral blisters. Blisters do not contain active vesicant agent. Blisters are easy to break 
leaving the skin open to secondary infection. Blistering from a liquid exposure can produce 
deep damage comparable to a third-degree burn. The skin may darken on and around the 
burned area. 

If HL (C03-A010) is involved, then exposure of the skin will produce an immediate 
burning sensation, which may be quickly followed by reddening of the skin (erythema). In 
addition to other latent effects, casualties exposed to HL may also develop signs of systemic 
arsenic toxicity including diarrhea, damage to the liver, kidneys, nervous system, and the 
brain. 

3.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

3. 6. 4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with mild to moderate pulmonary effects less than 6 hours postexposure, or a 
casualty with moderately severe or severe pulmonary signs and symptoms after 6 hours 
postexposure. 

3. 6. 4. 2 Priority 2 (Majority of Cases) 

A casualty with skin lesions covering between 5 and 50% of the body surface area (BSA), 
or a casualty with mild to moderate pulmonary effects after 6 hours postexposure, or a 
casualty with eye injuries. 

3. 6. 4. 3 Priority 3 

A casualty with skin lesions covering less than 5% of the BSA, or a casualty with eye 
irritation or reddening, and/ or slight upper respiratory complaints such as hacking cough 
or irritated throat 12 hours or more hours postexposure. 

3. 6. 4.4 Priority 4 

A casualty with skin lesions from liquid exposure to more than 50% of the BSA, or a casualty 
with severe pulmonary effects less than 6 hours postexposure. 

3.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all the vesicants have been removed. Rapid 
decontamination of any exposure is essential. If vesicants have gotten into the eyes, irrigate 
the eyes with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open wounds 
with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 



Sulfur and Nitrogen Vesicants 


155 


There is no antidote for exposure to these agents. Treatment consists of symptomatic 
management of lesions. If a casualty is known to have inhaled vesicant vapors but does 
not display any signs or symptoms of an impacted airway, it may still be appropriate to 
intubate the casualty since laryngeal spasms or edema may make it difficult or impossible 
later. Eye lesions should be treated by saline irrigation and coating the follicular margins 
with petroleum jelly to prevent sticking. 

If HL (C03-A010) is involved, a BAL (British-anti-Lewisite, dimercaprol) solution or 
ophthalmic ointment may be beneficial if administered promptly. It may also decrease the 
severity of skin and eye lesions if applied topically within minutes after decontamination 
is complete (i.e., within 2-5 minutes postexposure). 

Asymptomatic individuals suspected of exposure to vesicants should be kept under 
observation for at least 8 hours. 

Burns from liquid exposure to over 50% of the body surface suggest that the individual 
has absorbed twice a lethal dose of vesicant and the prognosis for survival of the individual 
is poor. 


3.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects segregating them as either durable or nondur- 
able items. While it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and 
more efficient to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. 
Items that will be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable 
containers, ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the 
outer one. 

Vesicants that have entered the body are metabolized, hydrolyzed, or bound to tissue 
and pose little threat of off-gassing. To remove agents on the outside of the body, wash the 
remains with a 2% sodium hypochlorite bleach solution (i.e., 2 gallons of water for every gal- 
lon of household bleach) ensuring the solution is introduced into the ears, nostrils, mouth, 
and any wounds. This concentration of bleach will not affect remains but will neutralize 
vesicant agents. Higher concentrations of bleach can harm remains. Pay particular attention 
to areas where agent may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds 
of skin, and wounds. The bleach solution should remain on the cadaver for a minimum 
of 5 minutes. Wash with soap and water. Ensure that all the bleach solution is removed 
prior to embalming as it will react with embalming fluid. All wash and rinse waste must 
be contained for proper disposal. Screen the remains for agent vapors and residual liquid 
at the conclusion of the decontamination process. If the remains must be stored before 
embalming, then place them inside body bags designed to contain contaminated bodies 
or in double body bags. If double body bags are used, seal the inner bag with duct tape, 
rinse, and then place in the second bag. After embalming is complete, place the remains in 
body bags designed to contain contaminated bodies or in double body bags. Body fluids 
removed during the embalming process do not pose any additional risks and should be 
contained and handled according to established procedures. 

Standard burials are acceptable when contamination levels are low enough to allow 
bodies to be handled without wearing additional protective equipment. Cremation may be 
required if remains cannot be completely decontaminated. Although vesicant agents are 
destroyed at the operating temperature of a commercial crematorium (i.e., above 1000°F), 
the initial heating phase may volatilize some of the agents and allow vapors to escape. 
Additionally, if HL (C03-A010) is involved then combustion will produce toxic and and 
potentially volatile arsenic oxides. 



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C03-A 

SULFUR VESICANTS 

C03-A001 

Mustard gas (Agent HD) 

CAS: 505-60-2 
RTECS: WQ090000 

Cl S 

C 4 H 8 SC1 2 

Oily, colorless to amber to dark brown liquid. Yellow solid below 58°F. Pure material 
is odorless; otherwise has an odor similar to garlic or horseradish that is detectable at 
approximately 0.1 ppm. 

Also reported as a mixture with Sesquimustard (C03-A002); O-Mustard (C03-A003); 
Lewisite (C04-A002); HN1 (C03-A011); HN3 (C03-A013); Phenyldichloroarsine (C04-A005). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.51 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCt^inhy 1000 mg-min/ m 3 (80 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCt$o(p er y. < 85°F: 10,000 mg-min/m 3 (50 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LCf50(p er ) : > 85°F: 5000 mg-min/ m 3 (30 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

ID 5o : 1-4 g 

ICf50(Sfa») : < 85°F: 500 mg-min/ m 3 (3 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
fCf50(Sfan) : >85°F: 200 mg-min/ m 3 (1 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

JCf 50(E V es) : 75 mg-min/ m 3 (6 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 2 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

MEG(ih) Min: 0.01 ppm; Sig: 0.02 ppm; Sev: 0.32 ppm 

WPL AEL: 0.00006 ppm 

STEL: 0.0005 ppm 

IDLH: 0.11 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 159.1 VP: 0.11 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 221°F 

D: 1 .27 g/mL (77° F) VD: 5.5 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: 58°F Vlt: 141 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes H 2 0: 0.068% (77°F) RP: 73 

Vsc: 3.95 cS (77°F) Sol: Hydrocarbons; Acetone; IP: <9 eV 

Alcohols 

Solid Thickened 

D: 1.33 g/cm 3 (50°F) Vsc: 1000-1200 cS 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.010 ppm 4 h, 0.003 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.020 ppm 4 h, 0.004 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 0.320 ppm 4 h, 0.080 ppm 


8 h, 0.001 ppm 
8 h, 0.002 ppm 
8 h, 0.040 ppm 



Sulfur Vesicants C03-A 


157 


C03-A002 

Sesquimustard (Agent Q) 

CAS: 3563-36-8 
RTECS: — 



c 6 H 12 ci 2 s 2 


Pale amber solid. Pure material has little or no odor; otherwise has an odor similar to garlic 
or horseradish. Also found as an impurity in Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Also reported as a mixture with Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.97 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCtsoQnhy. 200 mg-min/ m 3 (11 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 
lCt^Q(Skm)'- 300 mg-min/ m 3 (1 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1956). Reevaluation and updates of toxicity 
values for similar agents suggest Q may be more toxic than the values reported here. 


Properties: 

MW: 219.2 

D: 1.272 g/cm 3 (77° F) 
MP: 133°F 
BP: Decomposes 
BP: 358°F (15 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


VP: 0.000035 mmHg (77° F) 
VD: 7.6 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.5 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 0: 0.0025% 

Sol: Hydrocarbons; Acetone; 
Alcohols 


FIP: — 

LEU — 
UEL: — 

RP: 200,000 
IP: — 


C03-A003 


O-Mustard (Agent T) 

CAS: 63918-89-8 
RTECS: WQ3250000 


Cl 




C 8 Hi 6 C1 2 OS 2 

Yellow liquid. Pure material has little or no odor; otherwise has an odor similar to garlic or 
horseradish. 

Also reported as a mixture Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). In addition, it is also found as a 
natural aging impurity in sulfur mustard. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.77 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

ICtjOfSkin)'- 400 mg-min/ m 3 (1 ppm for a 30-min exposure). This value is from older sou- 
rces (ca. 1956). Reevaluation and updates of toxicity values for similar agents 
suggest T may be more toxic than the values reported here. 



158 


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Properties: 

MW: 263.3 

D: 1.236 g/mL (77° F) 

MP: 49° F 

BP: Decomposes 

Vsc: 14.7 cS (77°F) 


VP: 0.00003 mmHg (77° F) 
VD: 9.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.04 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 O: Insoluble 
Sol: — 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 100,000 
IP: — 


C03-A004 

Mustard/sesquimustard mixture (Agent FIQ) 

CAS: — 

RTECS: — 


Cl 



+ 


Cl 


s 



Cl 


Oily, colorless to amber to dark brown liquid. Pure material is odorless; otherwise has an 
odor similar to garlic or horseradish. Typical mixture is 75% Sulfur mustard (C03-A001) 
and 25% Sesquimustard (C03-A002). 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. How- 
ever, the agents in this mixture are extremely powerful vesicants and highly toxic by 
inhalation. 


Properties: 

MW: Mixture 
D: — 

MP: — 

BP: Decomposes 
Vsc: — 


VP: 0.09 mmHg (77° F) (calculated) 
VD: 6.0 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 O: Insoluble 
Sol: Hydrocarbons; Acetone; 
Alcohols 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 200,000 
IP: — 


C03-A005 

Sulfur mustard/O-mustard mixture (Agent HT) 

CAS: 172672-28-5 
RTECS: — 


Cl 



+ 


Cl 



Cl 


Clear, yellow to brown highly viscous liquid. Pure material is odorless; otherwise has 
an odor similar to garlic or horseradish. Odor is less pronounced than with Sulfur 
mustard alone. Typical mixture is 60% Sulfur mustard (C03-A001) and 40% O-Mustard 
(C03-A003). 



Sulfur Vesicants C03-A 


159 


Exposure Hazards 

LCt$ o(inh) : 1000 mg-min/ m 3 (60 ppm for a 2 -min exposure) 
LCt^Q(p er ) : 10,000 mg-min/ m 3 (40 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
LD 50 : 1.4 g 

lCtso(Skin) : <85°F: 500 mg-min/ m 3 (2 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
lCtso(Skin)' >85°: 200 mg-min/ m 3 (0.9 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
JCf50(Eyes) : 75 mg-min/ m 3 (5 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 2 ppm for a 2-min exposure 


Properties: 

MW: Mixture VP: 0.077 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 228°F 

D: 1.269 g/mL (77°F) VD: 6.5 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: 32°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes H 2 0: "Slight" RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 


C03-A006 

Dibromoethyl sulfide (Bromlost) 

CAS: 7617-64-3 
RTECS: — 


C4HgBr?S 

Solid. More susceptible to hydrolysis than Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.14 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 248.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 2.05 g/cm 3 

VD: 8.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: 70°F 

Vlt: 39 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A007 

2,2'-Difluorodiethyl sulfide (Fluorlost) 

CAS: 373-25-1 
RTECS: — 

c 4 h 8 f 2 s 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



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Properties: 


MW: 126.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 203°F (30 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A008 

2-Chloroethyl-chloromethylsulfide 

CAS: 2625-76-5 
RTECS: — 


Cl 


s 


Cl 


C 3 H 6 C1 2 S 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.93 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 145.1 VP: — FIP: — 

D: — VD: 5.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 165°F (18 mmHg) H 2 0: — RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: <9 eV 


C03-A009 

Dimethyl sulfate (D-Stoff) 

CAS: 77-78-1 
RTECS: WS8225000 
UN: 1595 
ERG: 156 


O 

— O— S— O — 
O 


C2H6O4S 

Colorless, oily liquid with a faint odor like onions. Vapors rapidly react with moisture in 
the air to produce methanol and sulfuric acid. 

Also reported as a mixture with Chlorosulfonic acid; Methyl chlorosulfonate (C10-A009). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LQ 50 500 mg/m 3 (97 ppm) for a 10-min exposure 



Sulfur Vesicants C03-A 


161 


Eye Irritation: 1 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 
MEG(ih) Min: 0.3 ppm; Sig: 1 ppm; Sev: 7 ppm 
OSH A PEE: 1 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 7 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 126.1 
D: 1.3322 g/mL 
MP: — 25°F 
BP: Decomposes 
BP: 169°F (15 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


VP: 0.1 mmFIg 

VP: 0.677 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 4.3 (calculated) 

Vlt: 890 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 O: 3%; decomposes above 64°F 
Sol: Ethanol; Ether; Acetone; 
Aromatic hydrocarbons 


PIP: 182°F 
EEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 88 
IP: — 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.024 ppm 4 h, 0.012 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.12 ppm 4 h, 0.061 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 1.6 ppm 4 h, 0.82 ppm 


8 h, 0.0087 ppm 
8 h, 0.043 ppm 
8 h, 0.58 ppm 


C03-A010 


Mustard Lewisite mixture (Agent HL) 

CAS: 378791-32-3 
RTECS: — 


Cl 


s 



Cl 


+ Cl 



/ 

As 

\ 

Cl 


Oily, colorless to brownish liquid with an odor like garlic. Mixture consists of 37 to 50% 
Sulfur mustard (C03-A001) and +63 to 50% Lewisite (C04-A002). The eutectic mixture is 
37% Sulfur mustard and 63% lewisite. 


Exposure Hazards 

Provisional exposure values have been published for this mixture. However, they are 
based solely on, and are identical to, the Sulfur mustard component (see C03-A001). 
These updates have not been formally adopted as of 2005. 


Properties for eutectic mixture: 

MW: Mixture 
Di- 

MP: — 14°F 
BP: <374°F 

Vsc: 1.6 cS (calculated) 


VP: 0.25 mmHg 

PIP: — 

VD: 6.5 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

H 2 O: — 

RP: 30 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



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NITROGEN VESICANTS 


C03-A011 

Nitrogen mustard 1 (Agent HN1) 

CAS: 538-07-8 
RTECS: YE1 225000 



Cl 


N 


Cl 


C 8 H : 3 C1 2 N 

Oily, colorless to amber liquid with a faint fishy or musty odor. Salts are odorless white 
solids. 

Also reported as a mixture with Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.96 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt 5 Q 1000 mg-min/ m 3 (72 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCt$o (Per) • <85°F: 10,000 mg-min/m 3 (48 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LCf 50 (Per) • >85°F: 5000 mg-min/m 3 (24 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LD 50 : 1.4 g 

ICf 50 (Skin) • <85°F: 500 mg-min/ m 3 (2.4 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

ICf 50 (Skin) • >85°F: 200 mg-min/ m 3 (1 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

ICt 50 (Eyes) '■ 75 mg-min/ m 3 (5.4 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 


Eye Irritation: 3.5 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

Skin Irritation: 0.2 ppm for a 2-min exposure 


Properties: 

MW: 170.1 

VP: 0.244 mmHg (77°F) 

PIP: — 

D: 1.086 g/mL (77° F) 

VD: 5.9 (calculated) 

LEU — 

MP: — 30°F 

Vlt: 320 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes 

H 2 0: 0.4% 

RP: 32 

BP: 191°F (12 mmHg) 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Most organic 
solvents 

IP: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.0031 ppm 

4 h, 0.00080 ppm 8 h, 0.00040 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 0.053 ppm 

4 h, 0.013 ppm 8 h, 0.0068 ppm 


C03-A012 

Nitrogen mustard 2 (Agent HN2) 

CAS: 51-75-2; 55-86-7 (Hydrochloride salt) 
RTECS: IA1 750000 



Nitrogen Vesicants C03-A 


163 


CsHuCfeN 

Colorless to dark liquid that has a fruity odor in high concentrations. The odor has been 
described as "soapy" in low concentrations. Salts are white solids. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.38 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
LCt^inhy 1000 mg-min/ m 3 (78 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCf 50 (Per) • <85° F: 10,000 mg-min/ m 3 (52 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LCt^Q(p er ) : >85° F: 5,000 mg-min /m 3 (26 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LD 50 : 1.4 g 

tCt^Q(skin)'- <85° F: 500 mg-min/ m 3 (2.6 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

ICt$o(Ski n ) : >85° F: 200 mg-min/ m 3 (1 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

ICtsotEyes)'- 75 mg-min/ m 3 (5.9 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 2 ppm for a 2-min exposure 


Properties: 


MW: 156.1 

VP: 0.416 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.118 g/mL (77°F) 

VD: 5.4 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

MP: -94° F 

Vlt: 550 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes 

H 2 0: 1.3% 

RP: 19 

BP: 167°F (15 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 

Sol: Most organic solvents 

IP: — 


Hydrochloride Salt 

MW: 192.6 H 2 O: "Very soluble" 

MP: 228°F Sol: Ethanol 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.0034 ppm 4 h, 0.00088 ppm 8 h, 0.00044 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.058 ppm 4 h, 0.015 ppm 8 h, 0.0074 ppm 


C03-A013 

Nitrogen mustard 3 (Agent HN3) 

CAS: 555-77-1; 817-09-4 (Hydrochloride salt); 6138-32-5 (Picrate salt) 
RTECS: YE2625000 

Cl 



N 


Cl 


C 6 H :2 C1 3 N 

Colorless to dark liquid that is odorless when pure. Salts are white solids. 
Also reported as a mixture with Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.36 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCtsoQnhy 1000 mg-min/ m 3 (60 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 



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LCt 50 (p er )■ <85°F: 10,000 mg-min/ m 3 (40 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
LCt50(p er )'- >85°F: 5000 mg-min/ m 3 (20 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
LD 50 : 1.4 g 

lCt^Q(skin) '■ <85°F: 500 mg-min/ m 3 (2 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
7Cf50(Sfa/i) : >85°F: 200 mg-min/ m 3 (0.8 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
ICt 50(Eyes) : 75 mg-min/ m 3 (4.4 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 1.5 ppm for a 2-min exposure 


Properties: 


MW: 204.5 

VP: 0.0109 mmHg (77°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.235 g/mL (77° F) 

VD: 7.1 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

MP: 25°F 

VI t: 14 ppm (77°F) 

UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes 

H 2 0: 0.008% 

RP: 650 

Vsc: 5.9 cS (77° F) 

Sol: Most organic solvents 

IP: — 

Hydrochloride salt 

Picrate salt 


MW: 241.0 

MW: 321.6 


MP: 266°F 

MP: 278°F 


Proposed AEGLs 




AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.0026 ppm 4 h, 0.00067 ppm 8 h, 0.00033 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.044 ppm 4 h, 0.011 ppm 8 h, 0.0056 ppm 


C03-A014 

2,2'-Difluoro-lV-methyldiethylamine 

CAS: 352-26-1; 6089-42-5 (Hydrobromide Salt); 1598-80-7 (Hydrochloride salt) 
RTECS: — 



F 


c 5 h„f 2 n 

Colorless liquid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.03 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 123.1 

VP: — 


FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.2 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 


UEL: — 

BP: 253°F 

H 2 0: — 


RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 


IP: — 

Hydrobromide salt 

MW: 204.0 

MP: 216°F 

Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 159.6 

MP: 208°F 



Nitrogen Vesicants C03-A 


165 


C03-A015 

2-Chloroethyl methyl 1-chloroacetamide 

CAS: 858817-94-4 
RTECS: — 



O 


C 5 H 9 CI 2 NO 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.95 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 170.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.9 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 230°F (0.8 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A016 

2,2',2"-Tribromo-triethylamine 

CAS: 36647-05-9; 36647-06-0 (Hydrobromide salt) 
RTECS: — 


Br 





C6Hi2Br3N 

Solid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 13.82 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 337.9 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 12 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: 86 °F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 293°F (0.05 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Hydrobromide salt 

MW: 418.8 
MP: 307°F 



166 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C03-A017 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) 2-fluoroethylamine 

CAS: 370-66-1 
RTECS: — 

F 


Cl 



C 6 H :2 C1 2 FN 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.69 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 188.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.5 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 239°F (13 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A018 


Bis(2-fluoroethyl) 2-chloroethylamine 

CAS: 370-67-2; 445-59-0 (Picrate salt) 
RTECS: — 


Cl 





c 6 h :2 cif 2 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.02 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 171.6 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.9 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 203°F (19 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



Nitrogen Vesicants C03-A 


167 


Picrate Salt 

MW: 400.7 
MP: 250°F 


C03-A019 


2,2',2"-Trifluoro-triethylamine 

CAS: 370-68-3 
RTECS: — 


F 





C 6 H :2 F 3 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.35 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Fluman toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 155.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 163°F (25 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A020 

2-Chloropropyl 2-chloroethyl methylamine 

CAS: 139881-58-6; 859060-27-8 (Picrate salt) 
RTECS: — 


Cl 



C 6 H 13 C1 2 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.96 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 170.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.9 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 201°F (21 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



168 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Picrate salt 

MW: 399.2 
MP: 252°F 


C03-A021 

3-Chloropropyl 2-chloroethyl methylamine 

CAS: 89980-59-6 
RTECS: — 

C 6 Hi3Cl 2 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.96 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 170.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.9 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 219°F (23 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Picrate salt 


MW: 399.2 
MP: 167°F 


C03-A022 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) 1-propene amine 

CAS: 63905-36-2 
RTECS: — 



Cl N 

C 7 Hi 3 C1 2 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: lppm = 7.45mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 182.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 176°F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



Nitrogen Vesicants C03-A 


169 


C03-A023 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) 3-chloropropylamine 

CAS: 61134-73-4; 100608-14-8 (Picrate salt) 
RTECS: — 

Cl 


Cl 



Cl 


c 7 h 14 ci 3 n 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 218.6 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 7.5 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 241°F (1.3 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Picrate salt 

MW: 447.7 
MP: 199°F 


C03-A024 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) isopropylamine 

CAS: 619-34-1 
RTECS: — 



Cl N \-^^ci 


C 7 H :5 C1 2 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.53 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 184.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 194°F (8 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



170 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 255.1 
MP: 421 °F 


C03-A025 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) propylamine 

CAS: 621-68-1; 38521-66-3 (Hydrochloride salt) 
RTECS: — 


Cl 



c 7 h 15 ci 2 n 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.53 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 184.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.059 g/mL (74°F) 

VD: 6.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 205°F (10 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 220.6 
MP: 221 °F 


C03-A026 

Bis(2-chloropropyl) methylamine 

CAS: 52802-03-6 
RTECS: — 


Cl 




c 7 h 15 ci 2 n 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 
Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.53 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Nitrogen Vesicants C03-A 


171 


Properties: 


MW: 184.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 243° F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A027 

Bis(2-chloropropyl) chloroethylamine 

CAS: 854873-81-7; 854873-82-8 (Picrate salt) 
RTECS: — 



C 8 H 16 C1 3 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.51 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 232.6 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 8.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 243° F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Picrate salt 

MW: 461.7 
MP: 244° F 


C03-A028 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) f-butylamine 

CAS: 10125-86-7 
RTECS: — 



Cl 


N 


Cl 


C 8 H 17 C1 2 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 



172 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 198.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.048 g/mL (72°F) 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 160°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A029 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) s-butylamine 

CAS: 777799-85-6; 195210-51-6 (Isomer); 195210-50-5 (Isomer) 
RTECS: — 


Cl 



c 8 h 17 ci 2 n 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 198.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.046 g/mL (77° F) 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 212°F (7.5 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A030 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) isobutylamine 

CAS: 87289-70-1 
RTECS: — 



C 8 H :7 C1 2 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 



Components and Precursors C03-C 


173 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 198.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.033 g/mL (68°F) 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 174°F (2 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-A031 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) butylamine 

CAS: 42520-97-8; 55112-89-5 (Hydrochloride salt) 
RTECS: — 



C 8 H 17 C1 2 N 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 198.1 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.0365 g/mL (77° F) 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 241°F (13 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 234.6 
MP: 203°F 


C03-C 

COMPONENTS AND PRECURSORS 

C03-C032 

Thiodiglycol (TDG) 

CAS: 111-48-8 
RTECS: KM2975000 



174 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C4H10O2S 

Colorless to light yellow liquid with a foul odor. This material produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially as an antioxidant, lubricant additive, printing-ink solvent, accelerator in 
the synthesis of rubber, and in the manufacture of plastics and pesticides. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a precursor for Sulfur mustard (C03-A001) and is also commonly found as 
an impurity and degradation product formed during its hydrolysis. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.00 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 122.2 VP: 0.00002 mmHg FIP: 320°F 

D: 1.18 g/mL VP: 0.00323 mmHg (77° F) LEL: 1.2% 

MP: 14°F VD: 4.2 (calculated) UEL: 5.2% 

BP: 542°F (decomposes) Vlt: 0.03 ppm RP: 500,000 

BP: 329°F (14 mmHg) H 2 0: Miscible IP: — 

Use: — Sol: Acetone; Alcohols; 

Chloroform 


C03-C033 

Sulfur monochloride 

CAS: 10025-67-9 
RTECS: WS4300000 
UN: 1828 
ERG: 137 


Cl — s — s — Cl 


S2C12 

Light-amber to yellow-red, oily fuming liquid with a suffocating, pungent, and nauseating 
odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. It is noncorrosive to carbon steel and iron when dry. However, when 
wet it will attack steel, cast iron, aluminum, stainless steel, copper and copper alloys, and 
many nickel based materials. 

Used industrially for gold extraction and wood treatment; and to manufacture insecticides, 
pharmaceuticals, and dyes. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 
This material is a general precursor for sulfur based vesicants. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.52 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Eye Irritation: 2 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this material appears to have a considerably 
greater acute toxicity than HC1 gas (C11-A063). 



Components and Precursors C03-C 


175 


OSHA PEL: 1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm 
NIOSH Ceiling: 1 ppm 
IDLH: 5 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 135.0 
D: 1.68 g/ mL 
MP: -107°F 
BP: 276°F 
Vsc: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.53 ppm 4 h, 0.33 ppm 8 h, 0.17 ppm 

AEGL-2: lh, 6.4 ppm 4 h, 4.0 ppm 8 h, 2.0 ppm 

AEGL-3: 1 h, 15 ppm 4 h, 9.6 ppm 8 h, 4.8 ppm 


VP: 6.8 mmHg PIP: 266°F 

VD: 4.7 (calculated) LEE: — 

Vlt: 9100 ppm UEL: — 

H 2 O: Decomposes violently RP: 1.3 
Sol: Oils; Ether IP: 9.40 eV 


C03-C034 

Sulfur dichloride 

CAS: 10545-99-0 
RTECS: — 

SC1 2 

Fuming dark red to reddish-brown liquid with a pungent odor like chlorine. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. It is 
noncorrosive to carbon steel and iron when dry. Flowever, when wet it will attack steel, cast 
iron, aluminum, stainless steel, copper and copper alloys, and many nickel based materials. 

Used industrially for vulcanizing oils and rubber, purifying sugar juices, as a chloridizing 
agent in metallurgy, and in the manufacture of insecticides. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 
This material is a general precursor for sulfur based vesicants. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.21 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to have a considerably greater 
acute toxicity than HC1 gas (C11-A063). 


Properties: 

MW: 103.0 VP: 7.6 mmHg (-9°F) PIP: 245°F 

D: 1.621 g/mL(59°F) VD: 3.6 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: — 108°F Vlt: 12,000 ppm (-9°F) UEE: — 

BP: 138°F (decomposes) H 2 O: Decomposes violently RP: 1.1 
Vsc: — Sol: Carbon tetrachloride; IP: — 

Benzene 


C03-C035 

Thionyl chloride 

CAS: 7719-09-7 
RTECS: XM5 150000 



176 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


UN: 1836 
ERG: 137 

O 

II 

cr ^ci 


sci 2 o 

Colorless to yellow to reddish fuming liquid with a pungent, suffocating odor like sul- 
fur dioxide. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and dyes; and as a solvent 
in high energy density lithium batteries. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is used as a chlorinating agent for both nitrogen and sulfur based vesicants. 
Required in the manufacture of methylphosphonic dichloride (C01-C046). 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.87 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm 
NIOSH Ceiling: 1 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 119.0 
D: 1.638 g/ mL 
D: 1.676 g/mL (32°F) 
MP: -156°F 
BP: 169°F 
Use: — 


VP: 100 mmHg (70°F) 

VP: 119 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 4.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: 160,000 ppm 

H 2 0: Decomposes violently 

Sol: Benzene; Chloroform 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.78 
IP: — 


C03-C036 

2-Chloro ethanol 

CAS: 107-07-3 
RTECS: KK0875000 
UN: 1135 
ERG: 131 



Cl 


c 2 h 5 cio 

Colorless liquid with a sweet, pleasant odor similar to ether. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local eye impacts. It does not cause immediate irritation to warn of skin exposure. 

Used industrially as a solvent and cleaning agent; used to manufacture insecticides, dyes, 
pharmaceuticals, thiodiethylene glycol, ethylene oxide, and ethylene glycol. Used in 
agriculture to treat sweet potatoes before planting. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for both nitrogen and sulfur based vesicants. 



Components and Precursors C03-C 


177 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.29 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 5 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH Ceiling: 1 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH Ceiling: 1 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 7 ppm 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, the vapor of this material is more toxic than 
ethylene dichloride (Cl 1 -A 041). 

Properties: 

MW: 80.5 VP: 4.9 mmHg FIP: 140°F 

D: 1.197 g/mL VP: 7.18 mmHg (77° F) LEL: 4.9% 

MP: -90°F VD: 2.8 (calculated) UEL: 15.9% 

BP: 262°F Vlt: 6600 ppm RP: 2.2 

BP: 126°F (25 mmHg) H 2 O: Miscible (decomposes) IP: 10.90 eV 
Vsc: 2.87 cS Sol: Most organic solvents 


C03-C037 

Sodium sulfide 

CAS: 1313-82-2 
RTECS: — 

UN: 1385 
ERG: 135 

Na 2 S 

Clear white to yellow-pink deliquescent crystals with an odor like rotten eggs due to forma- 
tion of hydrogen sulfide. Commercial material may be yellow or brick-red lumps or flakes . It 
is unstable and discolors upon exposure to air. It undergoes autoxidation to form polysulfur, 
thiosulfate, and sulfate. It absorbs carbon dioxide from the air to form sodium carbonate. 
Moist sodium sulfide is spontaneously flammable upon drying in air. This material is 
hazardous through ingestion and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially for dehairing hides, wool pulling, ore flotation, metal refining, engraving, 
cotton printing, in the manufacture of paper, pharmaceuticals, rubber, and sulfur dyes. It 
is used in production of heavy water for nuclear reactors. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor for sulfur based vesicants. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 78.0 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.856 g/cm 3 (57° F) 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 2156°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 18.6% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Alcohols 

IP: — 



178 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C03-C038 

Methyldiethanolamine 

CAS: 105-59-9 
RTECS: KL7525000 


HO N 


C 5 H 13 N02 

Clear, colorless to light-yellow liquid with an odor like ammonia. Various salts (solids) have 
been reported. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is on Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a precursor for HN2 (C03-A012). It is also commonly found as a degradation 
product from hydrolysis of HN2. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.88 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 119.2 VP: 0.019 mmHg (104°F) FIP: 259°F 

D: 1.038 g/mL VD: (calculated) LEL: 0.9% 

MP: — 6°F Vlt: 24 ppm (104°F) UEL: 8.4% 

BP: 477° F H 2 0: Miscible RP: 4.1 

BP: 239°F (10 mmHg) Sol: — IP: — 

Vsc: 97.3 cS 


C03-C039 

Ethyldiethanolamine 

CAS: 139-87-7 
RTECS: KK9800000 




OH 


c 6 h 15 no 2 

Clear, colorless to light-yellow liquid with an odor like ammonia. Various salts (solids) have 
been reported. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/eye impacts. 

This material is on Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a precursor for HN 1 (C03- A0 1 1 ). It is also commonly found as a degradation 
product from hydrolysis of HN1. 



Components and Precursors C03-C 


179 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.30 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 105.1 

VP: — 

FIP: 253°F 

D: 1.014 g/mL 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: — 58°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 480°F 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-C040 

Triethanolamine 

CAS: 102-71-6 
RTECS: KL9275000 


OH 



c 6 h 15 no 3 

Colorless to pale yellow viscous hydroscopic liquid with a slight odor like ammonia. Turns 
brown on exposure to air and light. Various salts (solids) have been reported. This material 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a corrosion inhibitor for lubricants and in the manufacture of cosmetics, 
detergents, emulsifiers, and surfactants. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

This material is a precursor for HN3 (C03-A013). It is also commonly found as a degradation 
product from hydrolysis of HN3. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.82 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 149.2 

D: 1.1242 g/mL 

D: 1.0985 g/mL (140°F) 

MP: 69°F 

BP: 636°F 

Vsc: 527 cS (77°F) 

Vsc: 60 cS (140° F) 


= 6.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 


VP: 0.00000359 mmHg (77° F) 
VD: 5.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.005 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 O: Miscible 
Sol: Alcohols; Acetone; 
Chloroform; Benzene 


FIP: 374°F 
LEL: — 

UEL : — 

RP: 2,000,000 
IP: — 



180 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C03-D 

DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS AND IMPURITIES 


C03-D041 

l,2-Bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)ethane (Q-diol) 

CAS: 5244-34-8 
RTECS: — 



OH 


C6H14O2S2 

White crystalline solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

This material is commonly found as a degradation product from hydrolysis of Sulfur 
mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.46 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 182.3 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 145°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 338°F (0.5 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D042 

Ethylene sulfide 

CAS: 420-12-2 
RTECS: KX3500000 

S 

AA 


c 2 h 4 s 

Colorless liquid that gradually polymerizes. It may be stabilized with 0.5% butylmer- 
captan. Ethylene sulfide is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 

This material is commonly found as an impurity in Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.46 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately six times as 
toxic as propylene oxide. 



Decomposition Products and Impurities C03-D 


181 


Properties: 

MW: 60.1 VP: 375 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 50°F 

D: 1.0368 g/mL (32°F) VD: 2.1 (calculated) LED — 

MP: — Vlt: 490,000 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 131°F H 2 0: Insoluble RP: 0.035 

Vsc: — Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Acetone; IP: — 

Chloroform 


C03-D043 

1,2-Ethanedithiol 

CAS: 540-63-6 
RTECS: — 


HS 


SH 


c 2 h 6 s 2 

Liquid with a foul odor detectable at 31 ppb and easily noticeable at 5.6 ppm. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a metal-complexing agent. 

This material is a degradation product in Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.85 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 94.2 

D: 1.123 g/mL (74°F) 
MP: -42°F 
BP: 295°F 

BP: 169°F (150 mmHg) 
BP: 145°F (46 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


VP: 5.61 mmHg (77°F) (estimate) 
VD: 3.3 (calculated) 

Vlt: 7500 ppm (77° F) 

H z O: 1.1% (77°F) (estimate) 

Sol: Ethanol; Ether; Acetone; 
Benzene 


PIP: — 
LED. — 
UEL: — 
RP: 1.8 
IP: 9.35 eV 


C03-D044 
Divinyl sulfone 

CAS: 77-77-0 
RTECS: KM71 75000 



C4H 6 0 2 S 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially in synthesis of fiber-reactive dyestuffs. 

This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 



182 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.83 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
it can cause burns of the skin and eyes similar to those from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001), 
but it does not liberate chlorine or acid. 


Properties: 


MW: 118.2 

VP: 0.09 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: 1.177 g/mL (77°F) 

VD: 4.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 15°F 

Vlt: 120 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 226°F (15 mmHg) 

H 2 0: 14% 

RP: 100 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D045 
Vinyl sulfoxide 

CAS: 1115-15-7 
RTECS: — 



C 4 H 6 OS 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 102.2 

VP: 0.92 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 3.5 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 1200 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 115°F (1 mmHg) 

H 2 0: 28% 

RP: 11 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D046 
Divinyl sulfide 

CAS: 627-51-0 
RTECS: — 



c 4 h 6 s 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.53 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Decomposition Products and Impurities C03-D 


183 


Properties: 

MW: 86.2 VP: 6.0 mmHg PIP: — 

D: 0.9098 g/mL VD: 3.0 (calculated) LED — 
MP: — Vlt: 8000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 187°F H 2 0: 0.25% RP: 1.8 

Hsc: — Sol: — IP: 8.25 eV 


C03-D047 

2-Chloroethyl vinylsulfone 

CAS: 7327-58-4 
RTECS: — 




Cl 


c 4 h 7 cio 2 s 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.32 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 154.6 

VP: 0.023 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 5.3 (calculated) 

EEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 31 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 7.8% 

RP: 350 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D048 


2-Chloroethyl vinyl sulfoxide 

CAS: 40709-82-8 
RTECS: — 

O 

II 

Cl 



C4H7C10S 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.67 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



184 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 


MW: 138.6 

VP: 0.064 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 86 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 16% 

RP: 130 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D049 

2-Chloroethyl vinyl sulfide 

CAS: 81142-02-1 
RTECS: — 



Cl 


C 4 H 7 C 1 S 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.01 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 


MW: 122.6 

VP: 5.8 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 4.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 7800 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 0.14% 

RP: 1.5 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D050 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfone 

CAS: 471-03-4 
RTECS: — 



C4H 8 C1 2 0 2 S 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 

This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.82 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material is nearly as powerful a vesicant as the 
parent compound. 



Decomposition Products and Impurities C03-D 


185 


Properties: 


MW: 191.1 

VP: 0.96 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 1300 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 1.1% 

RP: 7.5 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D051 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfoxide 

CAS: 5819-08-9 
RTECS: — 

O 

Cl S 


c 4 h 8 ci 2 os 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 

This material is a degradation product from Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
unlike the sulfone (C03-D050) this material is not a vesicant. 


Properties: 


MW: 175.1 

VP: 0.65 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 870 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 9.3% 

RP: 12 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C03-D052 

Bis(2-chloroethyl)trisulfide 

CAS: 19149-77-0 
RTECS: KN3339000 


Cl 


S 



Cl 


C 4 H 8 C1 2 S3 

Clear, colorless hygroscopic liquid. 

This material is commonly found as an impurity in Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 
Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.13 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



186 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 223.2 VP: 1.7 mmHg PIP: 135°F 

D: 0.94 g/mL VP: 2.96 mmHg (77°F) LEL: — 

MP: — 90°F VD: 4.6 (calculated) UEL: — 

BP: 324° F Vlt: 2300 ppm RP: 3.9 

Vsc: — H 2 0: Miscible IP: 9.8 eV 

Sol: — 


C03-D053 

1,4-Oxathiane 

CAS: 15980-15-1 
RTECS: RP4200000 



C 4 H 8 OS 

Clear, colorless to light yellow liquid. 

This material is commonly found as an impurity in Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 
Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 104.2 VP: 3.9 mmHg PIP: 107°F 

D:1.105 g/mL VD: 3.6 (calculated) LEL: — 
MP: 32°F Vlt: 5200 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 297°F H 2 0: 16.7% RP: 2.5 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: 8.8 eV 


C03-D054 

1,4-Dithiane 

CAS: 505-29-3 
RTECS: — 



C4H8S2 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 

This material is commonly found as an impurity and degradation product from Sulfur 
mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.92 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



References 


187 


Properties: 

MW: 120.2 VP: 0.80 mmHg PIP: — 

D: — VD: 4.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 1100 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 392°F H 2 0: 0.30% RP: 11 

Vsc: — So/: — IP: 8.8 eV 


C03-D055 

Diethanolamine 

CAS: 111-42-2 
RTECS: KL2975000 



C 4 H 11 NO 2 

Viscous, syrupy liquid or crystalline deliquescent solid with a mild odor like ammonia. 
Various salts (solids) have been reported. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used in the manufacture of emulsifiers, dispersing agents, cutting oils, shampoos, cleaners, 
and polishes. Chemical intermediate for morpholine. 

This material is a degradation product from HN1 (C03-A011). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.30 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LD^odngy. 20 g (estimate) ACGIH TLV: 0.47 ppm [Skin] 


Properties: 

MW: 105.1 
D: 1.0966 g/ cm 3 
MP: 82°F 
BP: 516°F 
Vsc: 320 cS (86°F) 
Vsc: 49 cS (140°F) 


VP: 0.00014 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 3.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.18 ppm (77° F) 

H 2 0 : Miscible 
Sol: Alcohols 


PIP: 342° F 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 700,000 
IP: — 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Blister Agents Lewisite (L) and Mustard-Lewisite 
Mixture (HL) ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

. "Blister Agents Sulfur Mustard Agent H/HD and Sulfur Mustard Agent HT ToxFAQs." April 

2002 . 

. Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents Volume III — Medical Management Guidelines for Acute 

Chemical Exposures. Rev. Edn. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2000. 

. "Mustard Gas ToxFAQs." September 2001. 

. Toxicological Profile for Mustard "Gas" (UPDATE). Washington, DC: Government Printing 

Office, September 2003. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, 
and Lewisite)." March 15, 2005. 



188 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


. "Counter Terrorism Card for Mustard." 2000. 

. "Facts About Sulfur Mustard." February 25, 2003. 

. "Facts About Sulfur Mustard." February 25, 2003. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents : Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Edgewood Research Development, and Engineering Center, Department of the Army. Material Safety 
Data Sheet (MSDS) for Agent HL. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical Biological Defense 
Command, Revised June 30, 1995. 

. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Agent HQ. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical 

Biological Defense Command, Revised June 30, 1995. 

. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Agent HT. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical 

Biological Defense Command, Revised June 30, 1995. 

. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Agent Q. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical 

Biological Defense Command, Revised June 30, 1995. 

. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Agent T. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical 

Biological Defense Command, Revised May 1, 1996. 

. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Distilled Mustard (HD). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: 

Chemical Biological Defense Command, Revised February 28, 1996. 

Fries, Amos A. and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

"Interim Recommendations for Airborne Exposure Limits for Chemical Warfare Agents H and HD 
(Sulfur Mustard)." Federal Register 69, No. 85 (May 3, 2004): 24164-24168. 

International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) Division of Occupational Health, Safety and Medi- 
cine. Position on the U.S. Army Soldier & Biological Chemical Command's (SBCCOM), Withdrawn 
"3/30 Ride" and the New Guide : "The Risk Assessment of Using Firefighter Protective Ensemble with 
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus for Rescue Operations During a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident." 
February 13, 2004. 

Jackson, Kirby E. "/1,/S-Dichloroethyl Sulfide (Mustard Gas)." Chemical Reviews 15 (1934): 
425M62. 

Macy, Rudolph, Benjamin L. Harris, and John W. Eastes. "Vesicant," United States Patent 2,604,428, 
July 22, 1952. 

Marrs, Timothy C., Robert L. Maynard, and Frederick R. Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents : Toxicology 
and Treatment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

Munro, Nancy B., Sylvia S. Talmage, Guy D. Griffin, Larry C. Waters, Annetta P. Watson, Joseph 
F. King, and Veronique Hauschild. "The Sources, Fate and Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agent 
Degradation Products." Environmental Health Perspectives 107 (1999): 933-974. 

National Institute of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/ sis/htmlgen?HSDB/). 2005. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. "Emergency Response Card for Mustard." 
June 28, 2004. 

. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

September 2005. 

National Research Council. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare 
Agents. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997. 

Petrali, John R, Tracey A. Hamilton, Betty J. Benton, Dana R. Anderson, Wesley Holmes, Robert K. 
Kan, Christina P. Tompkins, and Radharaman Ray. "Dimethyl Sulfoxide Accelerates Mustard 
Gas-Induced Skin Pathology." Journal of Medical CBR Defense 3 (2005) (www.jmedcbr.org). 

Prentiss, Augustin M. Chemicals in War: A Treatise on Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1937. 

Sartori, Mario. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Trans. L.W. Marrison. London: J. and 
A. Churchill, Ltd., 1939. 

. "New Developments in the Chemistry of War Gases." Chemical Reviews 48 (1951): 

225-257. 

Sidell, Frederick R. Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties: A Handbook for Emergency 
Medical Services. Bel Air, MD: HB Publishing, 1995. 



References 


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Sidell, Fredrick R v Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, ed. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 2, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W. ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, ed. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th Edn. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Somani, Satu M., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. New York: Academic Press, 1992. 

Somani, Satu M., and James A. Romano, Jr., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels. Boca 
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. 

Trapp, Ralf. The Detoxification and Natural Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents. Volume 3 of SIPRI 
Chemical & Biological Warfare Studies. London: Taylor & Francis, 1985. 

True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th Edn. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume I, Edgewood Arsenal Special Report 
No. EO-SR-74001. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Potential Military Chemical /Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chemical 
Casualties Handbook. 3rd Edn. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
Edition, (http:/ /www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm). March 2004. 

Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Wagner, George W. and Yu-Chu Yang. "Universal Decontaminating Solution For Chemical Warfare 
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. "Rapid Nucleophilic/Oxidative Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents." Industrial & 

Engineering Chemistry Research 41 (2002): 1925-1928. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection Against It. Rev Edn. New 
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Watson, Annetta, Dennis Opresko, and Veronique Hauschild. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Per- 
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Watson, Annetta P. and Nancy B. Munro. Reentry Planning: The Technical Basis for Offsite Recovery 
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Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts About Blister Agent Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL). Aberdeen Prov- 
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. Detailed Facts About Sulfur Mustard Agents H and HD. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United 

States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

. Detailed Facts About Sulfur Mustard Agent HT. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States 

Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

World Health Organization. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Geneva: World Health 
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. Public Health Response to Biological And Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Geneva: World 

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Yang, Yu-Chu. "Chemical Reactions for Neutralizing Chemical Warfare Agents." Chemistry & Industry 
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Yang, Yu-Chu, James A. Baker, and J. Richard Ward. "Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents." 
Chemical Reviews 92 (1992): 1729-1743. 




4 


Arsenic Vesicants 


4.1 General Information 

The agents in this class are dihalo organoarsines. Other than lewisite (C04-A002), which is 
listed in Schedule 1, these materials are not covered by the Chemical Weapons Convention. 
Some of them have even seen limited commercial applications. 

The majority of these materials are first generation chemical warfare agents employed 
in World War I. They are moderately difficult to synthesize and can be difficult to disperse 
effectively. For information on some of the chemicals used to manufacture arsenic vesicants, 
see the Component section (C04-C) following information on the individual agents. 

In addition to the agents detailed in this handbook, there are other arsenic vesicants 
that were employed during World War I on a limited basis. However, there is little or no 
published information concerning the physical, chemical, or toxicological properties of 
these additional agents. 

Toward the end of World War I, lewisite (C04-A002) was developed, produced, and 
weaponized but never used. Despite this, it has supplanted all other agents as the arsenic 
vesicant of choice and is the only one that was stockpiled in modern arsenals. 


4.2 Toxicology 
4.2.1 Effects 

Vesicants affect both exterior and interior parts of the body. Vesicants cause inflammation, 
blisters, and general destruction of tissues. These agents have a greater impact on moist 
areas of the body. Eyes are especially susceptible to vesicants and contact results in irritation, 
lacrimation, and involuntary blinking (blepharospasm). 

Inhalation of vesicants can cause lung membranes to swell and become filled with liquid 
(pulmonary edema). Death may result from lack of oxygen. 

Arsenic vesicants are also systemic agents and can pass through the skin to affect 
susceptible tissue including blood cells and the liver. Arsenic vesicants also act as vomit- 
ing /sternatory agents (see Chapter 15) and produce violent coughing, sneezing, and 
regurgitation. Some arsenic vesicants are carcinogenic. 


4.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Vesicants are hazardous through any route of exposure including inhalation, skin and 
eye exposure, ingestion, and broken, abraded, or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin 


191 



192 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


by debris). Liquid agents are much more hazardous than their vapors. Thickened agents 
primarily pose a hazard through skin absorption. 

4.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Arsenic vesicants cause instantaneous irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, which 
provides warning of their presence. Extended exposures cause violent coughing, sneezing, 
and regurgitation. The odor of arsenic vesicants varies with the individual compound and 
ranges from odorless to fruity to flowery. Odors may not be discernable due to irritation. 

Lethal concentrations (LC 50 S) for inhalation of these agents are as low as 59 ppm for 
a 2 -minutes exposure. 

Lethal percutaneous exposures (LD 50 S) to liquid agents are as low as 1 .4 grams per 
individual. 

Incapacitating concentrations (IQ 50 ) for dermal exposure to these agents at moder- 
ate temperatures (i.e., between 65 and 85°F) are as low as 2 ppm for a 30-minutes 
exposure. Temperatures above 85°F reduce the concentration necessary to 
produce similar effects. 

Eye irritation from exposure to agent vapors occurs at concentrations as low as 
0.9 ppm for a 2-minutes exposure; an incapacitating concentration (IQ 50 ) for 
exposure of the eyes is as low as 4.4 ppm for a 2-minutes exposure. Permanent eye 
damage may occur at concentrations as low as 90 ppm for a 2-minutes exposure. 

Although sublethal doses of some arsenic vesicants are rapidly detoxified by the body, 
many agents are not detoxified and exposures are cumulative. 

4.2.4 Latency Period 

4.2.4. 1 Vapor/Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 

Inhalation of high concentrations may be fatal in as short a time as 10 minutes. Otherwise, 
arsenic vesicants produce immediate irritation of the eyes and involuntary blinking (bleph- 
arospasm), followed by lacrimation. Nasal irritation is coupled with coughing, sneezing, 
and vomiting. There is an immediate burning sensation when the agent comes into con- 
tact with the skin. Other signs and symptoms of exposure, including reddening of the 
skin (erythema), blistering (vesication), and accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary 
edema), do not occur until after a substantial latency period. 

4. 2. 4. 2 Liquids 

Arsenic vesicants produce immediate pain. Tissue damage occurs within minutes of expos- 
ure but clinical effects may not appear for up to 24 hours. Some agents are rapidly absorbed 
through the skin. Extensive skin contamination may cause systemic damage to the liver, 
kidneys, nervous system, red blood cells, and the brain. 


4.3 Characteristics 

4.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

4.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless oily liquids. They have little or no odor. 
Vapors are extremely irritating to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin. 



Arsenic Vesicants 


193 


4.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically yellow to dark brown liquids or solids . As the agent ages 
and decomposes, it continues to discolor until it may appear black. Production impurities 
and decomposition products in these agents may give them an odor. Odors range from 
fruity and biting, to flowery and similar to geraniums . Odors may become more pronounced 
during storage. 

4.3. 1.3 Modified Agents 

Arsenic vesicants have been thickened with various substances to enhance deployment, 
increase their persistency, and increase the risk of percutaneous exposure. Thickeners 
include polyalkyl methacrylates (methyl, ethyl, butyl, isobutyl), poly( vinyl acetate), poly- 
styrene, plexiglas, alloprene, polychlorinated isoprene, nitrocellulose, as well as bleached 
montan and lignite waxes. Military thickener K125 is a mixture of methyl, ethyl, and butyl 
polymethacrylates. When thickened, agents become sticky with a consistency similar to 
honey. Typically, not enough thickener is added to affect either the color or odor of the 
agent. 

4.3. 1.4 Mixtures with Other Agents 

Lewisite (C04-A002) has been mixed with sulfur mustard (C03-A001) to prevent the sulfur 
mustard from freezing in the shell as well as to enhance its toxicity. 


4.3.2 Stability 

Arsenic vesicants are stable when pure and kept dry. Stabilizers are not required. Agents can 
be stored in glass or steel containers, although they may attack steel at elevated temperature 
or if moisture is present. Arsenic vesicants corrode aluminum and brass, and will attack 
some rubbers and plastics. 


4.3.3 Persistency 

For military purposes, unmodified arsenic vesicants are classified as persistent. However, 
agent vapors rapidly react with high humidity to lose most of their vesicant properties. 
Limited solubility slows the hydrolysis of liquid agents. Some hydrolysis products are 
highly toxic and extremely persistent (see Section 4.4.5). Evaporation rates range from near 
that of water down to that of light machine oil. 

Agents modified with thickeners last significantly longer. 


4.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Arsenic vesicant vapors have a density greater than air and tend to collect in low places. 
Agent vapor is rapidly decomposed by moisture in the air. Porous material, including 
painted surfaces, will absorb both liquid and gaseous agent. After the initial surface con- 
tamination has been removed, the agent that has been absorbed into porous material can 
migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and vapor hazard. Clothing may emit 
trapped agent vapor for up to 30 minutes after contact with a vapor cloud. 

Liquid agents that do dissolve in water are rapidly decomposed. However, most of these 
agents are insoluble in water and this limited solubility slows their hydrolysis. Hydrolysis 
of agents may be further reduced if they are thickened such that a protective layer forms 
at the agent/water interface. The specific gravities of unmodified liquid agents are much 



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greater than that of water. These agents are soluble in most organic solvents including 
gasoline, oils, acetone, and alcohols. 


4.4 Additional Hazards 

4.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened 
items packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent 
vapors may be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to 
liquid agents should be decontaminated within a few hours postexposure or destroyed. 
Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be 
destroyed. 

Meat and milk from animals affected by arsenic vesicants should be destroyed. 


4.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Although vesicants do not produce the same type of dermal damage in animals as they do 
in humans, they are still susceptible to the cytotoxic and systemic toxicities of these agents. 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo /soap and water, or a 0.5% household 
bleach solution (see Section 4.5.3). If the animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they 
should be irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

Unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. Leaves of forage vegeta- 
tion could still retain sufficient vesicant agent, or toxic decomposition products, to produce 
effects for several weeks post release, depending on the level of contamination and the 
weather conditions. 


4.4.3 Fire 

Heat from a fire will increase the amount of agent vapor in the area. A significant amount 
of the agent could be volatilized and escape into the surrounding environment before it 
is consumed by the fire. Actions taken to extinguish the fire can also spread the agent. 
Combustion or hydrolysis of arsenic vesicants will produce volatile, toxic decomposition 
products (see Section 4.4.5). 


4.4.4 Reactivity 

Although these agents will decompose if dissolved in water, a lack of solubility inhibits 
this process. Vapors are decomposed rapidly by high humidity. 


4.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 
4.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 

Arsenic vesicants produce hydrogen chloride (HC1) or hydrogen bromide (HBr), and arsen- 
ous oxides or arsenic salts when hydrolyzed. Some arsenous oxide decomposition products 
are toxic and may also have vesicant properties. Some agents may produce acetylene at 
higher pHs. 



Arsenic Vesicants 


195 


4.4. 5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include HC1, HBr, and arsenic oxides. In addition, a 
corrosive or toxic residue or both may remain. 


4.5 Protection 

4.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis for 
the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 
These recommendations are based on different release mechanisms (direct aerosolization 
of liquid agents, a spray, or an explosively generated mist) as well as various quantities of 
materials depending on the agent used in the release. 

For lewisite (C04-A002), the release scenario involves either a spray or an explosively 
generated mist that quickly settles to the ground and soaks into a depth of no more than 
0.25 mm. A secondary cloud will then be generated by evaporation of this deposited mater- 
ial. Under these conditions, the difference between a small and a large release of vesicant is 
not based on the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial hazardous materials listed in 
the ERG. A small release of lewisite involves 2 kilograms (approximately 1 . 1 liters) of liquid 
agent and a large release involves 100 kilograms (approximately 14 gallons) of liquid agent. 

For the less effective agents, such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl dichloroarsines, the release 
involves direct aerosolization of the liquid agents with a particle size between 2 and 5 /xm. 
For these agents, a small release involves 30 kilograms (approximately 5 gallons) of liquid 
agent and a large release involves 500 kilograms (approximately 80 gallons) of liquid agent. 


Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind 
day (miles) 

Downwind 
night (miles) 

ED (Ethyldichloroarsine) C04 — A001 

Small device (30 kilograms) 

100 

0.2 

0.5 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

400 

0.8 

1.6 

L (Lewisite) C04 — A002 

Small device (2 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.2 

Large device (100 kilograms) 

300 

0.6 

1.1 

MD (Methyldichloroarsine) C04 — A003 

Small device (30 kilograms) 

100 

0.2 

0.5 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

400 

0.8 

2.2 

PD (Phenyldichloroarsine) C04 — A004 

Small device (30 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.1 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.2 


4.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 
4.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is 
not effective in spill situations or release events and should never be used as the primary 
chemical protective garment to enter an area contaminated with arsenic vesicants. 



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4.5. 2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chem- 
ical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification since vesicants can be absorbed 
into or degrade the materials used to make some respirators. However, during emergency 
operations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by 
the manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
Incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor/ acid gas /particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. However, IDLH levels have not been established for arsenical vesicants. 
Therefore, any potential exposure to these agents should be regarded with extreme caution 
and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

4.5. 2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction 
performance testing against arsenic vesicant agents. Reported permeation rates may 
be affected by solvents, components, or impurities in munition grade or modified 
agents. 

Because of the extreme dermal hazard posed by arsenic vesicants, responders should 
wear a Level A protective ensemble whenever there is a potential for exposure to any 
liquid agent, or to an elevated or unknown concentration of agent vapor. 


4.5.3 Decontamination 
4.5.3. 1 General 

Although the vesicant properties of arsenical agents can be eliminated during decontamin- 
ation, arsenic is an element and cannot be destroyed. Residual arsenical compounds may 
still possess significant toxicity if they enter the body through ingestion, or broken, abraded, 
or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin by debris). 

Arsenic vesicants are rapidly hydrolyzed in water but a lack of solubility may slow the 
rate of reaction. Arsenic decomposition products are stable and some of them have toxic 
and/ or vesicant properties that nearly equal the original agent. 

Solubility of an agent will be decreased further if it is dissolved in an immiscible organic 
solvent or if it is thickened such that it forms a protective layer at the agent/ water inter- 
face. Addition of solvents or mechanical mixing may be required to overcome insolubility 
problems. 

These agents are readily destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions), especially when 
used in combination with a strong oxidizing agent. For this reason, undiluted household 
bleach is an excellent agent for decontamination of these agents. Ensure that the bleach 
solution remains in contact with the agent for a minimum of 5 minutes. However, a large 
excess will be needed to ensure complete destruction of the agents. Lewisite (C04-A002) 
reacts with basic solutions, including household bleach, to produce acetylene gas. 

Steam is an effective method of destroying arsenic vesicants. However, care must be 
taken to limit the spread of the agent and to guard against production of the toxic and 
potentially vesicating hydrolysis products (see Section 4.4.5). 

Reactive oximes and their salts, such as potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate found in 
commercially available Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL), are extremely effective 
at rapidly detoxifying arsenic vesicants. 



Arsenic Vesicants 


197 


4.5. 3. 2 Vapors 

Casualties /personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. To be effective, decon- 
tamination must be completed within 2 minutes after exposure. Remove all clothing as it 
may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor after contact with the vapor cloud has ceased. 
Shower using copious amounts of soap and water. Ensure that the hair has been washed 
and rinsed to remove potentially trapped vapor. If there is a potential that the eyes have 
been exposed to vesicants, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 
15 minutes. 

Small areas: Ventilate to remove the vapors. If condensation is present, decontaminate with 
copious amounts of undiluted household bleach (see Section 4.5.3. 1). Allow it to stand 
for a minimum of 5 minutes before rinsing with water. Collect and place into containers 
lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious amounts of soap and 
water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Removal of porous material, including painted 
surfaces, may be required because vesicants that have been absorbed into these materials 
can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and vapor hazard. 

4.5. 3. 3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. To be effective, 
decontamination must be completed within 2 minutes after exposure. Remove all cloth- 
ing immediately. Even clothing that has not come into direct contact with the agent 
may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of the head, neck, and face to 
the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be pulled over the head. 
Remove as much of the vesicant from the skin as fast as possible. If water is not imme- 
diately available, the agent can be absorbed with any convenient material such as paper 
towels, toilet paper, flour, or talc. To minimize both spreading the agent and abrading 
the skin, do not rub the agent with the absorbent. Blot the contaminated skin with the 
absorbent. 

Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin 
surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot 
water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and 
increase percutaneous absorption of residual agent. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 
If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to vesicants, irrigate with water or 
0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Alternatively, a household bleach solution can be used instead of soap and water. 
The bleach solution should be no more than one part household bleach in nine parts water 
(i.e., 0.5% sodium hypochlorite) to avoid damaging the skin. Avoid any contact with sens- 
itive areas such as the eyes. Allow the bleach solution to remain in contact with the agent 
for a minimum of 5 minutes. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such 
as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material 
into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Before sealing the container, cover 
the contents with undiluted household bleach (see Section 4. 5. 3.1). If lewisite (C04-A002) is 
present, flammable acetylene gas will be generated during the neutralization process. Take 
appropriate actions to disperse the vapors. Decontaminate the area with copious amounts 
of the neutralizing agent. Allow it to stand for a minimum of 5 minutes before rinsing with 
water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. Removal 
of porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required because vesicants that have 
been absorbed into these material can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and 
vapor hazard. 



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4.6 Medical 

4.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

A case in which an arsenic vesicant is detected in biologic samples. The case can be 
confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a predominant amount 
of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute certainty of the 
etiology of the agent is known. 


4.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to vesicant agents: chemical burns from contact with strong 
acids or bases; barbiturates, chemotherapeutic agents, carbon monoxide; reactions to drugs 
producing Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis or both; autoimmune 
diseases such as bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris; and staphylococcus scalded 
skin syndrome. 


4.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

4.6.3. 1 Vapors/Aerosols 

Exposure of the eyes to even small amounts of arsenic vesicant vapor produces immediate 
tearing, pain, and involuntary blinking (blepharospasm). Eye symptoms are rapidly fol- 
lowed by coughing, sneezing, and vomiting. Other upper respiratory signs vary with the 
amount of exposure and include scratchy throat, laryngitis, and a feeling of shortness of 
breath. High exposures may result in low blood pressure (hypotension). 

Exposure of the skin to arsenic vesicants produces an immediate burning sensation. 
Reddening of the skin (erythema) may appear in as short a time as 5 minutes although full 
progression to blisters may not develop for up to 18 hours. Although blisters tend to be 
deeper and more painful than produced by sulfur vesicants (Chapter 3), they heal more 
readily. 

4. 6. 3. 2 Liquids 

Arsenic vesicants produce an immediate burning sensation. Reddening of the skin (eryth- 
ema) may appear in as short a time as 5 minutes although full progression to blisters may 
not develop for up to 18 hours. Although blisters tend to be deeper and more painful than 
produced by sulfur vesicants (Chapter 3), they heal more readily. 

These agents rapidly permeate through the skin. Extensive skin contamination can dam- 
age susceptible tissue including blood cells and the liver. Casualties may develop signs of 
systemic arsenic toxicity including diarrhea, damage to the liver, kidneys, nervous system, 
red blood cells, and the brain. 


4.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 
4. 6. 4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with mild to moderate pulmonary effects less than 6 hours postexposure, or a 
casualty with moderately severe or severe pulmonary signs and symptoms after 6 hours 
postexposure. 



Arsenic Vesicants 


199 


4. 6. 4. 2 Priority 2 (Majority of Cases) 

A casualty with skin lesions covering between 5 and 50% of the body surface area (BSA), 
or a casualty with mild to moderate pulmonary effects after 6 hours postexposure, or a 
casualty with eye injuries. 

4. 6. 4. 3 Priority 3 

A casualty with skin lesions covering less than 5% of the BSA, or a casualty with eye 
irritation or reddening, and/ or slight upper respiratory complaints such as hacking cough 
or irritated throat 12 hours or more postexposure. 

4. 6. 4. 4 Priority 4 

A casualty with skin lesions from liquid exposure to more than 50% of the BSA, or a casualty 
with severe pulmonary effects less than 6 hours postexposure. 

4.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all the vesicants have been removed. Rapid 
decontamination of any exposure is essential. If vesicants have gotten into the eyes, irrigate 
the eyes with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 15 minutes. BAL (British-anti - 
Lewisite, dimercaprol) solution or ophthalmic ointment may be beneficial if administered 
promptly. Irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

If a casualty is known to have inhaled vesicant vapors but does not display any signs or 
symptoms of an impacted airway, it may still be appropriate to intubate the casualty since 
laryngeal spasms or edema may make it difficult or impossible later. Reddening of the skin 
(erythema) and lesions are treated symptomatically. 

BAL is the standard treatment for poisoning by arsenic compounds and will alleviate 
some effects from exposure to arsenic vesicants. It may also decrease the severity of skin 
and eye lesions if applied topically within minutes after decontamination is complete (i.e., 
within 2-5 minutes postexposure) . Additional chelating agents for the treatment of systemic 
arsenic toxicity include meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-l- 
propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). 

Asymptomatic individuals suspected of exposure to vesicants should be kept under 
observation for at least 8 hours. 

Burns from liquid exposure to over 50% of the body surface suggest that the individual 
has received/ absorbed more than a lethal dose and the prognosis is poor. 


4.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects segregating them as either durable or nondurable 
items. While it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and more 
efficient to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. Items that 
will be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable containers, 
ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the outer one. 

Vesicants that have entered the body are metabolized, hydrolyzed, or bound to tissue 
and pose little threat of off-gassing. To remove agents on the outside of the body, wash 
the remains with a 2% sodium hypochlorite bleach solution (i.e., 2 gallons of water for 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


every gallon of household bleach), ensuring that the solution is introduced into the ears, 
nostrils, mouth, and any wounds. This concentration of bleach will not affect remains but 
will neutralize arsenic vesicant agents. Higher concentrations of bleach can harm remains. 
Pay particular attention to areas where agent may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic 
areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. The bleach solution should remain on the 
cadaver for a minimum of 5 minutes. Wash with soap and water. Ensure that the bleach 
solution is removed prior to embalming, as it will react with the embalming fluid. All 
wash and rinse waste must be contained for proper disposal. Screen the remains for agent 
vapors and residual liquid at the conclusion of the decontamination process. If the remains 
must be stored before embalming, then place them inside body bags designed to contain 
contaminated bodies or in double body bags. If double body bags are used, seal the inner 
bag with duct tape, rinse, and then place it in the second bag. After embalming is complete, 
place the remains in body bags designed to contain contaminated bodies or in double body 
bags. Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any additional risks 
and should be contained and handled according to established procedures. 

Standard burials are acceptable when contamination levels are low enough to allow 
bodies to be handled without wearing additional protective equipment. Cremation may 
be required if remains cannot be completely decontaminated. Although arsenic vesicant 
agents are destroyed at the operating temperature of a commercial crematorium (i.e., above 
1000°F), the initial heating phase may volatilize some of the agents and allow vapors to 
escape. Additionally, combustion will produce toxic and potentially volatile arsenic oxides. 


C04-A 

AGENTS 


C04-A001 

Ethyl dichloroarsine (Agent ED) 
CAS: 598-14-1 
RTECS: CH3500000 



Cl 


C 2 H 5 AsC1 2 

Clear, colorless to yellowish, somewhat oily liquid that has a fruity but biting and irritating 
odor that is detectable at approximately 0.14 ppm. Vapor is irritating to both eyes and skin. 
Vapor concentrations that will produce blisters are hard to obtain in an open area. 


Predominately acts as a vomiting agent. Blistering is usually caused by contact with liquid 
agent. 

Also reported as a mixture with Bis(chloromethyl) ether (C10-A011). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.15 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt$o a „!,)'■ 3000 mg-min/m 3 (210 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

JCt^o : 5-10 mg-min/ m 3 (0.4-0. 7 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 



Arsenic Agents C04-A 


201 


These values are from older sources (ca. 1952) and are not supported by modern data. No 
updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 174.9 

D: 1.742 g/mL (57° F) 

MP: -85° F 

BP: Decomposes 

Vsc: — 


VP: 2.29 mmHg PIP: — 

VD: 6.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

Vlt: 3060 ppm UEL: — 

H 2 0: "Slight" (slowly RP: 4 

decomposes) IP: < 10 eV 


Sol: Acetone; Alcohols; 
Hydrocarbons 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.0041 ppm other levels Not Developed 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.012 ppm other levels Not Developed 


C04-A002 

Lewisite (Agent L) 

CAS: 541-25-3; 34461-56-8 (Isomer) 
RTECS: CH2975000 


Cl 



Cl 


Cl 


C 2 H 2 AsC1 3 

Colorless to brown oily liquid that is odorless when pure. Crude material may have a 
violet to purple color. Impurities give it an odor similar to geranium that is detectable at 
approximately 0.9 ppm. There are two configurational isomers of this agent that have been 
studied. 

Undergoes considerable decomposition when explosively disseminated. 

Also reported as a mixture with Sulfur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.48 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LQ 50 (/„/,): 1000 mg-min/ m 3 (59 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LCf50(p er ) : < 85°F: 5,000-10,000 mg-min/ m 3 (20-40 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
LCf50(p er ) : > 85°F: 2500-5000 mg-min/ m 3 (10-20 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

LD 50 : 1.4 g 

iCt jQfgkin)'- < 85°F: 500 mg-min/ m 3 (2 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

ICtjQfSkin)'- > 85°F: 200 mg-min/ m 3 (0.8 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 

7Cf50(Ei/es) : 75 mg-min/ m 3 (4.4 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

These are provisional updates from older values that have not been formally adopted as 
of 2005. 

Eye Irritation: 1.5 ppm for a 2-min exposure 
MEG ( i Min: 0.00035 ppm; Sig: — ; Sev: — 

WPL AEL: 0.00035 ppm 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 20 (77°F) 
IP: <10.6 eV 

Vsc: 1.09 cS (77° F) 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.014 ppm 4 h, 0.0041 ppm 8 h, 0.0021 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.087 ppm 4 h, 0.025 ppm 8 h, 0.013 ppm 


MW: 207.3 

D: 1.879 g/mL (77° F) 

MP: 29°F 

MP: -49°F (munitions grade) 
BP: Decomposes 


VP: 0.35 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 7.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: 460 ppm (calculated) 

H 2 O: Insoluble (slowly decompose) 
Sol: Organic solvents; Oils 


C04-A003 

Methyl dichloroarsine (Agent MD) 
CAS: 593-89-5 
RTECS: CH4375000 


Cl 

/ 

As 

\ 

Cl 


CH 3 AsC1 2 

Odorless liquid. Vapor is irritating to both eyes and skin, and is detectable at approximately 
0.1 ppm. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.58 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoanhy. 3000-5000 mg-min/m 3 (230-380 ppm for a 2-min exposure). This toxicity 
estimate is from an older source (ca. 1952) and has not been updated. Current 
sources do not provide an estimate on a lethal concentration. 

ICtsoQnhy 25 mg-min/m 3 (1.9 ppm for a 2-min exposure) This is a provisional update 
from an older value (ca. 1956) that has not been formally adopted as of 2005. 

Properties: 

MW: 160.9 
D: 1.839 g/mL 
MP: — 67°F 
BP: 271°F 
Vsc: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.008 ppm 4 h, 0.0023 ppm 8 h, 0.00096 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.024 ppm 4 h, 0.0067 ppm 8 h, 0.0029 ppm 


VP: 7.593 mmHg FIP: — 

VD: 5.5 (calculated) LEL: — 

Vlt: 10,000 ppm UEL: — 

LL 2 0: Decomposes RP: 0.8 

Sol: Most organic solvents IP: 10.4 eV 


C04-A004 

Phenyl dichloroarsine (Agent PD) 
CAS: 696-28-6 
RTECS: CH5425000 
UN: 1556 



Arsenic Agents C04-A 


203 



C6H5ASCI2 

Colorless to yellow odorless liquid. Vapor is irritating to the nose and throat, and is detect- 
able at approximately 0.1 ppm. 

Also reported as a mixture with Sulfur mustard (C03-A001); Diphenylchloroarsine (04- 
A001); N-Ethylcarbazole (C13-A022); Arsenic trichloride (C04-C006). 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.12 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCtyQfi,,},^. 2600 mg-min/ m 3 (140 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 
tCt^Q(Skin)- 200-500 mg-min/ m 3 (0.7-1 .8 ppm for a 30-min exposure) 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 0.9 ppm for a 2-min exposure 


These are provisional updates from older values (ca. 1952) that have not been formally 
adopted as of 2005. 


Properties: 

MW: 222.9 
D: 1.652 g / mL 
MP: — 9°F 
BP: 451°F 
Vsc: 1.95 cS (77° F) 


VP: 0.033 mmHg (77°F) PIP: — 

VD: 7.7 (calculated) LEL: — 

Vlt: 43 ppm UEL: — 

H 2 O: 0.6% (rapidly decomposes) RP: 200 

Sol: Alcohols; Gasoline; Acetone; Ether IP: <9 eV 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.016 mg/ m 3 other levels Not Developed 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.180 mg/m 3 other levels Not Developed 


C04-A005 

Phenyl dibromoarsine 

CAS: 696-24-2 
RTECS: — 



CgHsAsB^ 

Colorless to faintly yellow liquid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.75 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LC^Qdnh,: 200 mg/m 3 (16 ppm) for a 10-min exposure. This toxicity estimate is from an 
older source (ca. 1937) and has not been updated. 


Properties: 


MW: 311.8 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 2.1 g/mL (59°F) 

VD: 11 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C04-C 

COMPONENTS AND PRECURSORS 


C04-C006 


Arsenic trichloride 

CAS: 7784-34-1 
RTECS: CGI 750000 
UN: 1560 
ERG: 157 

C \ 

As — Cl 


AsC1 3 

Colorless oily liquid with an acrid odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. It causes severe irritation and burns to the eyes, mucous membranes, and skin; 
cough, chest pain, and accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). 

Used in the ceramics industry and as a chemical intermediate for arsenic pharmaceuticals 
and arsenic insecticides. 


This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list, the Australia Group Export Control list and 
Schedule 2 of the CWC. 


This material is a general precursor for arsenical vesicants and many vomiting/ sternatory 
agents (Chapter 14). 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.41 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.01 mg/m 3 as arsenic 


Properties: 

MW: 181.3 

D: 2.163 g/ mL 

D: 2.1450 g/mL (77°F) 

MP: 17°F 

BP: 267°F 

Vsc: — 


VP: 10 mmHg (74°F) 

VD: 6.3 (calculated) 

Vlt: 13,000 ppm 
H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: Chloroform; Oils; Fats; Ether; 
aqueous Hydrochloric acid 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.75 
IP: — 


C04-C007 

Lewisite 3 (Agent L3) 
CAS: 40334-70-1 
RTECS: — 


Cl 



C6H6ASQ3 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
This material is on Schedule 1 of the CWC. 



References 


205 


This material is easily converted to Lewisite (C04-A002) and Lewisite 2 (C14-A004). It is 
also commonly found as an impurity and degradation product in Lewisite. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.61 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to have few, if any, acute vesicant 
or vomiting/ sternatory properties. 


Properties: 


MW: 259.4 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: 1.572 g/cm 3 

VD: — 

LED — 

MP: 71 °F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 500°F (decomposes) 

H 2 O: Insoluble 

RP: — 

BP: 280°F (12 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 

Sol: Common organic solvents except alcohol 

IP: — 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGLs have been proposed only for mixtures of this compound with Lewisite 
(C04-A002). 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Blister Agents Lewisite (L) and Mustard-Lewisite 
Mixture (HL) ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

. "Blister Agents: Lewisite (L) and Mustard-Lewisite Mixture (HL)." In Managing Hazardous 

Materials Incidents Volume III — Medical Manage?nent Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures. Rev. 
ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2000. 

Bartlett, Paul D., Hyp Joseph Dauben, Jr., and Leonard J. Rosen. "Preparation of Lewisite." US Patent 
2,465,834, March 29, 1949. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl sulfate, 
and Lewisite)." March 15, 2005. 

. "Counter Terrorism Card for Lewisite." 2000. 

. "Facts About Lewisite." March 14, 2003. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Edgewood Research Development, and Engineering Center, Department of the Army. Material Safety 
Data Sheet (MSDS) for Lewisite (L). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical Biological Defense 
Command, rev. March 27, 1996. 

Fries, Amos A., and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

Jackson, Kirby E., and Margaret A. Jackson. "The Chlorovinylarsines." Chemical Reviews 16 (1935): 
439-52. 

Lewis, W. Lee, and G.A. Perkins. "The Beta-Chlorovinyl Chloroarsines." Industrial & Engineering 
Chemistry 15 (March 1923): 290-95. 

Marrs, Timothy C., Robert L. Maynard, and Frederick R. Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology 
and Treatment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

Munro, Nancy B., Sylvia S. Talmage, Guy D. Griffin, Larry C. Waters, Annetta P. Watson, Joseph 
F. King, and Veronique Hauschild. "The Sources, Fate and Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agent 
Degradation Products." Environmental Health Perspectives 107 (1999): 933-74. 



206 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


National Institute of Health. "Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB)." http: / / toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2005. 

Prentiss, Augustin M. Chemicals in War: A Treatise on Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1937. 

Sartori, Mario. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L.W. Marrison. London: 
J. & A. Churchill, Ltd, 1939. 

Sidell, Frederick R. Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties: A Handbook for Emergency 
Medical Services. Bel Air, MD: HB Publishing, 1995. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 1, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W., ed. PDR Giude to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Somani, Satu M., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. New York: Academic Press, 1992. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume I, Edgewood Arsenal Special Report 
No. EO-SR-74001. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chem- 
ical Casualties Handbook. 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 ed. 

http:/ /www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm. 2004. 

Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection Against It. Rev. ed. New York: 
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1944. 

Watson, Annetta, Dennis Opresko, and Veronique Hauschild. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Per- 
cutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles. 
ORNL/TM-2003/180. July 2003. 

Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts about Blister Agent Lewisite (L). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: 

United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

World Health Organization. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. 
Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004. 




Urticants 


5.1 General Information 

The agents in this class are halogenated oximes. This class of agents is not specifically 
covered by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Because of the toxicity of the agents and 
lack of commercial application outside of limited scientific research, urticants would be 
prohibited based on the Guidelines for Schedules of Chemicals. 

These materials are second generation chemical warfare agents developed shortly after 
World War I. They are moderately difficult to synthesize and disperse. 

Chloroformoxime, the first urticant, was first synthesized in 1894. The more effective 
dihaloformoximes — phosgene oxime (C05-A001), dibromoformoxime (C05-A002), and dii- 
odoformoxime (C05-A003) — were prepared in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Phosgene 
oxime was stockpiled by Nazi Germany during World War II but was never used. Since the 
end of World War II, urticants have been evaluated by numerous countries but stockpiled 
by few because of production, weaponization, and storage issues. The former Soviet Union 
overcame these issues and stockpiled phosgene oxime. Urticants have never been used on 
the battlefield. 


5.2 Toxicology 
5.2.1 Effects 

Urticants produce instant, almost intolerable pain and cause immediate local destruction of 
skin and mucous membranes. No other chemical agent produces such an immediate painful 
onset followed by rapid tissue death. Sensations caused by exposure to these agents range 
from mild prickling to almost intolerable pain resembling a severe bee sting. Effects depend 
on the concentration of the agent and the length of the exposure. Tissue damage is more 
severe than that produced by vesicants (C03, C04). Direct contact of the agent with the skin 
produces a corrosive type lesion similar to those produced by a strong acid. Skin lesions 
may not fully heal for 1-3 months. 

Eyes are especially susceptible to urticants. In addition to immediate pain, urtic- 
ants produce lesions and inflammation to the cornea (keratitis), which may progress to 
blindness. 


207 



208 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Inhalation of urticants can cause lung membranes to swell and become filled with liquid 
(pulmonary edema). Death may result from lack of oxygen. 

Urticants are also systemic agents and rapidly pass through the skin to affect susceptible 
tissue. Percutaneous absorption of liquids or solids can also produce pulmonary edema 
and blood clots in the lungs. 


5.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Urticants are hazardous through any route of exposure including inhalation, skin and eye 
exposure, ingestion, and broken, abraded, or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin by 
debris). 


5.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Urticants have a penetrating and disagreeable odor detectable at very low concentrations. 
Even minimal exposure causes immediate irritation and pain of the eyes, nose, mucous 
membranes, respiratory system, and skin. Urticants pose a significant percutaneous hazard 
and are absorbed through the skin within seconds. 

Lethal concentrations (LC50S) for inhalation of these agents are as low as 340 ppm for a 
2-minute exposure. 

Lethal percutaneous exposures (LD50S) to liquid are estimated to be less than 2 grams 
per individual. 

Incapacitating concentrations (ICtso) for dermal exposure to these agents are as low as 
0.3 ppm for a 2-minute exposure. 

The rate of detoxification of these agents by the body is not known. However, because of 
the cellular damage caused by these agents, exposures have a cumulative risk. 


5.2.4 Latency Period 

Urticants produce immediate irritation and pain of the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin. 
Blanching, reddening of the skin (erythema), and hives develop within minutes of expos- 
ure. Blisters, localized tissue death (necrosis), and formation of scabs may be delayed for 
24 hours or more. Systemic effects, including pulmonary edema, from either inhalation 
or percutaneous absorption of the agent, do not occur until after a substantial latency 
period. 


5.3 Characteristics 

5.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

5.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless crystalline solids. They have intense, 
penetrating, and disagreeable odors detectable at very low levels. 

5.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically amber to dark brown liquids. As the agent ages 
and decomposes, it continues to discolor until it may appear black. Odors are intense, 
penetrating, disagreeable, and violently irritating. 



Urticants 


209 


5.3.2 Stability 

Urticants are relatively unstable and tend to decompose spontaneously unless stored at low 
temperatures. Below — 4°F, they can be kept for extended periods. Solvents including 1, 
2-dimethoxybenzene, ether, dioxane, nitromethane, and glycine act as stabilizers and may 
be added to help prevent decomposition of agents during storage. Agents can be stored in 
glass or enamel-lined containers. Urticants rapidly attack rubber and metals, especially iron. 

5.3.3 Persistency 

For military purposes, unmodified urticants are classified as nonpersistent. They decom- 
pose rapidly in soil, and after a short delay on most other surfaces and in water. 

Urticants, even solids, have relatively high vapor pressure and evaporation or sublima- 
tion rates are nearly the same as water. 

5.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Urticant vapors have a density greater than air and tend to collect in low places. Porous 
material, including painted surfaces, will absorb both liquid and gaseous agents. After the 
initial surface contamination has been removed, agent that has been absorbed into porous 
material can migrate back to the surface posing both a contact and vapor hazard. Urticants 
can penetrate clothing and rubber faster than other chemical warfare agents. Clothing may 
emit trapped agent vapor for up to 30 minutes after contact with a vapor cloud. 

Urticants are unstable and decompose rapidly in soil. Agents dissolve slowly but com- 
pletely in water and may take days to decompose once in solution. The specific gravities 
of unmodified liquid agents are greater than that of water. These agents are also soluble in 
most organic solvents including gasoline and oil. 


5.4 Additional Hazards 
5.4.1 Exposure 

The rapid skin damage caused by urticants renders the skin more susceptible to subsequent 
exposure of any other toxic material or agent. 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened 
items packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent vapors 
may be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to liquid 
or solid agents should be decontaminated within a few hours postexposure or destroyed. 
Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be 
destroyed. 

Meat, milk, and animal products from animals exposed to or killed by urticants should 
be destroyed or quarantined until it has been tested and determined to be safe to consume. 

Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be quarantined until tested and determined 
to be safe to consume. 


5.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/soap and water (see Section 5.5.3). If the 
animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline 
solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 



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Unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. Although leaves of forage 
vegetation could still retain sufficient urticants to produce effects for a limited time, urticants 
are relatively nonpersistent on surfaces and should rapidly decompose depending on the 
level of contamination and the weather conditions. 


5.4.3 Fire 

Heat from a fire will increase the amount of agent vapor in the area. A significant amount 
of the agent could be volatilized and escape into the surrounding environment before it 
is consumed by the fire. Urticants are soluble in water and actions taken to extinguish 
the fire can also spread the agent. Runoff from firefighting efforts will pose a signific- 
ant threat. A solution containing as little as 8% of active agent can cause pain within 
seconds of exposure. Potential decomposition products include toxic and/ or corrosive 
gases. 


5.4.4 Reactivity 

Urticants rapidly react with metals, especially iron. Iron chloride, even in trace amounts, 
can cause explosive decomposition. These agents decompose slowly when dissolved in 
water. Dilute acids will retard the rate of decomposition. 

Urticants react violently with strong bases. Reaction with household bleach may produce 
toxic gases. 


5.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

5.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 

Urticants produce hydrogen chloride (HC1), hydrogen bromide (HBr), or hydrogen iodide 
(HI), and hydroxlamines when hydrolyzed. 

5.4. 5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include HC1, HBr, HI, nitrogen oxides (NO T ), and 
toxic dimerization products. 


5.5 Protection 

5.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis for 
the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 
CX is the only urticant addressed and recommendations are based on a release scenario 
involving direct aerosolization of the solid agents with a particle size between 2 and 5 pm. 
Under these conditions, the difference between a small and a large release of urticant is 
not based on the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial hazardous materials listed 
in the ERG. A small release of CX involves 10 kilograms (approximately 0.6 cubic feet) of 
bulk agent and a large release involves 500 kilograms (approximately 30 cubic feet) of bulk 
agent. 



Urticants 


211 



Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind day 
(miles) 

Downwind night 
(miles) 

CX (Phosgene oxime) C05-A001 




Small device (10 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.3 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

300 

0.6 

1.9 


5.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

5.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Urticants can penetrate garments and rubber much faster than other chemical warfare 
agents. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; 
it is not effective in spill situations or release events and should never be used as the primary 
chemical protective garment to enter an area contaminated with urticants. 

5.5.2. 2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chem- 
ical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification since urticants can be absorbed 
into or degrade the materials used to make some respirators. However, during emergency 
operations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by 
the manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
Incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor /acid gas/particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. However, IDLH levels have not been established for urticants. Therefore, 
any potential exposure to these agents should be regarded with extreme caution and the 
use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

5.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Currently, there is no information on performance testing of chemical protective clothing 
against urticants. 

Because of the extreme dermal hazard posed by urticants, responders should wear a 
Level A protective ensemble whenever there is a potential for exposure to any solid or 
liquid agent, or to an elevated or unknown concentration of agent vapor. 


5.5.3 Decontamination 
5.5.3. 1 General 

Urticants are very soluble in water and can be removed from most surfaces by washing 
with soap and water. 

Solubility of an agent will be decreased if it is dissolved in an immiscible organic solvent. 
Addition of solvents or mechanical mixing may be required to overcome insolubility 
problems. 

Because of the vigorous reaction of urticants with caustics, household bleach is not 
an effective decontamination agent for large quantities of these materials. Reaction with 
hypochlorites, including household bleach, may produce toxic gases such as chlorine. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


5.5. 3.2 Vapors 

Casualties/personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. Because of the rapid 
onset of effects and the speed with which urticants are absorbed through the skin, decontam- 
ination will not be entirely effective by the time the casualty experiences pain and blanching 
occurs. However, decontamination must still be done as rapidly as possible postexposure. 
Remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor after contact with 
the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and water. Ensure that 
the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped vapor. To be effective, 
decontamination must be completed within 2 minutes of exposure. If there is a potential 
that the eyes have been exposed to urticants, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for 
a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Ventilate to remove the vapors. If condensation is present, decontaminate the 
area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect the agent and rinseate and place into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Although urticants rapidly break down 
on most surfaces, removal of porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required 
to prevent agents that have been absorbed into these materials from migrating back to the 
surface and posing an extended hazard. 

5. 5. 3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties / personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. Because of the 
rapid onset of effects and the speed with which urticants are absorbed through the skin, 
decontamination will not be entirely effective by the time the casualty experiences pain. 
However, decontamination must still be done as rapidly as possible postexposure. Remove 
all clothing immediately. Even clothing that has not come into direct contact with the agent 
may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of the head, neck, and face to 
the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be pulled over the head. 
Remove as much of the urticant from the skin as fast as possible. If water is not imme- 
diately available, the agent can be absorbed with any convenient material such as paper 
towels, toilet paper, flour, or talc. To minimize both spreading the agent and abrading 
the skin, do not rub the agent with the absorbent. Blot the contaminated skin with the 
absorbent. 

Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin 
surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot 
water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and 
increase percutaneous absorption of residual agent. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 
If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to urticants, irrigate with water or 
0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 1 hour. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such as 
vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Decontaminate the area with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Ventilate the area to 
remove vapors. Although urticants rapidly break down on most surfaces, removal of porous 
material, including painted surfaces, may be required to prevent agents that have been 
absorbed into these materials from migrating back to the surface and posing an extended 
hazard. 

5.5. 3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties / personnel: Speed in decontamination is absolutely essential. Because of the 
rapid onset of effects and the speed with which urticants are absorbed through the skin. 



Urticants 


213 


decontamination will not be entirely effective by the time the casualty experiences pain. 
However, decontamination must still be done as rapidly as possible postexposure. Do not 
attempt to brush the agent off of the individual or their clothing as this can aerosolize the 
agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the head, neck, and 
face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be pulled over the 
head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious amounts of soap and 
water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it is not readily available. 
Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and increase percutaneous absorption 
of residual agent. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the eyes 
have been exposed to vesicants, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum 
of 1 hour. 

Small areas : If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that 
could create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Dampen agent with water until 
thoroughly wet. Cover with absorbent materials such as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, 
clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material into containers lined with high-density 
polyethylene. Repeat as necessary until the visible agent has been containerized. Decon- 
taminate the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the 
rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. Although urticants rapidly break down on 
most surfaces, removal of porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required 
to prevent agents that have been absorbed into these materials from migrating back to the 
surface and posing an extended hazard. 


5.6 Medical 

5.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

The CDC has not published a specific case definition for intoxication by urticants. However, 
the general case definition for vesicants states: "A case in which a vesicant is detected in 
biologic samples. The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because 
either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or 
an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known." 


5.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to urticants: chemical burns from contact with strong acids 
or bases; barbiturates, chemotherapeutic agents, and carbon monoxide; reactions to drugs 
producing Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis or both; autoimmune 
diseases such as bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris; and staphylococcus scalded 
skin syndrome. 


5.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 
5.6.3 . 7 Vapors/Aerosols 

Urticant vapors are violently irritating to the eyes, nose, and respiratory tract and cause 
immediate pain. Very low concentrations can cause inflammation, lacrimation, and tempor- 
ary blindness; higher concentrations can cause corneal corrosion and dimming of vision. 
Inhalation causes runny nose, hoarseness, and sinus pain. 



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Agent vapor produces pain on exposed skin within a few seconds. Within 30 seconds after 
contact, the exposed skin becomes white and is surrounded by an area of erythema (redden- 
ing of the skin). In about 15 minutes, the exposed skin develops hives. After 24 hours, the 
skin in the central blanched area becomes brown and dies. A scab is formed in a few days 
although pus continues to discharge from the lesion. Healing is accompanied by sloughing 
of the scab; itching and pain may be present throughout healing. 

5. 6. 3. 2 Liquids/Solids 

Contact with the skin produces pain within a few seconds. Within 30 seconds after contact, 
the exposed skin becomes white and is surrounded by a red ring resembling a wagon wheel. 
Within an hour the area becomes swollen and within 24 hours the lesions turn yellow and 
form blisters. The skin then turns brown and dies. A scab is formed in a few days although 
pus continues to discharge from the lesion. Healing is accompanied by sloughing of the 
scab; itching and pain may be present throughout healing. 

Urticants absorbed through the skin can cause pulmonary edema. 


5.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

5. 6. 4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with necrotic lesions and pain with early onset of airway damage. 

5. 6. 4. 2 Priority 2 (Majority of Cases) 

A casualty with necrotic lesions and pain without further complications. 

5. 6. 4.3 Priority 3 

Not applicable for this class of agents. 

5. 6. 4.4 Priority 4 

Not applicable for this class of agents 


5.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all the urticants have been removed. Rapid decon- 
tamination of any exposure is essential. If urticants have gotten into the eyes, irrigate the 
eyes with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 1 hour. Irrigate open wounds with water 
or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

There is no antidote for exposure to these agents. Treatment consists of symptomatic 
management of lesions. Eye lesions should be treated by saline irrigation and coating the 
follicular margins with petroleum jelly to prevent sticking. 


5.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects segregating them as either durable or nondurable 
items. Although it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and 



Urticants Agents C05-A 


215 


more efficient to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. 
Items that will be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable 
containers, ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the 
outer one. 

Urticants that have entered the body are metabolized, hydrolyzed, or bound to tissue 
and pose little threat of off-gassing. To remove agents on the outside of the body, wash the 
remains with soap and water ensuring that the solution is introduced into the ears, nostrils, 
mouth, and any wounds. Pay particular attention to areas where agent may get trapped, 
such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. All wash and rinse 
waste must be contained for proper disposal. 

Screen the remains for agent vapors and residual liquid at the conclusion of the decon- 
tamination process. If the remains must be stored before embalming, then place them inside 
body bags designed to contain contaminated bodies or in double body bags. If double body 
bags are used, seal the inner bag with duct tape, rinse, and then place in the second bag. 
After embalming is complete, place the remains in body bags designed to contain con- 
taminated bodies or in double body bags. Body fluids removed during the embalming 
process do not pose any additional risks and should be contained and handled according 
to established procedures. 

Standard burials are acceptable when contamination levels are low enough to allow 
bodies to be handled without wearing additional protective equipment. 


C05-A 

AGENTS 


C05-A001 

Phosgene oxime (Agent CX) 

CAS: 1794-86-1 
RTECS: — 

/OH 


N 



CHCl 2 NO 

Colorless liquid or crystalline deliquescent solid that has an intense, penetrating, disagree- 
able, and violently irritating "odor" that is detectable at 0.02 ppm. CX is the most irritating 
of the agents in this class. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.66 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCtsofjnhy 3200 mg-min/m 3 (340 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

LD 50: 1.8 g (estimate) 

ICtj( jf i n } n : 3 mg-min/ m 3 (0.3 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

These are provisional updates from older values that have not been formally adopted as 
of 2005. 



216 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 113.9 VP: 11.2 mmHg (77° F) PIP: — 

D: 1.8 g/ cm 3 (estimate) VD: 3.9 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 95°F Vlt: 390 ppm UEL: — 

BP: Sublimes (decomposes H 2 0: 70% RP: 0.8 

unless highly purified) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: <11 eV 

BP: 162°F (104 mmHg) 

Vsc: — 


C05-A002 

Dibromoformoxime 

CAS: 74213-24-4 
RTECS: — 


/OH 

N 



Br Br 


CHBr 2 NO 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.30 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this material is a much less powerful irritant than Phosgene oxime (C05-A001). 


Properties: 


MW: 202.8 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 7.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: 158°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 167°F (3 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C05-A003 

Diiodoformoxime 

CAS: 201205-56-3 
RTECS: — 


/OH 

N 



CHHNO 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.14 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this material is a much less powerful irritant than Phosgene oxime (C05-A001). 



References 



Properties: 

MW: 296.8 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 10 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

MP: 156°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Phosgene Oxime ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition of Vesicant/Blister Agent Poisoning." 
Interim document, December 22, 2003. 

. "Facts About Phosgene Oxime." March 18, 2003. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Ehman, Phillip J., and Walter O. Walker. "Process for Preparing Phosgene Oxime." US Patent 
2,299,742, October 27, 1942. 

Hydro, William R. "Production of Dichloroformoxime." US Patent 4,558,160, December 10, 1985. 

Madaus, John H., and Herman B. Urbach. "Electrolytic Production of Dichloroformoxime." US Patent 
2,918,418, December 22, 1959. 

Marrs, Timothy C., Robert L. Maynard, and Frederick R. Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology 
and Treatment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

Sartori, Mario. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L.W. Marrison. London: J. & 
A. Churchill, Ltd, 1939. 

Sidell, Frederick R. Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties: A Handbook for Emergency 
Medical Services. Bel Air, MD: HB Publishing, 1995. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 1, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W. ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume I, Edgewood Arsenal Special Report 
No. EO-SR-74001. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations AmedP-6(B) , Part III- 

Chemical, Field Manual No. 8-9. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, February 
1996. 

. Potential Military Chemical /Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chem- 
ical Casualties Handbook. 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts About Blister Agent Phosgene Oxime (CX). Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 




Section III 
Toxic Agents 




6 

Bicyclophosphate Convulsants 


6.1 General Information 

The agents in this class are bicyclophosphates and bicyclothiophosphates. This class of 
agents is not specifically listed in the Chemical Weapons Convention nor is it covered by the 
language of the general definitions in the Schedules. Some of these chemicals have been used 
as fire retardants, oil lubricants, and for medicinal research. They also occur as breakdown 
products in some synthetic turbine engine lubricants and some rigid polyurethane foams. 

These materials are fourth generation chemical warfare agents that have been evaluated 
by various countries. They are relatively easy to synthesize. No information is available 
on dispersing these agents. However, because they produce negligible vapor, they will be 
somewhat difficult to deliver in a manner that will produce immediate casualties. 

Minimal information about these agents or potential research programs concerning these 
agents has been published in the unclassified literature. There is no information to indicate 
that these agents were ever stockpiled or have ever been used on the battlefield. 


6.2 Toxicology 
6.2.1 Effects 

These agents are potent cage convulsants that antagonize the gamma-aminobutyric acid 
(GABAA) inhibitory system through blockage of the chloride channel. They induce 
brief, muscular shock-like jerks (myoclonic seizures) that progress to generalized tonic- 
clonic (grand mal) convulsions and death. Subconvulsive doses may cause long-lasting 
central nervous system sensitization such as an increased susceptibility to audiogenic 
(sound induced) seizures and may lead to long-lasting changes in some social behavi- 
ors by causing regional decreases in neural substances such as serotonin, dopamine, and 
norepinephrine. 


6.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Bicyclophosphates are hazardous through any route of exposure including inhalation, skin 
exposure, ingestion, and broken, abraded, or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin by 
debris). 


221 



222 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


6.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Based on their chemical and physical properties, bicyclophosphates are not expected to 
have good warning properties. They are unlikely to have any significant odor or to cause 
any significant irritation of the eyes or skin. 

Human toxicity data for bicyclophosphates have not been published or have not been 
established. However, available information indicates that under optimum conditions 
some of the agents are as toxic as nerve agent VX (C01-A016). Based on animal studies, 
bicyclophosphates are not cumulative and are rapidly eliminated from the body. 


6.2.4 Latency Period 

Information on the latency of this class of agents is unavailable. However, based on animal 
studies, there does not appear to be a significant latent period for convulsive effects. 
However, effects from subconvulsive doses may not be immediately obvious. 


6.3 Characteristics 

6.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

6.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless crystalline solids. Odors have not been 
reported. 

6.3. 1.2 Modified Agents 

Bicyclophosphates can be dissolved in organic solvents to facilitate handling, to sta- 
bilize the agents, or to increase the ease of percutaneous penetration by the agents. 
Percutaneous enhancement solvents include dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, 
N ,N-d i methylpal m i ta m ide, N,N-d i methyldeca na m ide, and saponin. Color and other 
properties of these solutions may vary from the pure agent. Odors will vary depending 
on the characteristics of the solvent(s) used. 


6.3.2 Stability 

Information on the stability of bicyclophosphates has not been published. However, based 
on the use of similar compounds as flame retardants and lubricant additives, these agents 
should be highly stable. 


6.3.3 Persistency 

Information on the persistency of bicyclophosphates has not been published. However, 
based on similar compounds these agents are likely to be persistent in the environment. 


6.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Bicyclophosphates are nonvolatile and do not pose a vapor hazard. Although these agents 
may be dissolved in volatile solvents, evaporation of the solvent does not increase the 
evaporation of the agent itself. Porous material, including painted surfaces, may absorb 



Bicydophosphate Convulsants 


223 


solutions of agents. After the initial surface contamination has been removed, the agent that 
has been absorbed into porous material can migrate back to the surface posing a contact 
hazard. 

With the exception of methylbicyclophosphate (C06-A001), which is soluble in water, 
most bicyclophosphates are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water. Most of these agents 
are also only slightly soluble or insoluble in common organic solvents including gasoline, 
alcohols, and oils. 


6.4 Additional Hazards 

6.4.1 Exposure 

Although bicyclophosphates do not inhibit acetylcholinesterase, they exhibit a synergistic 
toxic effect with materials that do. Individuals who have had previous exposure to cholin- 
esterase inhibitors such as nerve agents and commercial organophosphate or carbamate 
pesticides may be at a greater risk from exposure to bicyclophosphates. 

Exposure to doses below the level that will produce seizures can result in long-lasting 
central nervous system sensitization such as an increased susceptibility to sound induced 
(audiogenic) seizures. 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened 
items packaged in glass, metal, or high-density plastics and exposed only to agent aerosols 
may be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to solid 
agents or solutions of agents should be decontaminated within a few hours postexposure 
or destroyed. Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, 
should be destroyed. 

Meat, milk, and animal products from animals exposed to or killed by bicyclophosphates 
should be destroyed or quarantined until they are tested and determined to be safe to 
consume. 

Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be quarantined until tested and determined 
to be safe to consume. 


6.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo or soap and water. If the animals' eyes 
have been exposed to the agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline solution for 
a minimum of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be quarantined until tested. Leaves of forage vegetation could 
still retain sufficient agents to produce effects for several weeks post release, depending on 
the level of contamination and the weather conditions. 


6.4.3 Fire 

Some members of this class of agents have been employed as fire retardants and, therefore, 
are not expected to be greatly affected by a fire. However, actions taken to extinguish the 
fire could spread the agent. Runoff from firefighting efforts could pose a significant contact 
threat. Under the appropriate conditions, these agents could decompose and potentially 
produce toxic and/ or corrosive gases. 



224 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


6.4.4 Reactivity 

Information on the reactivity of bicyclophosphates has not been published. 

6.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

Information on the decomposition products of bicyclophosphates, through either hydro- 
lysis or combustion, has not been published. 


6.5 Protection 

6.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

There are no published recommendations for isolation or protective action distances for 
bicyclophosphate agents released in mass casualty situations. 


6.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

6.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is 
not effective in spill situations or release events. However, since bicyclophosphates have 
negligible vapor pressure, they do not pose a vapor hazard. The primary risk of exposure is 
through contact with aerosolized agents, solids, or solutions of agents. If chemical protective 
clothing is not available and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, 
then structural firefighters' gear will provide some skin protection against agent aerosols. 
Contact with solids and solutions should be avoided. 

Even though it is likely that bicyclophosphates will be rapidly detoxified or eliminated 
from the body, subconvulsive insidious exposures may cause long-lasting central nervous 
system sensitization, placing all responders who entered the hot zone without appropriate 
chemical protective clothing at increased risk. 

6.5. 2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) 
should have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and 
Chemical /Biological /Radiological /Nuclear (CBRN). However, during emergency oper- 
ations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by the 
manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
incident commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor/ acid gas /particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. However, IDLH levels have not been established for bicyclophosphates. 
Therefore, any potential exposure to these agents should be regarded with extreme caution 
and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

6. 5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Currently, there is no information on performance testing of chemical protective clothing 
against bicyclophosphates. 

Because these agents do not produce any significant concentration of vapor, the primary 
risk of exposure is through inhalation of aerosols or by the percutaneous migration of agent 



Bicyclophosphate Convulsants 


225 


following dermal exposure to solid agents or solutions containing these agents. However, it 
is possible that aerosolized bicyclophosphates can also enter the body and produce a toxic 
effect by permeating through the skin or penetrating through broken, abraded, or lacerated 
skin. If there is any possibility of contact with aerosolized agent, then responders should 
consider wearing a Level A protective ensemble. 


6.5.3 Decontamination 
6.5.3 . 7 General 

Specific information on decontaminating bicyclophosphates has not been published. Apply 
universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

6.5. 3. 2 Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Remove as much of the agent from the skin as fast as possible. If water 
is not immediately available, the agent can be absorbed with any convenient material such 
as paper towels, toilet paper, flour, and/ or talc. To minimize both spreading the agent and 
abrading the skin, do not rub the agent with the absorbent. Blot the contaminated skin with 
the absorbent. 

Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin 
surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot 
water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and 
increase percutaneous absorption of residual agent. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 
If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to bicyclophosphates, irrigate with 
water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such 
as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material 
into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area and the exterior of 
the container with copious amounts of the soap and water. Collect and containerize the 
rinseate. 

6.5. 3. 3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel : Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing as 
this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the 
eyes have been exposed to bicyclophosphates, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution 
for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that could 
create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize the 
agent, such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped 
with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home or industrial 
vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the affected area. Vacuum all 
surfaces with extreme care in a very slow and controlled manner to minimize aerosolizing 
the agent. Place the collected material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. 



226 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Wash the area and the exterior of the container with copious amounts of soap and water. 
Collect and containerize the rinseate. 


6.6 Medical 

6.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has not published a specific case 
definition for intoxication by bicyclophosphates. 


6.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented 
with a potential case of exposure to bicyclophosphates: history of epilepsy; exposure to 
alcohol, cocaine, lead, camphor, strychnine, and/ or carbon monoxide; medicinals such as 
phenothiazines; head trauma, heatstroke; encephalitis, meningitis, and tetanus. 


6.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

Sudden loss of consciousness followed by tonic, then clonic contractions of the muscles. 
In some cases the gastrointestinal tract may be affected producing urination, defecation or 
both. 


6.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

There are no recommendations for triaging casualties exposed to bicyclophosphates. How- 
ever, in general, anyone who has been exposed should be transported to a medical facility 
for evaluation. Individuals who are asymptomatic and have not been directly exposed to 
the agent can be discharged after their names, addresses, and telephone numbers have been 
recorded. They should be told to seek medical care immediately if symptoms develop. 


6.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all bicyclophosphates have been removed. If any 
bicyclophosphates have gotten into the eyes, irrigate the eyes with water or 0.9% saline 
solution for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution 
for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Ventilate the patient. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. It may be appropriate 
to intubate the casualty since seizures may make it difficult or impossible later. Otherwise, 
treatment consists of symptomatic management of seizures. Do not attempt to immobilize 
or protect the tongue. Loosen clothing around the neck and place a pillow under the head 
to prevent injury. Roll the casualty onto their side to prevent aspiration of fluids. Avoid 
unnecessary disturbances including loud or sudden noises. Treatment with anticonvuls- 
ants, including diazepam, phenobarbital, and other traditional antiepileptic drugs, has 
been successful in some animal studies. 



Bicyclophosphate Convulsants Agents C06-A 


227 


6.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects segregating them as either durable or nondurable 
items. While it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and more 
efficient to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. Items that 
will be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable containers, 
ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the outer one. 

Wash the remains with soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent 
may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. 
All wash and rinse waste must be contained for proper disposal. Body fluids removed 
during the embalming process do not pose any additional risks and should be contained 
and handled according to established procedures. 

Cadaver poses no significant secondary hazards after decontamination. Use standard 
burial practices. 


C06-A 

AGENTS 


C06-A001 

Methylbicyclophosphate 

CAS: 1449-89-4 
RTECS: — 



C7H13O4P 
Crystalline solid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.86 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately 0.1% as toxic 
as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 


MW: 192.2 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEE: — 

MP: 473°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: "Soluble" 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C06-A002 

Ethylbicyclophosphate 

CAS: 1005-93-2 
RTECS: TY6475000 



228 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 



CeHnC^P 

Crystalline solid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.29 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 178.1 

VP: Negligible 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 396°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 O: "Slightly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C06-A003 

Isopropylbicyclophosphate 

CAS: 51052-72-3 
RTECS: — 



c 7 h 13 o 4 p 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.86 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be less than half as toxic as VX 
(C01-A016). 

Properties: 


MW: 192.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C06-A004 

f-Butylbicyclophosphate 

CAS: 61481-19-4 
RTECS: — 


O 



References 


229 


C8H15O4P 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.43 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this agent appears to be just as toxic as VX (C01-A016). 


Properties: 


MW: 206.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 O: "Slightly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C06-A005 

l-Thio-4-ethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo-[2.2.2]-octane 

CAS: 935-52-4 
RTECS: — 



C 6 H n 0 3 PS 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.94 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 194.2 

VP: Negligible 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 345° F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


References 

Bellet, E.M. and J.E. Casida. "Bicyclic Phosphorus Esters. High Toxicity without Cholinesterase 
Inhibition." Science 182 (1973): 1135-36. 

Casida, J.E. "Hazardous Caged Phosphorus Compounds." Chemical and Engineering News 52 
(1974): 56. 

Casida, J.E., M. Eto, A.D. Moscioni, J.L. Engel, D.S. Milbrath, and J.G. Verkade. "Structure-Toxicity 
Relations of 2,6,7-Trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanes and Related Compounds." Toxicology and Applied 
Pharmacology 36 (1976): 261-79. 

Cooper, G.H., I.W. Lawston, R.L. Rickard, and T.D. Inch. "Structure-Activity Relations in 2,6,7- 
Trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo[2.2.2]octanes and Related Compounds." European Journal of Medicinal 
Chemistry 13 (1978): 207-12. 



230 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Eto, M v Y. Ozoe, T. Fujita, and J.E. Casida. "Significance of Branched Bridge-Head Substituent in 
Toxicity of Bicyclic Phosphate Esters." Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 40 (1976): 2113-15. 

Kao, W.Y., Q.-Y. Liu, W. Ma, G.D. Ritchie, J. Lin, A.F. Nordholm, J. Rossi, III, J.L. Barker, D.A. Stenger, 
and J.J. Pancrazio. "Inhibition of Spontaneous GABAergic Transmission by Trimethylolpropane 
Phosphate." Neurotoxicology 20 (1999): 843-60. 

Kimmerle, G., A. Een, P. Groning, and J. Thyssen. "Acute Toxicity of Bicyclic Phosphorus Esters." 
Archivfuer Toxikologie 35 (1976): 149-52. 

Lindsey, J.W., A.E. Jung, T.K. Narayanan, and G.D. Ritchie. "Acute Effects of a Bicyclophosphate 
Neuroconvulsant on Monoamine Neurotransitter and Metabolite Levels in the Rat Brain." Journal 
of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 54 (1998): 421-29. 

Milbrath, D.S., J.L. Engel, J.G. Verkade, and J.E. Casida. "Structure-Toxicity Relationships of 
l-Substituted-4-alkyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanes." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 47 
(1979): 287-93. 

Milbrath, D.S., M. Eto, and J.E. Casida. "Distribution and Metabolic Fate in Mammals of the 
Potent Convulsant and GABA Antagonist ferf-Butylbicyclophosphate and its Methyl Analog." 
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 46 (1978): 411-20. 

MP Biomedicals, Inc. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for ETBICYPHAT. Aurora, OH, February 
17, 2004. 

Rossi, J., Ill, G.D. Ritchie, S. Mclnturf, and A.F. Nordholm. "Reduction of Motor Seizures in Rats 
Induced by the Ethyl Bicyclophosphate Trimethylolpropane Phosphate (TMPP)." Progress in 
Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 25 (2001): 1323-40. 



7 

COX Inhibiting Blood Agents 


7.1 General Information 

These agents inhibit the enzyme cytochrome oxidase (COX) preventing the transfer of 
oxygen from blood to the cells. Materials include cyanides, halogenated cyanides, and 
hydrogen sulfide. They are first generation warfare agents that were used during World 
War I. They were the first systemic agents introduced in that war. They are well-known 
industrial materials that were readily available at that time; most still have commercial 
value. Hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen chloride are listed in Schedule 3 of the Chemical 
Weapons Convention and are the only COX inhibiting blood agents specifically included in 
the convention. COX inhibiting blood agents are relatively easy to acquire or manufacture 
and to disperse. For information on some of the chemicals used to manufacture these blood 
agents, see the Component section (C07-C) following information on the individual agents. 

Blood agents have been stockpiled by most countries that have pursued a chemical 
weapons program, and have been used a number of times on the battlefield. Although this 
class of agents is considered obsolete on the modern battlefield, several of these agents are 
still considered a significant threat as potential improvised weapons that could be utilized 
in urban warfare. COX inhibiting blood agents have also been used by terrorists. 


7.2 Toxicology 

7.2.1 Effects 

COX inhibiting blood agents are compounds that produce respiratory paralysis and seizures 
or stop the transfer of oxygen from blood to the rest of the body by inhibiting the enzyme 
cytochrome oxidase. The lack of oxygen rapidly affects all body tissues, especially the 
central nervous system, producing headache, dizziness, confusion, stupor, nausea, and 
vomiting. The cyanogen halide agents will also cause lung membranes to swell and become 
filled with liquid (pulmonary edema). 

7.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

COX inhibiting blood agents are primarily an inhalation hazard. However, liquid agents, 
or solutions containing these agents, are hazardous through skin and eye exposure, inges- 
tion, and abraded skin (e.g., breaks in the skin or penetration of skin by debris). At high 
concentrations, agent vapor may pose a skin absorption hazard. 


232 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


7.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

COX inhibiting blood agents generally do not have good warning properties. Although 
many cyanides have distinct odors that are evident at low levels, there is a significant 
portion of the population that is genetically incapable of detecting them. Hydrogen sulfide 
rapidly causes olfactory fatigue preventing further detection of the agent. Cyanogen halides 
cause eye irritation and lacrimation at low concentrations. 

Lethal concentrations (LC50S) for inhalation of these agents are as low as 1300 ppm for a 
2-minute exposure. 

Lethal percutaneous exposures (LD50S) to liquefied agents are as low as 7 grams per 
individual. 

The body detoxifies these agents relatively quickly and recovery from nonfatal acute effects 
is generally rapid. 


7.2.4 Latency Period 

7. 2.4.1 Vapor 

Effects from vapor exposure begin to appear 1-2 minutes after exposure. Pulmonary edema, 
caused by inhalation of cyanogen halides, does not occur until after a substantial latency 
period. 

7.2.4.2 Liquid 

Effects from exposure to liquid agents may be delayed from several minutes up to 2 hours 
after exposure. Some factors affecting the length of time before the onset of symptoms are the 
amount of agent involved, the amount of skin surface in contact with the agent, previous 
exposure to materials that chap or dry the skin (e.g., organic solvents such as gasoline 
or alcohols), and the addition of additives designed to enhance the rate of percutaneous 
penetration by the agents. 

Another key factor is the part of the body that is exposed to the agent. It takes the agent 
longer to penetrate areas of the body that are covered by thicker and tougher skin. The 
regions of the body that allows the fastest percutaneous penetration are the groin, head, 
and neck. The least susceptible body regions are the hands, feet, front of the knee, and 
outside of the elbow. 


7.3 Characteristics 

7.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

7.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Blood agents are either gases or volatile liquids. Most agents are colorless. Odors vary 
from mildly pleasant to harsh and irritating. The ability to detect the odor of some agents 
is transient and may give the impression that agents are no longer present. Some agents, 
especially in high concentration, may cause eye irritation and tearing. 

7.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically colorless but can be yellow to brown and may con- 
tain crystallized decomposition products. Odors vary from mildly pleasant to harsh and 
irritating. 



COX Inhibiting Blood Agents 


233 


7.3. 1.3 Binary/Reactive Agents 

Terrorists have used binary versions created by mixing acids with reactive materials such 
as cyanide salts. Since the agent is formed as a result of mixing, it will be crude and consist 
of the agent, the individual components, and any by-products formed during the reaction. 
The color, odor, and consistency of the resulting agent will vary depending on the quality 
of the components and the degree of mixing. 

The components, by-products of the reaction, or solvents used to facilitate mixing the 
components may have their own toxic properties and could present additional hazards. 
Residual components may react with common materials, such as metals, to produce other 
hazardous materials. 

7. 3. 1.4 Modified Agen ts 

Solvents, such as carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) and chloroform (CHCI 3 ), have been added to COX 
inhibiting blood agents to increase their stability in storage and increase their persistency 
after their release. The color, odor, and consistency of these mixtures will vary depending 
on the characteristics of the solvent(s) used and concentration of blood agent in the solution. 

Blood agents have also been adsorbed onto a solid carrier, such as pumice, to facilitate 
dispersal of the agent and increase their persistency after their release. These composi- 
tions may appear as free-flowing powders or as a coarse grit. Odors may vary from the 
unmodified agent. 

7.3. 1.5 Mixtures with Other Agents 

COX inhibiting blood agents have been mixed with other agents such as bromoacetone 
(C13-A003), chloropicrin (C10-A006), arsenic trichloride (C04-C006), and stannic chloride 
(SnCl 4 ) to increase their stability in storage, to enhance their toxicity, or to act as a marker 
during deployment. 

7.3.2 Stability 

Cyanide blood agents are relatively unstable and tend to polymerize on standing. Polymers 
can be explosive. Stabilizers or solvents can be added to inhibit decomposition. Stabilizers 
include phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, powdered sodium pyrophosphate, and sulfur diox- 
ide. Although cyanide blood agents react with metals, they can be stored in steel or other 
common containers if stabilized. 

Hydrogen sulfide is stable and stored as a compressed, liquefied gas in aluminum or 
stainless steel cylinders. 

7.3.3 Persistency 

For military purposes, unmodified COX inhibiting blood agents are classified as nonpersist- 
ent. These agents are gases or highly volatile liquids at normal temperatures. Evaporation 
rates of liquid agents are more than ten times that of water. Cold weather may decrease the 
rate of evaporation of liquid or solid agents. 

7.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Other than hydrogen cyanide (C07-A001), agent vapors have a density greater than air and 
tend to collect in low places. However, due to the volatile nature of these materials, there 
is a minimal extended risk except in an enclosed or confined space. 

With the exception of hydrogen cyanide, which is miscible with water, most of these 
agents are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water. However, agent solubility may be 



234 


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modified (either increased or decreased) by solvents or impurities. These agents are also 
soluble in many organic solvents including gasoline, alcohols, and oils. 


7.4 Additional Hazards 

7.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent vapors may 
be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to liquid agents 
or solutions of agents should be decontaminated within a few hours postexposure or des- 
troyed. Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should 
be destroyed. 

Meat from animals that have survived exposure to COX inhibiting blood agents should 
be safe to consume after a short quarantine period. Milk should be quarantined until tested. 

Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be quarantined until tested and determined 
to be safe to consume. Aeration or decontamination with soap and water may be sufficient 
in many cases. 

7.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/soap and water. If the animals' eyes have 
been exposed to agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum 
of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be quarantined until tested. Leaves of forage vegetation are 
unlikely to retain sufficient agent to produce significant effects for more than a few hours 
post release. 

7.4.3 Fire 

Some COX inhibiting blood agents are flammable and can form explosive mixtures with 
air. Some of these agents can polymerize in their containers and explode when heated. 

Most of these blood agents are gases and will be quickly dissipated or be consumed in 
a fire. If liquid or solid agents are present, then heat from a fire will increase the amount 
of agent vapor in the area. A significant amount of the agent could be volatilized and 
escape into the surrounding environment before it is consumed by the fire. Actions taken 
to extinguish the fire can also spread the agent. With the exception of hydrogen cyanide, 
most COX inhibiting blood agents are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water. However 
runoff from firefighting efforts may still pose a threat. Some of the decomposition products 
resulting from hydrolysis or combustion of blood agents are water soluble and highly toxic. 
Other potential decomposition products include toxic and/or corrosive gases. Solvents 
mixed with some agents are flammable and may pose an additional fire hazard. Added 
components may react with steam or water during a fire to produce toxic, flammable, 
and/ or corrosive vapors. 

7.4.4 Reactivity 

With the exception of hydrogen sulfide, COX inhibiting blood agents must be stabilized 
or they will polymerize during storage. Some agents are slowly hydrolyzed by water to 



COX Inhibiting Blood Agents 


235 


produce corrosive and toxic gases. They are incompatible with strong oxidizers; many are 
incompatible with strong corrosives. Added components may react with water to produce 
toxic, flammable, and/ or corrosive vapors. 


7.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

7.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 

Hydrogen cyanide is highly soluble and stable in water. Many others decompose into 
hydrogen cyanide and/ or corrosives such as hydrogen chloride (HC1), hydrogen bromide 
(HBr), hydrogen fluoride (HF), or hydrogen iodide (HI). Some components may produce 
arsenous oxides or arsenic salts when hydrolyzed. 

7.4. 5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include nitrogen oxides (NO A ), sulfur oxides (SO*), 
and HC1, HBr, HF, or HI. Some components may produce arsenic oxides. 


7.5 Protection 

7.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Giddebook, which is still the basis 
for the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook 
(ERG). For COX inhibiting blood agents, these recommendations are based on two different 
release mechanisms (direct aerosolization of liquid agents or, for gaseous agents, sabotage 
of commercial containers) as well as on various quantities of material depending on the 
agent used in the release. 

For hydrogen cyanide, the release scenario involves sabotage of a commercial container 
with either 60 kilograms (approximately 23 gallons) of liquefied agent or 30,000 kilograms 
(approximately 12,000 gallons) of liquefied agent. 

For cyanogen chloride, the release involves direct aerosolization of the liquid agents 
with a particle size between 2 and 5 pm. In this scenario, the difference between a small 
and a large release is not based on the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial haz- 
ardous materials listed in the ERG. A small release involves 30 kilograms (approximately 

6.5 gallons) of liquefied agent and a large release involves 500 kilograms (approximately 
110 gallons) of liquefied agent. 



Initial 

isolation (feet) 

Downwind 
day (miles) 

Downwind night 
(miles) 

AC (Hydrogen cyanide) C07-A001 

Small device (60 kilograms) 

200 

0.1 

0.3 

Large device (30,000 kilograms) 

1500 

1.0 

2.4 

CK (Cyanogen chloride) C07-A003 

Small device (30 kilograms) 

200 

0.4 

1.5 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

1300 

2.5 

5.0 



236 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


7.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

7.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Blood agents are primarily a respiratory hazard; however, solids, liquids, or high vapor 
concentrations may pose a percutaneous hazard. Structural firefighters' protective cloth- 
ing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not effective in spill situations or release 
events. If chemical protective clothing is not available and it is necessary to rescue casual- 
ties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' gear will provide limited skin 
protection against low concentrations of blood agent vapors. Contact with liquids, solids, 
and solutions should be avoided. 

7. 5. 2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chemical/ 
Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification. However, during emergency oper- 
ations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by the 
manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
incident commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor/ acid gas /particulate cartridge. 

High concentrations of cyanides and cyanogen halides can rapidly degrade elements of 
some air purification filters. Care should be taken whenever using APRs in the presence of 
these agents. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

7.5. 2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction per- 
formance testing against cyanides, cyanogen halides, and hydrogen sulfide. Reported 
permeation rates may be affected by solvents, components, or impurities in munition grade 
or modified agents. 

In addition to the risk of percutaneous migration of agent following dermal exposure 
to liquid agents, some cyanide agent vapors can also penetrate the skin and produce a 
toxic effect. However, these concentrations are significantly greater than concentrations 
that will produce similar effects if inhaled. If the concentration of vapor exceeds the level 
necessary to produce effects through dermal exposure, then responders should wear a Level 
A protective ensemble. 


7.5.3 Decontamination 

7.5.3. 1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

7.5. 3.2 Vapors 

Casualties /per sonnet: Remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor 
after contact with the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and 
water. Ensure that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped 
vapor. If eye irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum 
of 15 minutes. 



COX Inhibiting Blood Agents 


23 7 


Small areas : Ventilate to remove vapor. Because the boiling point of some cyanide agents 
is near normal room temperature (70°F), agent vapors may condense on cooler surfaces 
and pose a percutaneous hazard. Liquids can then re volatilize when the temperature rises. 
If deemed necessary, wash the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and 
place the rinseate and place in containers lined with high-density polyethylene. 

7.5. 3. 3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. Even clothing that has not come into 
direct contact with the agent may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of 
the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of 
water to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Avoid rough scrubbing. Rinse 
with copious amounts of water. If water is not immediately available, the agent can be 
absorbed with any convenient material such as paper towels, toilet paper, flour, or talc. 
To minimize both spreading the agent and abrading the skin, do not rub the agent with 
the absorbent. Blot the contaminated skin with the absorbent. If there is a potential that 
the eyes have been exposed, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum 
of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such 
as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material 
into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious amounts 
of the soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove 
vapors. 

7.5. 3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing as 
this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that 
any of the agent has gotten into the eyes, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a 
minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency partic- 
ulate air (HEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home or industrial vacuum. Place the collected 
material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate in containers lined with 
high-density polyethylene. Ventilate the area to remove any agent vapors generated during 
the decontamination. 


7.6 Medical 

7.6.1 CDC Case Definition (for Cyanides) 

A case in which cyanide concentration is higher than the normal reference range 
(0.02-0.05 //g / mL) in whole blood, or cyanide is detected in environmental samples. The 
case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a predominant 



238 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute certainty 
of the etiology of the agent is known. 

There is no case definition for exposure to hydrogen sulfide. 

7.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to COX inhibiting blood agents: smoke or carbon monox- 
ide inhalation; sedatives; stroke; methemoglobinemia; meningitis and encephalitis; and 
ingestion of plants or seeds containing cyanoglycosides. 

7.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

7. 6.3.1 Vapors/Aerosols 

Most indications of cyanide and sulfide blood agent poisoning are nonspecific. Inhalation 
of high concentration of these agents may produce temporary rapid and deep breathing 
followed by convulsions and unconsciousness. Under these circumstances, the casualty 
will stop breathing within 2-4 minutes after exposure. Death will occur 4-8 minutes later. 
For most cyanides, casualties experience few effects when exposed to less than lethal doses. 
These may include temporary increase in breathing rate, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and 
headache. Classic "cherry-red" skin and lips attributed to cyanide poisoning are not always 
present. In addition, cyanogen halides produce immediate eye, nose, and throat irritation 
similar to tear agents (Chapter 13) and vomiting agents (Chapter 14). Pulmonary edema 
caused by cyanogen halides may be delayed for several hours. 

7. 6. 3. 2 Liquids/Solids 

Exposure to solid or liquid cyanogen halides can cause skin and eye irritation. Otherwise, 
casualties exposed to cyanides experience few effects at sublethal doses. Percutaneous 
absorption of a lethal dose may produce temporary rapid and deep breathing followed 
by convulsions and unconsciousness. Under these circumstances, the casualty will stop 
breathing within 2-4 minutes after exposure. Death will occur 4-8 minutes later. 


7.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

7. 6. 4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty who is convulsing or has is post seizure, who has a heartbeat and a palpable 
blood pressure. The casualty may or may not be conscious and/ or breathing. 

7. 6. 4. 2 Priority 2 

Recovering from mild effects or from successful therapy. Generally it takes hours for full 
recovery. 

7. 6. 4. 3 Priority 3 

Casualty who has been in a clean environment for more than 5 minutes postexposure and 
is conscious and talking, or a casualty in a clean environment who is unconscious but has 
a pulse and is breathing normally. Unconscious casualties should be monitored in case of 
a sudden change in status. 

7. 6. 4.4 Priority 4 

A casualty who is not breathing and does not have a heartbeat or palpable blood pressure. 



COX Inhibiting Blood Agents C07-A 


239 


7.6.5 Casualty Management 

Remove casualty to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the casualty has 
been exposed to either solid or liquid agent, decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all 
agents have been removed. However, do not delay treatment if thorough decontamination 
cannot be undertaken immediately. If solid or liquid agents have gotten into the eyes, or 
if the casualty complains of significant eye irritation, irrigate the eyes with water or 0.9% 
saline solution for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline 
solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

For cyanide and cyanogen, antidote should be administered as soon as possible. The 
Lilly Cyanide Antidote Kit contains amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate. 
Cobalt edentate or 4-dimethylaminophenol are alternative antidotes for cyanide poisoning. 
Benzodiazepines or barbiturates may be required to control severe seizures. 

If cyanogen halides are suspected, asymptomatic individuals should be monitored for 
possible complications caused by pulmonary edema. 


7.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects. Heavily splashed items should be disposed of 
or decontaminated with soap and water. Items that will be retained for further processing 
should be double sealed in impermeable containers, ensuring that the inner container is 
decontaminated before placing it in the outer one. 

COX inhibiting blood agents are highly volatile and there is little risk of extensive residual 
contamination unless the remains were heavily splashed with liquid agent. Agents that have 
entered the body pose little threat through off-gassing. Some agents, such as hydrogen 
sulfide, may still be detectable because of the low odor threshold. Wash the remains with 
soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent may get trapped, such as 
hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. If remains were heavily 
splashed with agent, wash and rinse waste should be contained for proper disposal. Screen 
the remains for agent vapors at the conclusion of the decontamination process. Once the 
remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action is necessary. 
Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any additional risks and 
should be contained and handled according to established procedures. Use standard burial 
procedures. 


C07-A 

AGENTS 


C07-A001 

Hydrogen cyanide (Agent AC) 
CAS: 74-90-8 
RTECS: MW6825000 
UN/NA: 1051 
ERG: 117 



240 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


HCN 

Colorless gas or liquid with an odor like bitter almond or peach kernels. Odor is detectable at 
0.8 ppm, but some individuals are unable to detect odor at all. Used as an industrial fumig- 
ant. It is also used in electroplating, mining; and in producing synthetic fibers, plastics, and 
dyes. Industrially, it can be found mixed with a variety of gases including carbon monoxide, 
cyanogen, and phosphine. 

Also reported as a mixture with Cyanogen chloride (C07-A003); Arsenic trichloride 
(C04-C006). 


This material is on the ITF-25 high threat, the FBI threat list, and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 
Ignites 50% of the time when disseminated from an artillery shell. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoanhy 2860 mg-min/m 3 (1300 ppm for a 2-min exposure). This is a provisional 
update from an older value that has not been formally adopted as of 2005. 
LCtso varies greatly due to ability of the body to detoxify the agent over 
time. 

LC50: 546 ppm for a 10-min exposure 
MEG ( ih } Min: 2 ppm; Sig: 7.1 ppm; Sev: 15 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 10 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH STEL: 4.7 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH Ceiling: 4.7 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 50 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 27.0 

D: 0.69 g/mL (77°F) 
MP: 8°F 
BP: 78°F 

Use: 0.28 cS (77°F) 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 2.0 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 7.1 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 15 ppm 


VP: 630 mmHg 
VD: 0.99 (calculated) 

Vlt: 860,000 ppm 

HoO: Miscible 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: 0°F 
LEE: 5.6% 
UEL: 40% 
RP: 0.03 
IP: 13.60 eV 


4 h, 1.3 ppm 
4 h, 3.5 ppm 
4 h, 8.6 ppm 


8 h, 1 .0 ppm 
8 h, 2.5 ppm 
8 h, 6.6 ppm 


C07-A002 

Cyanogen bromide (Agent CB) 

CAS: 506-68-3 
RTECS: — 

UN: 1889 
ERG: 157 

BrCN 

Colorless or white crystalline solid with a penetrating, stinging, or biting odor. 
Also reported as a mixture with Bromoacetone (C13-A003). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.33 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCsoQnhy 400 mg/ m 3 (92 ppm for a 10-min exposure) 



COX Inhibiting Blood Agents C07-A 


241 


IC^duhy 35 mg/m 3 (8.1 ppm); exposure duration unavailable 
Eye Irritation: 1.4 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 105.9 
D: 2.015 g/cm 3 
MP: 120-1 24° F 
BP: Sublimes 
Use: — 


VP: 92 mmHg 
VP: 122 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 3.6 (calculated) 
Vlt: 120,000 ppm 
H 2 0: Soluble 
Sol: Alcohols; Ether 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.1 
IP: 11.84 eV 


C07-A003 

Cyanogen chloride (Agent CK) 

CAS: 506-77-4 
RTECS: GT2275000 
UN: 1589 
ERG: 125 

C1CN 

Colorless liquid or gas with a pungent, acrid, choking odor detectable at 1 ppm. Odor 
can go unnoticed because of discomfort. Used as an industrial fumigant and warning 
agent in odorless fumigant gases. It is used in metal cleaning, ore refining, and to produce 
malononitrile, s-triazines, and synthetic rubber. 

Also reported as a mixture with Hydrogen cyanide (C07-A001); Arsenic trichloride (C04- 
C006). 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 


Will polymerize during extended storage. Polymerization may be explosive. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.52 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^Qdnhy 11,000 mg-min/m 3 (2200 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

ICt^odnh ) : 7,000 mg-min/ m 3 (1400 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 4.8 ppm for a "few seconds" exposure 

Skin Irritation: 4.8 ppm for a 2-min exposure 

ACGIH STEL: 0.3 ppm 

NIOSH STEL: 0.3 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 61.5 
D: 1.18 g/mL 
MP: 20°F 
BP: 55°F 

Use: 0.337 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


VP: 010 mmHg 
VD: 2.2 (calculated) 

Vlt: 1,400,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 6.9% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.01 
IP: 12.49 eV 


C07-A004 
Cyanogen iodide 

CAS: 506-78-5 
RTECS: NN1 750000 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


ICN 

Colorless or white needle-shaped crystals with a pungent odor. Used as a preservative in 
taxidermy. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Respiratory /Eye Irritation: 16 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 152.9 VP: 1 mmHg (77°F) FIP: — 

D: 2.84 g/cm 3 (64°F) VD: 5.3 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 298°F Vlt: 1300 ppm UEL: — 

BP: Sublimes H?0: Soluble RP: 8.2 

Use: — Sol: Ethanol; Ether; Volatile oils IP: 10.87 eV 


C07-A005 

Cyanogen 

CAS: 460-19-5 
RTECS: GT1 925000 
UN: 1026 
ERG: 119 

NCCN 


Colorless gas with a pungent odor like almonds that is detectable at 230 ppm. Vapors are 
irritating at 15 ppm. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.13 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEGpft) Min: 20 ppm; Sig: 71 ppm; Sev: 150 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 10 ppm 


Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately half 
as toxic as Hydrogen cyanide (C07-A001). 


Properties: 

MW: 52.0 

D: 0.866 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) 
MP: -18°F 
BP: -6°F 

Use: 0.633 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


VP: 3800 mmHg 
VD: 1.8 (calculated) 
Vlt: 5,200,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 1% 

Sol: Alcohols; Ether 


FIP: — 

LEL: 6.6% 
UEL: 32% 
RP: 0.004 
IP: 13.57 eV 


C07-A006 

Hydrogen sulfide (Agent NG) 

CAS: 7783-06-4 
RTECS: MX1 225000 
UN: 1053 
ERG: 117 

H 2 S 

Colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs detectable at 0.005 ppm. However, it can 
cause olfactory fatigue and the sense of smell is not reliable. Used industrially to produce 
elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, and heavy water for nuclear reactors. 



Components and Precursors C07-C 


243 


Also reported as a mixture with Chloropicrin (C10-A006); Carbon disulfide (C11-A039). 
This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm= 1.40 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Eye Irritation: "Low concentrations" 

Respiratory Irritation: 50 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

MEG(i fc) Min: 0.50 ppm; Sig: TJ ppm; Sev: 50 ppm 

OSHA Ceiling: 20 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 10 ppm 

ACGIHSTEL: 15 ppm 

IDLH: 100 ppm 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, exposure to concentrations above 500 ppm 
can rapidly incapacitate and kill exposed individuals. 

Properties: 


MW: 34.1 

VP: 13,376 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: 0.777 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) 

VD: 1.2 (calculated) 

LEE: 4.0% 

MP: -122°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: 44% 

BP: -77° F 

H 2 0: 0.4% 

RP: 0.001 

Vsc: 0.0978 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 

Sol: Gasoline; Kerosene 

IP: 10.46 eV 

Interim AEGLs 



AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.51 ppm 

4 h, 0.36 ppm 8 h, 0.33 ppm 


AEGL-2: 1 h, 27 ppm 

4 h, 20 ppm 8 h, 17 ppm 


AEGL-3: 1 h, 50 ppm 

4 h, 37 ppm 8 h, 31 ppm 



C07-C 

COMPONENTS AND PRECURSORS 


C07-C007 

Sodium cyanide 

CAS: 143-33-9 
RTECS: VZ7525000 
UN: 1689 
ERG: 157 

NaCN 

White, granular, or crystalline deliquescent solid that is odorless when dry but has a faint 
odor like almond when wet. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye impacts. It 
causes irritation of the eyes and skin, asphyxia, lassitude, headache, confusion, nausea, 
vomiting, increased respiratory rate, slow gasping respiration, thyroid, and blood changes. 

Used industrially for electroplating, precious metal extraction; and in the synthesis of dyes, 
pigments, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. 

This material is on the FBI threat list and the Australia Group Export Control list. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


This material is a precursor blood agent containing cyanide, many G-series nerve agents, 
and other cyanide containing agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

LD 50 (j ng) : 0.2-0.3 g 

OSHAPEL: 5 mg/m 3 

ACGIH Ceiling: 5 mg/ m 3 [10 min] [Skin] 

NIOSH Ceiling: 5 mg/m 3 

IDLH: 25 mg/m 3 (expressed as CN) 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 49.0 
D: 1.595 g/cnv 
MP: 1047°F 
BP: 2725°F 
Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: Negligible 
H 2 0: 58% (77°F) 
Sol: — 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP : — 

IP: — 


C07-C008 

Potassium cyanide 

CAS: 151-50-8 
RTECS: TS8750000 
UN: 1680 
ERG: 157 

KCN 

White, granular, or crystalline deliquescent solid that is odorless when dry but has a faint 
odor like almond when wet. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. It 
causes irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory system, asphyxia, lassitude, head- 
ache, confusion, nausea, vomiting, increased respiratory rate or slow gasping respiration, 
as well as thyroid and blood changes. 

Used industrially for electroplating, precious metal extraction; and in the synthesis of dyes, 
pigments, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a precursor blood agent containing cyanide, many G-series nerve agents, 
and other cyanide containing agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

LD50(j ng) : 0.2-0.3 g 

OSHA PEL: 5 mg/m 3 

ACGIH Ceiling: 5 mg/ m 3 [10 min] [Skin] 

NIOSH Ceiling: 5 mg/m 3 

IDLH: 25 mg/m 3 (expressed as CN) 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 65.1 VP: Negligible PIP: None 

D: 1.55 g/cm 3 VD: — LEL: None 

MP: 1173°F Vlt: Negligible UEL: None 

BP: 2957°F H 2 0: 72% (77°F) RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: Glycerol; Formamide; Hydroxylamine IP: — 


References 


245 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Cyanide ToxFAQs." September 1997. 

. "Hydrogen Sulfide ToxFAQs." September 2004. 

. "Hydrogen Cyanide." In Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents Volume III — Medical Man- 
agement Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing 
Office, 2000. 

. Toxicological Profile for Cyanide. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1997. 

. Toxicological Profile for Cyanide (DRAFT). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

September 2004. 

. Toxicological Profile for Hydrogen Sidfide. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1997. 

. Toxicological Profile for Hydrogen Sidfide (DRAFT). Washington, DC: Government Printing 

Office, September 2004. 

Brophy, Leo P., Wyndham D. Miles, and Rexmond C. Cohrane. The Chemical Warfare Service: From 
Laboratory to Field. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1968, pp. 55-61. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition: Cyanide." March 9, 2005. 

. "Facts About Cyanide." February 26, 2003. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Fries, Amos A., and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

Marrs, Timothy C., Robert L. Maynard, and Frederick R. Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology 
and Treatment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

Munro, Nancy B., Sylvia S. Talmage, Guy D. Griffin, Larry C. Waters, Annetta P. Watson, Joseph 
F. King, and Veronique Hauschild. "The Sources, Fate and Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agent 
Degradation Products." Environmental Health Perspectives 107 (1999): 933-74. 

National Institute of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/ sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2005. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. "Emergency Response Card for Cyanogen 
Chloride." Interim Document, March 20, 2003. 

. "Emergency Response Card for Hydrogen Cyanide." Interim Document, March 20, 2003. 

. "Emergency Response Card for Potassium Cyanide." Interim Document, March 20, 2003. 

. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

September 2005. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Prentiss, Augustin M. Chemicals in War: A Treatise on Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1937. 

Sartori, Mario. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L.W. Marrison. London: J. & 
A. Churchill, Ltd, 1939. 

Sidell, Frederick R. Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties: A Handbook for Emergency 
Medical Services. Bel Air, MD: HB Publishing, 1995. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 1, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W., ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, 
Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Somani, Satu M., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. New York: Academic Press, 1992. 

Somani, Satu M., and James A. Romano, Jr., eds. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels. Boca 
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. 



246 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Swearengen, Thomas F. Tear Gas Munitions : An Analysis of Commercial Riot Gas Guns, Tear Gas Projectiles, 
Grenades, Small Arms Ammunition, and Related Tear Gas Devices. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas 
Publisher, 1966. 

True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume I, Edgewood Arsenal Special Report 
No. EO-SR-74001. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chem- 
ical Casualties Handbook. 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
Edition, http:/ /www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm. 2004. 

Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection Against It. Rev. ed. New York: 
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1944. 

Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts About Blood Agent Cyanogen Chloride (CK). Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

. Detailed Facts About Blood Agent Hydrogen Cyanide (AC). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: 

United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

World Health Organization. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Geneva: World Health 
Organization, 1970. 

. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcs/icstart.html. 

2004. 

. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Geneva: World 

Health Organization, 2004. 

Yaws, Carl L. Matheson Gas Data Book. 7th ed. Parsippany, NJ: Matheson Tri-Gas, 2001. 



8 

Arsine Blood Agents 


8.1 General Information 

These materials include arsine and reactive materials such as arsenide salts and alloys of 
arsenic that decompose to produce arsine. They are first generation warfare agents that 
were evaluated during World War I but have never been utilized on the battlefield. These 
materials are commercially available but are relatively difficult to disperse. 

Although this class of agents is considered obsolete on the modern battlefield, arsine is 
still considered a significant threat as a potential improvised weapon that could be utilized 
in urban warfare. 


8.2 Toxicology 
8.2.1 Effects 

Arsine affects the ability of the blood system to carry oxygen by destroying red blood cells. 
The lack of oxygen rapidly affects all body tissues, especially the central nervous system. 
Arsine may also affect the kidneys, liver, and heart. Most deaths related to arsine exposure 
are believed to be secondary to acute renal failure. Arsine is carcinogenic. 


8.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Arsine poses an inhalation hazard. However, reactive agents may also be hazardous 
through ingestion and abraded skin (e.g., breaks in the skin or penetration of skin by 
debris). 


8.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Arsine does not have good warning properties. Although it has a distinct odor, it is only 
detectable at levels higher than acceptable exposure limits. It does not irritate the eyes, 
respiratory system, or the skin. 

The rate of detoxification of arsine by the body is very low. Exposures are essentially 
cumulative. 


247 



248 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


8.2.4 Latency Period 

Effects from exposure to arsine can be delayed from 20 minutes to 36 hours depending on 
the level of exposure. 


8.3 Characteristics 

8.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

8.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Arsine is a colorless gas with a mild garlic-like odor. Effects from exposures are cumulative 
and may occur at levels below the odor threshold. 

Reactive materials are solids that produce arsine on contact with moisture or acids. Binary 
munitions that mix these reactive materials with water or acid upon delivery have been 
developed. 

8.3.2 Stability 

Arsine has a high vapor pressure and is difficult to store as a liquefied gas. It is extremely 
flammable and is also decomposed by light, heat, and contact with various metals. It can 
explode on contact with warm, dry air. 

Reactive solids are stable when dry. 

8.3.3 Persistency 

Arsine is nonpersistent and quickly dissipates or decomposes in the open environment. 
Solid agents will retain the potential to produce arsine (ASH 3 ) until they react with water. 

8.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Due to the volatile nature of arsine, there is minimal extended risk except in an enclosed 
or confined space. Arsine vapor has a density greater than air and tends to collect in low 
places. It is soluble in water as well as aromatic and halogenated organic solvents. 

Solid agents pose an extended risk because they retain the potential to produce arsine 
gas until they react with water or acids. 


8.4 Additional Hazards 

8.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of release should be considered contaminated with residual 
arsenic. Unopened items packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only 
to agent vapors maybe used after decontamination of the container. Opened or unpackaged 
items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be destroyed. 

Meat and milk from animals affected by arsine should be quarantined until tested. 
Exposed animals may not be suitable for consumption if they retain a sufficient body burden 
of arsenic. 



Arsine Blood Agents 


249 


Arsenic compounds can translocate from roots to other areas (e.g. leaves, fruits, etc.) of 
some plants. Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be quarantined until tested. 


8.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/soap and water (see Section 8.5.3). If the 
animals' eyes have been exposed to the agent, they should be irrigated with water or 0.9% 
saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. 
The remaining material should be quarantined until tested. In the event of a large release, 
arsenic from decomposed arsine could remain on leaves of forage vegetation until removed 
by precipitation. Arsenic compounds can also translocate from roots to leaves of some plants 
and could pose an ingestion hazard to livestock. 


8.4.3 Fire 

Arsine is a highly flammable gas that can form explosive mixtures with air. Hydrogen gas 
produced by photolytic decomposition of the agents may also be present. Actions taken to 
extinguish the fire can also spread the agent. Arsine is soluble in water and runoff from 
firefighting efforts could pose a significant threat. Solid agents will react with water to 
form arsine gas. Decomposition of the agents during a fire will produce poisonous arsenic 
oxides that may be present in smoke from the fire. Arsenic will also be deposited in the area 
downwind of the fire. 


8.4.4 Reactivity 

Arsine is incompatible with strong oxidizers and various metals including aluminum, cop- 
per, brass, and nickel. It may be decompose on exposure to light to produce hydrogen gas 
and arsenic metal. 

Solid agents will react with water to form arsine gas. 


8.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

8.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 

Arsine produces arsenic acids and other arsenic products. Solid agents will react with water 
to form arsine gas. 

8.4. 5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products include arsenic oxides. Arsine may decompose to 
hydrogen gas and arsenic metal if heated in a sealed container. 


8.5 Protection 

8.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis 



250 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


for the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook 
(ERG). These recommendations are based on a release scenario involving sabotage of a 
commercial container. A small release involves 60 kilograms (a standard gas cylinder) and 
a large release involves 1500 kilograms (a large bulk container such as a rail car). 



Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind day 
(miles) 

Downwind night 
(miles) 

SA (Arsine) C08-A001 




Small device (60 kilograms) 

200 

0.5 

1.5 

Large device (1500 kilograms) 

1300 

2.5 

5.0 


8.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

8.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. Although arsine is primarily an inhalation haz- 
ard, decomposition products may pose a percutaneous risk. If chemical protective clothing 
is not available and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then 
structural firefighters' gear will provide limited skin protection. Contact with solids and 
solutions should be avoided. 

8.5. 2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Air purifying respirators (APRs) are not 
recommended for use in an arsine atmosphere because of poor warning properties and the 
unknown effectiveness of sorbents used in the filters. 

If APRs are used, then immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the 
ceiling limit for respirators other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level 
should be regarded with extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection 
should be considered. 

8.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction 
performance testing against arsine or against the reactive materials used to produce arsine. 


8.5.3 Decontamination 

8.5.3. 1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

If reactive materials have been released, then care must be taken to compensate for the 
heat generated by their reaction with water. Take appropriate actions to disperse the arsine 
vapors that will be generated. 

8.5. 3.2 Vapors 

Casualties / personnel: Remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor 
after contact with the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and 
water. Ensure that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped 
vapor. If eye irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 
15 minutes. 



Arsine Blood Agents 


251 


Small areas : Ventilate to remove the vapors. If decomposition to arsenic metal or arsenic 
oxides has occurred, wash the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and 
containerize the rinseate in containers lined with high-density polyethylene. 

8.5. 3. 3 Reactive Solids 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing as it may contain residual solid. To avoid further 
exposure of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing 
that must be pulled over the head. Shower using copious amounts of soap and water. Care 
must be taken to avoid breathing any arsine generated during the decontamination process. 
Ensure that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped vapor. If eye 
irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner. Place the collected material into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious amounts 
of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate in containers lined with high- 
density polyethylene. Ventilate the area to remove any agent vapors generated during the 
decontamination . 


8.6 Medical 

8.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

No specific biologic marker /test is available for arsine exposure; however, exposure might 
be indicated by the detection of elevated arsenic levels in urine (greater than 50 //g/L for a 
spot or greater than 50 pg for a 24-hours urine) and signs of hemolysis (e.g., hemoglobinuria, 
anemia, or low haptoglobin), or arsine is detected in environmental samples. The case can 
be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a predominant amount 
of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute certainty of the 
etiology of the agent is known. 


8.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to arsine: abdominal disorders such as gallbladder inflamma- 
tion (cholecystitis), gallstones (cholelithiasis), biliary colic, kidney stones, and acute renal 
failure; blood disorders including acute anemia, methemoglobinemia, and hyperkalemia; 
diseases such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, malaria, and urinary tract infections; rhabdomy- 
olysis and hemolytic uremic syndrome; cold agglutinin disease and paroxysmal nocturnal 
hemoglobinuria; and also toxicity from smoke inhalation or exposure to toxic chemicals 
such as pyrogallic acid and stibine gas. 


8.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

Unless high-dose exposure produces immediate fatality, exposure typically results in 
abdominal pain, blood in the urine (hematuria), and jaundice. Signs and symptoms due to 
massive hemolysis occur anywhere from 30 minutes to 24 hours postexposure. Other poten- 
tial symptoms include headache, a vague feeling of bodily discomfort (malaise), a feeling 



252 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


of weariness or diminished energy (lassitude), difficulty in breathing (dyspnea), nausea, 
vomiting, bronze skin, jaundice, discoloration of the conjunctivae, numbness, weakness, 
burning pain, loss of reflexes, delirium, memory loss, irritability, confusion, and dizziness. 

8.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

8. 6. 4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with abdominal pain, jaundice, red or discolored conjunctivae, breath with an 
odor of garlic, headache, severe thirst, fever, chills, and/ or numb or cold extremities. 

8. 6. 4. 2 Priority 2 

A casualty with a known exposure to arsine or who reports smelling a garlic or fishy odor. 

8. 6. 4.3 Priority 3 

Anyone with a potential exposure to arsine. 

8. 6. 4.4 Priority 4 

Unlikely classification for this agent. 


8.6.5 Casualty Management 

Remove casualty to fresh air and decontaminate with soap and water. If the eyes of the 
casuality complains of eye irritation, then irrigate the eyes with water or 0.9% saline solution 
for at least 15 minutes. If reactive materials were used, irrigate open wounds with water or 
0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, medical personnel do not need to wear a 
chemical-protective mask. 

Provide oxygen for respiratory distress. In severe cases, exchange blood transfusions 
may be required. There are no specific antidotes for arsine poisoning. The value of chelating 
agents to remove arsine has only been demonstrated in limited studies. However, chelating 
agents do not prevent hemolysis and may not provide any significant benefit in acute arsine 
toxicity. 


8.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects and decontaminate with soap and water. If reactive 
materials have been released, then arsine may be generated. Take appropriate actions to 
disperse the vapors. 

Arsine is highly volatile and there is little risk of direct residual contamination. However, 
potential persistent decomposition products include arsenic and arsenic oxides. Wash the 
remains with soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent may get trapped, 
such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. If remains are heavily 
contaminated with residue, then wash and rinse waste should be contained for proper 
disposal. Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective 
action is necessary. Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any 
additional risks and should be contained and handled according to established procedures. 
Use standard burial procedures. 



References 


253 


C08-A 

AGENTS 


C08-A001 

Arsine (Agent SA) 

CAS: 7784-42-1 
RTECS: CG6475000 
UN: 2188 
ERG: 119 

AsH 3 

Colorless gas with a mild odor described as fishy or like garlic. It is detectable at 0.5 ppm. 
Used as a doping agent for solid-state electronic components, in the preparation of gallium 
arsenide and glass dyes, and in the manufacture of light-emitting diodes. 

Decomposed by light, heat, and contact with various metals. Can explode on contact with 
warm, dry air. Ignites so easily that it cannot be disseminated by explosive shells. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.19 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^inhy 7500 mg-min/m 3 (1200 ppm for a 2-min exposure). This a provisional 

update from an older value that has not been formally adopted as of 2005. 
LCso(i„h ) : 250 ppm for a 30-min exposure. 

MEG(i fc) Min: — ; Sig: 0.17 ppm; Sev: 0.5 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 0.0006 ppm 

IDLH: 3 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 77.9 VP: 11,100 mmHg FIP: — 

D: 1.321 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) VD: 2.7 (calculated) LEE: 5.1% 

MP: — 179°F Vlt:— UEL:78% 

BP: -81 °F H 2 0: 20% RP: 0.001 

Use: 0.0553 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) Sol: Benzene; Chloroform IP: 9.89 eV 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.17 ppm 4 h, 0.040 ppm 8 h,0.020 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 0.50 ppm 4 h, 0.13 ppm 8 h, 0.063 ppm 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Arsine." In Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents 
Volume III — Medical Management Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: 
Government Printing Office, 2000. 



254 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition: Arsine or Stihine Poisoning." March 
4, 2005. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents : Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Foulkes, Charles H. "Gas!": The Story of the Special Brigade. Edinburgh, England: William Blackwood 
& Sons Ltd, 1934. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 2005. 

National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2005. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Sifton, David W., ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, Field 
Manual No. 3-11.9. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

World Health Organization. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http:/ /www.cdc.gov/niosh/ 
ipcs/icstart.html. 2004. 



9 

Carbon Monoxide Blood Agents 


9.1 General Information 

These materials include carbon monoxide and metal carbonyls that readily decompose to 
produce carbon monoxide (C09-A001). They are first generation warfare agents that were 
evaluated during World War I but largely abandoned because of the difficulty delivering 
an effective concentration of the agent. Between World War I and II, metal carbonyls were 
added to the fuels of flame weapons (i.e., flamethrowers) as a means of producing high levels 
of toxic carbon monoxide to augment their incendiary capabilities in situations involving 
soldiers occupying confined spaces such as caves and bunkers. 

Although this class of agents is considered obsolete on the modern battlefield, they are 
still considered a significant threat as potential improvised weapons that could be utilized 
in urban warfare. They are commercially available but are relatively difficult to disperse 
over a large area. 


9.2 Toxicology 
9.2.1 Effects 

Carbon monoxide affects the ability of the blood system to carry oxygen by binding to red 
blood cells preventing the absorption and transport of oxygen by the blood. The lack of 
oxygen rapidly affects all body tissues, especially the central nervous system. In addition, 
metal carbonyls can cause pulmonary edema and may damage the liver and kidneys. Metal 
carbonyls are carcinogenic or are suspected human carcinogens. 


9.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Carbon monoxide poses only an inhalation hazard. Metal carbonyls, however, are also 
hazardous through exposure of the skin and eye to either liquid or vapor, ingestion, and 
broken, abraded, or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin by debris). 


9.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Carbon monoxide blood agents do not have good warning properties. Carbon monoxide is 
odorless and colorless. Although exposure to metal carbonyl vapors can cause eye irritation. 


255 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


these concentrations are generally not low enough to prevent potentially hazardous 
exposure. 

Lethal concentrations (LC50S) for inhalation of carbon monoxide blood agents have not 
been fully established. However, immediately dangerous to life or health levels (IDLHs) 
for inhalation of these agents are as low as 2 ppm. 


9.2.4 Latency Period 

9. 2.4.1 Vapor/Aerosols (Mists) 

Depending on the concentration of agent vapor, the effects begin to appear 1-2 minutes 
after initial exposure. Pulmonary edema caused by inhalation of metal carbonyls may be 
delayed for several hours. 

9. 2. 4. 2 Liquid 

Metal carbonyls cause immediate irritation and burning of the skin, eyes, mucous 
membrane, and respiratory system. 


9.3 Characteristics 

9.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

9.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Carbon monoxide is a colorless and odorless gas. Metal carbonyls are typically colorless 
liquids that may be odorless or have a faint musty smell. 

9.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade metal carbonyls are typically yellow to dark-red liquids. Production impur- 
ities and decomposition products may cause the agents to darken and give them additional 
odors. 

9.3. 1.3 Mixtures with Other Agents 

Metal carbonyls have been mixed with incendiary fuels to increase the production of carbon 
monoxide when the fuel is ignited and thereby increase the lethality of flame weapons when 
used against soldiers hiding in confined spaces such as caves and bunkers. 

9.3.2 Stability 

Carbon monoxide is a stable gas. Metal carbonyls are relatively unstable and sensitive to 
light and moderately high temperatures. They may spontaneously ignite on contact with 
air. Volatile agents are stored in steel cylinders; otherwise, agents are stored in steel or glass 
containers. Metal carbonyls may be stored under an inert gas blanket, such as nitrogen, to 
prevent contact with the air. 

9.3.3 Persistency 

Carbon monoxide is nonpersistent and quickly dissipates in the open environment. Metal 
carbonyls are unstable and rapidly decompose to produce carbon monoxide and various 
metal oxides. 



Carbon Monoxide Blood Agents 


257 


9.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Due to the volatile nature of carbon monoxide, there is minimal extended risk except in an 
enclosed or confined space. Carbon monoxide vapor has a density only slightly less than 
air and does not tend to stratify significantly in confined spaces. It is insoluble in water but 
soluble in many organic solvents. 

Metal carbonyls are unstable and are rapidly decomposed by air, light, and heat to pro- 
duce carbon monoxide and various metal oxides. The vapors of unreacted carbonyls have a 
density greater than air and tend to collect in confined spaces. These materials are insoluble 
in water but soluble in many organic solvents. 


9.4 Additional Hazards 
9.4.1 Exposure 

Combined intoxications of carbon monoxide and cyanide should not be treated with the 
nitrites found in cyanide antidote kits. These nitrites are used to create methemoglobinemia, 
which will exacerbate carbon monoxide poisoning by further reducing the ability of the 
blood to deliver oxygen to body tissue. 

In addition to tobacco smokers, individuals who have had previous exposure to materials 
containing methylene chloride, such as degreasers, solvents, paint removers, and furniture 
strippers, are at greater risk because of an existing body burden of carbon monoxide. 
Approximately one-fourth to one-third of inhaled methylene chloride vapor is metabol- 
ized in the liver to carbon monoxide. In addition, methylene chloride is readily stored in 
body tissue. This stored material is released over time and results in elevated levels of car- 
bon monoxide for extended periods, in some cases more than twice as long as compared 
with direct carbon monoxide inhalation. 

Carbon monoxide poses no significant residual risk. If metal carbonyls have been 
released, all foodstuffs in the area should be considered contaminated with residual metal 
decomposition products. Unopened items packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic 
and exposed only to agent vapors may be used after decontamination of the container. 
Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be 
destroyed. 

Meat and milk from animals affected by metal carbonyls should be quarantined until 
tested for residual high levels of metals. 

If metal carbonyls have been released, plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be 
quarantined until tested and determined to be safe to consume. 


9.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals exposed to carbon monoxide do not require decontamination. If metal carbonyls 
have been released, animals can be decontaminated with shampoo / soap and water (see 
Section 9.5.3). If the animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they should be irrigated 
with water or saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

Carbon monoxide poses no significant residual risk to feedstock (e.g., hay or grain). If 
metal carbonyls have been released, the topmost layer of unprotected feedstock should be 
destroyed. The remaining material should be quarantined until tested for metal residue. 
It is unlikely that sufficient residue would remain on leaves of forage vegetation to pose a 
significant threat. 



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9.4.3 Fire 

All carbon monoxide blood agents are flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air. 
Metal carbonyls are highly flammable and may even ignite spontaneously Metal carbonyls 
decompose on heating to produce carbon monoxide. Although liquid agents are insoluble 
in water, actions taken to extinguish the fire can also spread the agent. 

9.4.4 Reactivity 

Metal carbonyls decompose in light to produce carbon monoxide. They are incompatible 
with strong oxidizers and readily form explosive mixtures with air. Some decompose at 
ordinary temperatures in contact with porous materials [e.g., activated carbon used in air 
purifying respirator (APR) filters] and produce carbon monoxide. 

9.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

9.4.5. 1 Hydrolysis 

Metal carbonyls produce metal oxides when hydrolyzed. 

9.4.5.2 Combustion 

Metal carbonyl volatile decomposition products include carbon monoxide and metal 
oxides. 


9.5 Protection 

9.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

There are no published recommendations for isolation or protective action distances for 
carbon monoxide blood agents released in mass casualty situations. 

9.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

9.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. Although carbon monoxide is primarily an 
inhalation hazard, metal carbonyls may pose a percutaneous risk. If chemical protective 
clothing is not available and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, 
then structural firefighters' gear will provide limited skin protection. Contact with liquids 
and solutions should be avoided. 

9. 5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Air purifying respirators (APRs) are not 
recommended for use in an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide or metal carbonyls 
because of poor warning properties and the unknown effectiveness of sorbents used in the 
filters. 

If APRs are used immediately dangerous to life or health levels (IDLHs) are the ceiling 
limit for respirators other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should 
be regarded with extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should 
be considered. 



Carbon Monoxide Blood Agents 


259 


9.5. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction per- 
formance testing against carbon monoxide and metal carbonyls. If the concentration 
of vapor exceeds the level necessary to produce effects through dermal exposure, then 
responders should wear a Level A protective ensemble. 

In addition to the toxicological risk, high concentrations of metal carbonyls pose a sig- 
nificant fire / explosion hazard that may prevent safe entry even wearing the appropriate 
chemical protective apparel. 


9.5.3 Decontamination 

9.5.3. 1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

9.5. 3. 2 Vapors 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor 
after contact with the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and 
water. Ensure that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped 
vapor. If eye irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum 
of 15 minutes. 

Small areas : Ventilate to remove the vapors. If metal carbonyls have been released, wash 
the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate in 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. 

9.5. 3. 3 Liquids or Solutions (Metal Carbonyls) 

Casualties /personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. Even clothing that has not come into 
direct contact with the agent may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of 
the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of 
water to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Avoid rough scrubbing. Rinse 
with copious amounts of water. If water is not immediately available, the agent can be 
absorbed with any convenient material such as paper towels, toilet paper, flour, or talc. 
To minimize both spreading the agent and abrading the skin, do not rub the agent with 
the absorbent. Blot the contaminated skin with the absorbent. If there is a potential that 
the eyes have been exposed, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum 
of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such as 
vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious amounts of 
soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. 


9.6 Medical 

9.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

A case in which the carboxyhemoglobin concentration is higher than the normal reference 
range (greater than 5% for nonsmokers and 10% for smokers) in venous or arterial blood. 



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The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a pre- 
dominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute 
certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 


9.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with 
a potential case of exposure to carbon monoxide: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypothyroidism 
and myxedema coma, labyrinthitis, and lactic acidosis; toxic exposures resulting in meth- 
emoglobinemia; ingestion of alcohols or narcotics; and diseases that cause gastroenteritis, 
encephalitis, meningitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. 


9.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

9. 6.3.1 Vapors/Aerosols 

Headache, tachypnea, dizziness, confusion, and chest pain. The casualty may also exper- 
ience palpitations, dyspnea on exertion, drowsiness, lethargy, hallucination, agitation, 
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and coma. If metal carbonyls have been released, there 
may be complaints of irritation of the eyes, mucous membrane, and respiratory sys- 
tem. Inflammation of lung tissue (pneumonitis) caused by metal carbonyls can may be 
delayed 12-36 hours. They may also cause injury to the liver, kidneys, and lungs as well as 
degenerative changes in the central nervous system. 

9. 6. 3. 2 Liquids 

Irritation and burning of the skin, eyes, mucous membrane, and respiratory system. 


9.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

9. 6. 4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with a heartbeat but is unconscious, not breathing, and has low blood pressure. 

9. 6. 4. 2 Priority 2 

A casualty with known exposure to carbon monoxide blood agents, who was initially 
unconscious but has regained consciousness; or a casualty who shows neurological 
abnormalities such as dizziness, confusion, or hallucinations, has cardiac arrhythmias, 
bronchospasm; or complains of severe headache, difficulty in breathing or chest pain. If 
available, breath measurement indicates that the blood carbon monoxide level exceeds 20%. 

9. 6. 4.3 Priority 3 

A casualty with known or potential exposure to carbon monoxide blood agents but who 
shows no signs of neurological or cardiac abnormalities, and does not complain of discom- 
fort (e.g., headache, difficulty breathing, etc.). If available, breath measurement indicates 
that the blood carbon monoxide level is less than 10%. Anyone with potential exposure to 
metal carbonyls should be transported to a medical facility for evaluation because of the 
risk of latent chemical pneumonitis from inhalation of these agents. 

9. 6. 4.4 Priority 4 

A casualty with known exposure to carbon monoxide blood agents and in cardiac arrest. 



Carbon Monoxide Blood Agents C09-A 


261 


9.6.5 Casualty Management 

Remove casualty to fresh air and decontaminate with soap and water. Provide oxygen for 
respiratory distress. If the eyes of the casualty complains of eye irritation, irrigate with 
water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 15 minutes. If metal carbonyls were used, irrigate 
open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, medical personnel do not need to wear a 
chemical-protective mask. 

Continue oxygen therapy until patient is asymptomatic and blood carbon monoxide 
levels are below 10%. For individuals with blood carbon monoxide levels above 40%, 
consider transfer to a hyperbaric facility. 

If metal carbonyls were used, asymptomatic individuals should be monitored for possible 
complications caused by pulmonary edema. 


9.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects and decontaminate with soap and water. 

Carbon monoxide blood agents are highly volatile and there is little risk of direct residual 
contamination. Wash the remains with soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas 
where agent may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and 
wounds. Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective 
action is necessary. Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any 
additional risks and should be contained and handled according to established procedures. 
Use standard burial procedures. 


C09-A 

AGENTS 


C09-A001 

Carbon monoxide 

CAS: 630-08-0 
RTECS: FG3500000 
UN: 1016 

UN: 9202 (Cryogenic) 

ERG: 119 

CO 

Colorless odorless gas. Used as a reducing agent in metallurgical operations and to 
manufacture metal carbonyls. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.15 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCsodnh)- 6400 ppm. Headache and dizziness in 1-2 min followed by unconsciousness. 

Death in 10-15 min with continued exposure. 

LC^oQnhy. 12,800 ppm. Immediate unconsciousness. Death in 1-3 min with continued 
exposure. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


MEGn/,) Min: — ; Sig: 83 ppm; Sev : 330 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 50 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 25 ppm 
NIOSH Ceiling: 200 ppm 
IDLH: 1200 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 28.0 

D: 0.624 g/mL (liq. gas, -256°F) 

MP: -337°F 
BP: -313°F 

Vsc: 0.097 cS (liq. gas, -238°F) 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 83 ppm 4 h, 33 ppm 8 h, 27 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 330 ppm 4 h, 150 ppm 8 h, 130 ppm 


VP: >26,600 mmHg PIP: -312°F 

VD: 0.97 (calculated) LEE: 12.5% 

Vlt: — UEL: 74% 

H 2 0: 2% RP: — 

Sol: Alcohol; Benzene; Chloroform IP: 14.01 eV 


C09-A002 

Iron pentacarbonyl 

CAS: 13463-40-6 
RTECS: N04900000 
UN: 1994 
ERG: 131 

Fe(CO) 5 

Colorless to yellow to dark-red, odorless oily liquid. Used to manufacture finely divided 
iron for high frequency radio and television coils. 

May spontaneously ignite on contact with air (>122°F). Decomposes on heating or in light 
producing Carbon monoxide (C09-A001). 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.01 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(ih) Min: — ; Sig: 0.060 ppm; Sev: 0.18 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm 
ACGIH STEL: 0.2 ppm 
NIOSH STEL: 0.2 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 195.9 
D: 1.490 g/mL 
MP: -6°F 

BP: 217°F (749 mmHg) 

Use: — 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.060 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.18 ppm 


VP: 40 mmHg (87°F) FIP: 5°F 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) LEL: 3.7% 

Vlt: 52,000 ppm UEL: 12.5% 

H 2 0: Insoluble RP: 0.2 

Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 


4 h, 0.037 ppm 8 h, 0.025 ppm 

4 h, 0.11 ppm 8 h, 0.075 ppm 



References 


263 


C09-A003 

Nickel carbonyl 

CAS: 13463-39-3 
RTECS: QR6300000 
UN: 1259 
ERG: 131 

Ni(CO) 4 

Colorless to yellow liquid with a musty or sooty odor. Intermediate in nickel refining. Used 
to produce high-purity nickel powder and to coat metals with nickel. 

May spontaneously ignite or explode on contact with air (>140° F). Decomposes on heating 
or on contact with acids to produce Carbon monoxide (C09-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.98 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG m Min: — ; Sig: 0.03 ppm; Sev: 0.16 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.001 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm 
IDLH: 2 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 170.7 VP: 315 mmHg FIP: -11°F 

D: 1.306 g/mL (77° F) VD: 5.9 (calculated) LEL: 2% 

MP: — 13°F Vlt: 420,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 110°F H 2 0: 0.05% RP: 0.02 

Vsc: 0.378 cS (77°F) Sol: Alcohol; Benzene; Acetone IP: 8.28 eV 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.036 ppm 4 h, 0.0090 ppm 8 h, 0.0045 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 0.16 ppm 4 h, 0.040 ppm 8 h, 0.020 ppm 


References 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition: Carbon Monoxide." March 25, 2005. 

Fries, Amos A., and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

Lumsden, Malvern. Incendiary Weapons. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1975. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 2005. 

National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http:/ /toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/ sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2005. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Sartori, Mario F. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L.W. Marrison. London: J. & 
A. Churchill, Ltd, 1939. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 



264 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
edition. http://www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm. 2004. 

Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection against It. Rev. ed. New York: 
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1944. 

World Health Organization. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http:/ /www.cdc.gov/niosh/ 
ipcs/icstart.html. 2004. 

Yaws, Carl L. Matheson Gas Data Book. 7th ed. Parsippany, NJ: Matheson Tri-Gas, 2001. 



10 

Pulmonary Agents 


10.1 General Information 

The agents in this class cover a wide variety of chemical structures including halogens, acyl 
halides, various alkylating agents, as well as metallic and nonmetallic oxides. The majority 
of these agents are first generation warfare agents that were evaluated and used during 
World War I. Research into more effective pulmonary agents continued through World 
War II. Various metals (e.g., cadmium, selenium) have added to the fuels of flame weapons 
(i.e., flamethrowers) as a means of producing high levels of toxic metal fume to augment 
their incendiary capabilities in situations involving soldiers occupying confined spaces 
such as caves and bunkers. Perfluoroisobutylene (C10-A008) is listed in Schedule 2 of the 
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Chloropicrin (C10-A006) and phosgene (C10-A003) 
are listed in Schedule 3. Pulmonary agents are relatively easy to acquire and disperse. 

Pulmonary agents have been stockpiled by most countries that have pursued a chemical 
weapons program, and have been used a number of times on the battlefield. Although this 
class of agents is considered obsolete on the modern battlefield, several of these agents are 
still considered a significant threat as potential improvised weapons that could be utilized 
in urban warfare. 


10.2 Toxicology 
10.2.1 Effects 

Pulmonary agents are primarily respiratory irritants. In extreme cases, membranes swell, 
lungs become filled with liquid (pulmonary edema), and death results from lack of oxygen. 
Some agents can also pass through the skin to induce systemic intoxication. In high con- 
centrations, chlorine (C10-A001), bromine (C10-A002), and chloropicrin (C10-A006) pose a 
dermal hazard and can produce local blistering and corrosion. Several agents in this class 
are carcinogenic. 


10.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Pulmonary agents are primarily an inhalation hazard. However, at high concentration, 
agents and decomposition products may exhibit some corrosive properties on the skin. 


265 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure of the eyes and skin to halogens can produce local blistering and corrosion. Some 
agents also pass through the skin to induce systemic intoxication. 

10.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

As a class, pulmonary agents do not have good warning properties. However, halogens 
and some alkylating agents will produce eye and skin irritation at low levels. 

Lethal concentrations (LC50S) for inhalation of these agents are as low as 93 ppm for a 
2-minutes exposure. 

10.2.4 Latency Period 

10.2.4.1 Vapor/Aerosols 

Pulmonary effects are usually delayed from 2 to 24 hours. Exposure to very high concentra- 
tions may produce immediate symptoms. Generally, the more rapid the onset of symptoms, 
the more grave the prognosis. 


10.3 Characteristics 

1 0.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

10.3.1.1 Labora tory Grade 

Most pulmonary agents are either volatile liquids or gases. These agents are typically col- 
orless. Odors, if present, vary from mildly pleasant to harsh and irritating. Some agents, 
especially in high concentration, may cause eye irritation and tearing. 

Metal fume agents are odorless solids dispersed as aerosols from incendiary devices. 
Depending on various factors, the aerosol may or may not be visible. 

1 0.3. 1.2 Modified Agents 

Pulmonary agents have been absorbed into porous powders (e.g., pumice) and dissemin- 
ated as dust clouds. The agents are slowly released by the dust particles thereby greatly 
increasing the persistency of the agents. 

Some pulmonary agents are stored and shipped as concentrated solutions to facilitate 
handling and stabilize the agents. Odors will vary depending on the characteristics of the 
solvent(s) used and concentration of pulmonary agent in the solution. 

1 0.3. 1.3 Mixtures with Other Agents 

During World War I, pulmonary agents were sometimes mixed with various metal chlorides 
to produce a visible cloud. Agents were also sometimes mixed with arsenical vesicants 
(Agent Index C04) to increase their lethality. 


10.3.2 Stability 

Pulmonary agents are stable when stored dry. If moisture is present, many agents will 
decompose to acid products that will corrode iron, steel, and other metals. Many com- 
mercially available gases are shipped in a compressed, liquefied form. Some of these 
agents, such as phosgene (C10-A003), can be found commercially as highly concentrated 
or saturated solutions of the gases in organic solvents. 



Pulmonary Agents 


267 


1 0.3.3 Persistency 

For military purposes, pulmonary agents are classified as nonpersistent. Most pulmonary 
agents are either volatile liquids or gases. Aerosols of nonvolatile agents are not persistent. 
Cold weather may decrease the rate of volatilization of liquid and solid agents and increase 
their persistency. Agents absorbed into porous powders may be significantly more persist- 
ent than normal. These powders can be reaerosolized after deployment by ground traffic 
or strong winds. Decomposition products from the breakdown of some agents can pose a 
persistent hazard. 

10.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Due to the volatile nature of most pulmonary agents, there is minimal extended risk except 
in an enclosed or confined space. Vapors have a density greater than air and tend to collect 
in low places. Solids that are dispersed as aerosols have little or no vapor pressure. Once 
the aerosols settle, there is minimal extended hazard from the agents unless the dust is 
resuspended. 

Pulmonary agents have limited solubility in water and many decompose rapidly in 
contact with moisture (e.g., high humidity) or with water. 


10.4 Additional Hazards 

10.4.1 Exposure 

If low volatility agent aerosols or metal fumes have been released, all foodstuffs in the area 
should be considered contaminated. Unopened items packaged in glass, metal, or heavy 
duty plastic may be used after decontamination of the container. Opened or unpackaged 
items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be destroyed. 

Meat and milk from animals affected by metal fumes should be quarantined until 
tested for residual high levels of metals. Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be 
quarantined until tested and determined to be safe to consume. 

1 0.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals exposed to volatile pulmonary agents do not require decontamination. If low 
volatility agent aerosols have been released, animals can be decontaminated with sham- 
poo/soap and water (see Section 10.5.3). If the animals' eyes have been exposed to the 
agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

If low volatility agent aerosols or metal fumes have been released, the topmost layer of 
unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The remaining material 
should be quarantined until tested for residue. It is unlikely that sufficient residue would 
remain on leaves of forage vegetation to pose a significant threat. 

10.4.3 Fire 

Most pulmonary agents are either nonflammable or difficult to ignite. Some are strong 
oxidizers and will support combustion. Agents may be decomposed by heat to produce 
other toxic and/or corrosive gases. They may react with steam or water during a fire 
to produce toxic or corrosive vapors or both. Although pulmonary agents have limited 
solubility in water, actions taken to extinguish the fire can spread the agent. 



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1 0.4.4 Reactivity 

Many of these agents are incompatible with acids, bases, reducing agents, and other flam- 
mable materials. Some agents, such as chloropicrin (C10-A006) and chlorine trifluoride 
(C10-A015), are incompatible with oxidizers. Most pulmonary agents react with water to 
form acidic products. 

1 0.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

10.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 

Most pulmonary agents produce corrosive decomposition products that may include 
hydrogen chloride (HC1), hydrogen bromide (HBr), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and / or hydro- 
gen cyanide (HCN). Agents with metal halide additives will also form potentially toxic 
metallic oxides. 

1 0.4. 5. 2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include HC1, HBr, HF, and/or HCN. Agents 
containing metals will produce metallic oxides. 


10.5 Protection 

1 0.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis 
for the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook 
(ERG). For pulmonary agents, these recommendations are based on two different release 
mechanisms (direct aerosolization of liquid agents or, for gaseous agents, sabotage of com- 
mercial containers) as well as various quantities of material depending on the agent used 
in the release. 

For phosgene, the release scenario involves sabotage of a commercial container with 
either 60 kilograms (approximately 12 gallons) of liquefied agent or 1500 kilograms 
(approximately 290 gallons) of liquefied agent. 

For diphosgene, the release involves direct aerosolization of the liquid agent with a 
particle size between 2 and 5 pm. In this scenario, the difference between a small and a large 
release is not based on the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial hazardous materials 
listed in the ERG. A small release involves 30 kilograms (approximately 5 gallons) of liquid 
agent and a large release involves 500 kilograms (approximately 80 gallons) of liquid agent. 



Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind day 
(miles) 

Downwind night 
(miles) 

CG (Phosgene) C10-A003 

Small device (60 kilograms) 

500 

0.8 

2.0 

Large device (1500 kilograms) 

2500 

4.5 

7+ 

DP (Diphosgene) C10-A004 

Small device (30 kilograms) 

200 

0.2 

0.6 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

600 

1.0 

2.8 



Pulmonary Agents 


269 


10.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

1 0.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Pulmonary agents are primarily a respiratory hazard; however, solids, liquids, or high 
vapor concentrations of some agents may pose a eye/ skin hazard. Structural firefighters' 
protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not effective in spill situ- 
ations or release events. If chemical protective clothing is not available and it is necessary to 
rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' gear will provide 
limited skin protection against agent vapors. Contact with liquids, solids, and solutions 
should be avoided. 

10.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chemical/ 
Biological /Radiological /Nuclear (CBRN) certification. However, during emergency oper- 
ations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by 
the manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by 
the Incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter 
or a combination organic vapor/ acid gas/ particulate cartridge. 

APRs are not recommended for use in an atmosphere containing perfluoroisobutylene 
(C10-A008) because of poor warning properties of the agent and a short life span of 
respirator cartridges. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

10.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction per- 
formance testing against pulmonary agents, particularly those that pose a dermal hazard 
such as halogens. If the concentration of vapor exceeds the level necessary to produce effects 
through dermal exposure, then responders should wear a Level A protective ensemble. 
Since chemical protective clothing is tested against laboratory grade agents, reported 
permeation rates may be affected by solvents if solutions of agents have been released. 

10.5.3 Decontamination 

10.5.3.1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

10.5.3.2 Vapors 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor 
after contact with the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and 
water. Ensure that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped 
vapor. If eye irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum 
of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Ventilate to remove the vapors. 

10.5.3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. Even clothing that has not come into 
direct contact with the agent may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of 



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the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water 
to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Avoid rough scrubbing. Rinse with 
copious amounts of water. If water is not immediately available, the agent can be absorbed 
with any convenient material such as paper towels, toilet paper, flour, or talc. To minimize 
both spreading the agent and abrading the skin, do not rub the agent with the absorbent. 
Blot the contaminated skin with the absorbent. If there is a potential that the eyes have been 
exposed, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material such as 
vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious amounts of 
soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. 

1 0.5. 3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing as 
this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the 
eyes have been exposed, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 
minutes. 

Small areas: Collect the agent by using a vacuum cleaner. Place the collected material into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious amounts 
of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate in containers lined with high- 
density polyethylene. Ventilate the area to remove any agent vapors generated during the 
decontamination. 


10.6 Medical 

10.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

No specific biologic marker/test is available for pulmonary agents as a class; however, 
exposure to bromine might be indicated by detection of elevated bromide levels in serum 
(reference level is 50-100 mg/L), or if chlorine or bromine is released and they are detected 
in environmental samples. The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed 
because either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is 
present or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 


10.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented 
with a potential case of exposure to pulmonary agents: bronchitis; asthma; bacterial or 
viral pneumonia; congestive heart failure with pulmonary edema; acute coronary syn- 
drome; acute respiratory distress syndrome; pulmonary embolism; smoke inhalation; 
bronchial/ pulmonary burns; toxic exposures resulting in methemoglobinemia; salicylate 
overdose; exposure to carbamate or organophosphate pesticides; inhalation of corrosive 
gases such as ammonia, hydrogen chloride (HC1), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) or corrosive 



Pulmonary Agents 


271 


oxides such as those produced by fires involving sulfur or phosphorus; and inhalation of 
hydrocarbon insecticides, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfide. 


10.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

10.6.3.1 Vapors 

Exposure to low concentrations of pulmonary agents may not produce immediate effects. 
However, the severity of poisoning is not related to the presentation or magnitude of imme- 
diate symptoms. Symptoms may include headache, nausea, vomiting, eye and airway 
irritation, tearing, shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and delayed 
pulmonary edema. If halogens, chlorine trifluoride, or chloropicrin have been released, 
there may be redness of the skin or chemical burns. 

10.6.3.2 Liquids 

Irritation and burning of the skin, eyes, mucous membrane, and respiratory system. Direct 
contact may result in chemical burns. 


1 0.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

10.6.4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with signs of pulmonary edema within 4-6 hours postexposure but no further 
complications. 

10.6.4.2 Priority 2 

A casualty with onset of symptoms more than 4 hours post exposure, or with difficulty 
in breathing without objective signs. Observe closely and retriage hourly. After 12 hours, 
retriage every 2 hours. 

10.6.4.3 Priority 3 

An asymptomatic casualty with known or potential exposure to pulmonary agents. Observe 
closely and retriage every 2 hours for at least 6 hours before discharge. 

10.6.4.4 Priority 4 

A casualty with onset of symptoms (pulmonary edema, cyanosis, and hypotension; or 
persistent hypotension despite intensive medical care) less than 4 hours postexposure. This 
triage classification is resource dependent. 


1 0.6.5 Casualty Management 

Remove casualty to fresh air and decontaminate with soap and water. Provide oxygen for 
respiratory distress. If the eyes of the casualty complains of eye irritation, irrigate the eyes 
with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 15 minutes. If solid or liquid agents were 
used, irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, medical personnel do not need to wear a 
chemical-protective mask. 

There is no antidote for exposure to these agents. Enforce rest as even minimal physical 
exertion may shorten the clinical latent period. Asymptomatic individuals suspected of 
exposure to pulmonary agents should be monitored for possible complications caused by 



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pulmonary edema for at least 6 h. Chelation therapy may be appropriate to minimize 
systemic toxicity if metal fumes have been released. 


10.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects and decontaminate with soap and water. 

Pulmonary agents pose little risk of direct residual contamination. Wash the remains with 
soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent may get trapped, such as 
hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. Once the remains have been 
thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action is necessary. Body fluids removed 
during the embalming process do not pose any additional risks and should be contained 
and handled according to established procedures. Use standard burial procedures. 


C10-A 

AGENTS 


C10-A001 

Chlorine (Agent CL) 

CAS: 7782-50-5 
RTECS: F021 00000 
UN: 1017 
ERG: 124 

Cl 2 

Yellow-green gas with a pungent, irritating odor detectable at 0.01 ppm. Cloud is invisible 
below a concentration of approximately 1 % . 

Also reported as a mixture with Sulfur chloride (C03-C033); Phosgene (C10-A003); 
Chloropicrin (C10-A006). 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.90 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

LQsq, 19,000 mg-min/ m 3 (3200 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

ICtsQQnh)' 1800 mg-min/m 3 (310 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

MEG(ijj) Min: 0.50 ppm; Sig: 2.0 ppm; Sev: 20 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.5 ppm 
ACGIH STEL: 1 ppm 
OSHA Ceiling: 1 ppm 
IDLH: 10 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 70.9 VP: 4,992 mmHg 

D: 1.41 g/mL (liq. gas, 68° F) VD: 2.5 (calculated) 

D: 1 .398 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) Vlt: — 

MP: -150° F H 2 0: 0.7% 

BP: -29° F Sol: Alcohols 

Use: 0.245 cS (liq. gas, 77° F) 


FIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.002 
IP: 11.48 eV 



Pulmonary Agents C10-A 


273 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.50 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 2.0 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 20 ppm 


C10-A002 

Bromine 

CAS: 7726-95-6 
RTECS: EF91 00000 
UN: 1744 
ERG: 154 


Dark reddish-brown, fuming liquid with a suffocating, irritating odor detectable at 
0.05-3.5 ppm. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.54 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

LCso(j nh> : 200 mg/ m 3 (31 ppm) is fatal "in a very short time" 

Eye Irritation: 0.32 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 
Respiratory Irritation: 1. 7-3.5 ppm produce severe choking 
MEG( !/,) Min: 0.024 ppm; Sig: 0.24 ppm; Sev: 8.5 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm 
ACGIHTLV: 0.1 ppm 
ACGIH STEL: 0.2 ppm 
IDLH: 3 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 159.8 
D: 3.12 g / mL 
MP: 19° F 
BP: 139° F 
Vsc: 0.38 cS (68° F) 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.033 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.24 p 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 8.5 pt 


C10-A003 

Phosgene (Agent CG) 
CAS: 75-44-5 
RTECS: SY5600000 
UN: 1076 
ERG: 125 


O 



VP: 172 mmHg PIP: None 

VD: 5.5 (calculated) LEE: None 

Vlt: 230,000 ppm UEL: None 

H 2 0: 3.4% (77° F) RP: 0.05 

Sol: Common organic solvents IP: 10.55 eV 


4 h, 0.033 ppm 
4 h, 0.13 ppm 
4 h, 4.5 ppm 


8 h, 0.033 ppm 
8 h, 0.095 ppm 
8 h, 3.2 ppm 


4 h, 0.50 ppm 8 h, 0.50 ppm 

4 h, 1.0 ppm 8 h, 0.7 ppm 

4 h, 10 ppm 8 h, 7.1 ppm 



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CC1 2 0 

Colorless gas with an odor like new mown grass or green corn detectable at 0.4-1 .5 ppm. 
At high concentration, the odor may be strong, stifling, and unpleasant. Eyes, nose, and 
throat become irritated at 3-4 ppm. 

Also reported as a mixture with Chlorine (C10-A001). 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat and Schedule 3 of the CWC. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.04 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
LCt$Q(i n hy 1500 mg-min/ m 3 (190 ppm for a 2-min exposure). 

Exposures to 2 ppm for 80 min will not cause irritation but will produce pulmonary 
edema in 12-16 h. 

Eye Irritation: 0.1 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

MEG ( ih } Min: 0.1 ppm; Sig: 0.3 ppm; Sev: 0.75 ppm 

OSH A PEL: 0.1 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm 

OSHA Ceiling: 0.2 ppm 

IDLH: 2.0 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 98.9 VT:1173mmHg F/P: None 

D: 1 .363 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) VD: 3.4 (calculated) LEE: None 

MP: -198° F Vlt: — UEL: None 

BP: 46° F H 2 O: Very slight (decomposes) RP: 0.01 

Vsc: 0.284 cS (liq. gas, 77° F) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: 11.55 eV 

Status AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.30 ppm 4 h, 0.080 ppm 8 h, 0.040 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 0.75 ppm 4 h, 0.20 ppm 8 h, 0.090 ppm 

C10-A004 

Diphosgene (Agent DP) 

CAS: 503-38-8 
RTECS: LQ7350000 
UN: 1076 
ERG: 125 


C 2 CI 4 O 2 

Colorless liquid with an odor like new mown grass or green corn detectable at 0.5 ppm. 

Decomposes in contact with porous materials, including activated charcoal, or when heated 
above 572° F to produce two molecules of Phosgene (C10-A003). Moisture may accelerate 
decomposition to phosgene at normal temperatures. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.09 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
LCtsoQnhy. 1500 mg-min/ m 3 (93 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 




Pulmonary Agents C10-A 


275 


This is a provisional update from an older value that has not been formally adopted as 
of 2005. See Phosgene (C10-A003) for additional exposure hazards. 

Properties: 

MW: 197.8 VP: 4.2 mmHg PIP: None 

D: 1.653 g/mL VD: 6.8 (calculated) LEL: None 

MP: -71° F Vlt: 1500 ppm UEL: None 

BP: 261° F H 2 0: Insoluble RP: 1.7 

Use: — Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 

C10-A005 

Triphosgene 

CAS: 32315-10-9 
RTECS: — 



C2CI4O2 

White to off-white crystalline material that is odorless. 

Pure triphosgene decomposes when heated above 266° F to produce three molecules of 
Phosgene (C10-A003). Impure material decomposes at lower temperatures. Moisture may 
accelerate decomposition to phosgene at normal temperatures. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.14 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. See 
Phosgene (C10-A003) for additional exposure hazards. 


Properties: 


MW: 296.7 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 174° F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 397° F 

H 2 O: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C10-A006 

Chloropicrin (Agent PS) 
CAS: 76-06-2 
RTECS: PB6300000 
UN: 1580 
ERG: 154 


CCI3NO2 

Colorless to faint yellow oily liquid with a stinging, pungent, intensely irritating odor that 
is detectable at 1.1 ppm. Concentrations between 0.3 and 1.35 ppm cause painful eye irrit- 
ation in less than 30 s. Contact with the liquid produces skin lesions. 




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Decomposes on exposure to light. Large volumes of this chemical may be shock sensitive. 
When heated, this compound may decompose violently. 

Also reported as a mixture with Chlorine (C10-A001); Chloroacetophenone (C13-A008); 
Diphosgene (C10-A004); Ethyl iodoacetate (C13-A012); Hydrogen sulfide (C07-A006); 
Phosgene (C10-A003); Stannic chloride; Sulfuryl chloride (C11-A088); and commercially 
with Methyl bromide (C11-A042). 

This material is on Schedule 3 of the CWC. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.72 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
LCt^dnhy 2000 mg-min/ m 3 (149 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 
Eye Irritation: 0.3 ppm for a 30 s exposure 
Lacrimation: 1-3 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 15 ppm for a 1-min exposure 
OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm 
IDLH: 2 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 164.4 
D: 1.66 g/ mL 
MP: -93° F 
BP: 234° F 
Vsc: — 


VP: 18.3 mmHg 
VD: 5.6 (calculated) 

Vlt: 25,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.19% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.42 
IP: — 


C10-A007 


Bromopicrin 

CAS: 464-10-8 
RTECS: PB0 100000 


Br 

CBrsNCb 

Prismatic crystals or oily, colorless liquid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.18 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 297.7 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 2.79 g/mL 

VD: 10 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

MP: 50° F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 192° F 

H 2 0: <0.1% (64° F) 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C10-A008 

Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) 
CAS: 382-21-8 
RTECS: UD1 800000 



Pulmonary Agents C10-A 


277 



C4F8 

Colorless, odorless gas. Produced by decomposition of Teflon when heated above 887° F. 

A few hours after exposure, there is a gradual increase in temperature (up to 104° F), pulse 
rate (up to 120 bpm), and sometimes in respiration rate. There is no known postexposure 
medical or chemical treatment that slows or reverses the effects of PFIB. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.18 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
ACGIH Ceiling: 0.01 ppm 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this agent appears to be approximately 
four times more toxic than Phosgene (C10-A003). 


Properties: 

MW: 200.0 VP: — PIP: — 

D: — VD: 6.9 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: -249° F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: -20° F H 2 0: Insoluble RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: 10.70 eV 


C10-A009 

Methyl chlorosulfonate (C-Stoff) 
CAS: 812-01-1 
RTECS: — 


O 


O — S— Cl 


O 


CH 3 CIO 3 S 

Clear, viscous liquid. Vapors are highly irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. 
This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 

Also reported as a mixture with Dimethyl sulfate (C03-A009). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.34 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
FC 50 Qnh)'- 2000 mg/ m 3 (375 ppm) for a 10-min exposure 
Eye Irritation: 1.3 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 

No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 



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Properties: 


MW: 130.6 

VP: 8.4 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: 1.51 g/mL 

VD: 4.5 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: -94° F 

Vlt: 11,000 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 232° F 

H 2 O: Reacts 

RP: 1 

Use: — 

Sol: Chloroform; Carbon tetrachloride 

IP: — 


C10-A010 

Ethyl chlorosulfonate (Sulvinite) 

CAS: 625-01-4 
RTECS: — 

C 2 H 5 CIO 3 S 

Colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/ eye impacts. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.91 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

LCsoanhy 1000 mg/m 3 (170 ppm); exposure duration unavailable 

Eye Irritation: 1 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 

No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 


MW: 144.6 

VP: 2.3 mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: 1.379 g/mL 

VD: 5.0 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 3000 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 275° F (decomposes) 

H 2 O: Reacts 

RP: 3.6 

Use: — 

Sol: Ether; Chloroform 

IP: — 


C10-A011 

Bis(chloromethyl) ether 

CAS: 542-88-1 
RTECS: KN1575000 
UN: 2249 
ERG: 131 



C 2 H 4 CI 2 O 

Colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant, and suffocating odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Reacts with moisture in the air to form Formaldehyde (C11-A042) and Hydrogen chloride 
(C11-A030). 

Also reported as a mixture with Ethyldibromoarsine; Ethyldichloroarsine (C04-A001); Sul- 
fur mustard (C03-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.70 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Affects the equilibrium. Casualties stagger and are unable to maintain balance. 
LCtsoQnhy 4700 mg-min/ m 3 (500 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 



Pulmonary Agents C10-A 


279 


Respiratory /Eye Irritation : 3 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 
"Intolerable" Irritation : 8.5 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


ACGIH TLV: 0.001 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 115.0 
D: 1.32 g / mL 
MP: -43° F 
BP: 223° F 
Vsc: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.044 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.18 ppm 


VP: 29.4 mmHg (77° F) PIP: -0.4° F 

VD: 4.0 (calculated) LEE: — 

Vlt: 40,000 ppm UEL: — 

H 2 O: 2.2% (decomposes) RP: 0.3 

Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 


4 h, 0.028 ppm 8 h, 0.020 ppm 

4 h, 0.11 ppm 8 h, 0.075 ppm 


C10-A012 

Bis(bromomethyl) ether 

CAS: 4497-29-4 
RTECS: — 



C2Fl4Br20 

Colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and inges- 
tion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Reacts with moisture in the air to form Formaldehyde (C11-A042) and Flydrogen bromide 
(C11-A029). 

Also reported as a mixture with Ethyldichloroarsine (C04-A001). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.34 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Affects the equilibrium. Casualties stagger and are unable to maintain balance. 
LCt^inhy 4000 mg-min/ m 3 (240 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Respiratory /Eye Irritation: 2.4 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 
"Intolerable" Irritation: 6.0 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 

No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 203.9 VP: 1.9 mmHg PIP: — 

D: 2.20 g/mL VD: 7.0 (calculated) TEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 2.53 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 311° F H 2 0: Insoluble RP: 3.7 

Vsc: — Sol: Ether; Benzene; Acetone IP: — 


C10-A013 

Phenylcarbylamine chloride (K-Stoff) 
CAS: 622-44-6 
RTECS: — 



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UN: 1672 
ERG: 151 



C 7 H 5 CI 2 N 

Pale yellow oily liquid with an odor like onions. This material is hazardous through inhal- 
ation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.12 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
LCtsoynhy 5000 mg-min/ m 3 (350 ppm for a 2 min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.42 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 3.5 ppm for a 1 min exposure 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 

No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 

Properties: 


MW: 174.0 

VP: 0.178 mmHg (77° F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.35 g/mL 

VD: 6.0 (calculated) 

TEL: — 

MP: 67° F 

Vlt: 295 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 410° F 

H 2 0: 0.04% (77° F) 

RP: 43 

Use: — 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Chloroform 

IP: — 


C10-A014 

Perchloromethyl mercaptan (Clairsite) 
CAS: 594-42-3 
RTECS: PB0370000 
UN: 1670 
ERG: 157 


Cl 



ecus 

Pale yellow to red oily liquid with a foul, unbearable, acrid odor that is detectable at 0.016 
ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Also reported as a mixture with Sulfur dichloride (C03-C034). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.60 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

LCt^oQnh)'. 30,000 mg-min/ m 3 (2000 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 1.3 ppm for a 2-min exposure 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 9.2 ppm; exposure duration unavailable 

These values are from older sources (circa 1937) and are not supported by modern 
data. No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 

MEG(ih) Min: 0.014 ppm; Sig: 0.035 ppm; Sev: 0.30 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm 
IDLH: 10 ppm 



Pulmonary Agents C10-A 


281 


Properties: 

MW: 185.9 
D: 1.722 g/mL 
MP: — 

BP: 297° F (decomposes) 
BP: 123° F (25 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 

Status AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.012 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.035 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 0.30 ppm 


VP: 3 mmFIg 
VD: 6.5 (calculated) 
Vlt: 2,400 ppm 
H 2 O: Insoluble 
Sol: Ether 


FIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 2.4 
IP: — 


4 h, 0.0074 ppm 
4 h, 0.022 ppm 
4 h, 0.075 ppm 


8 h, 0.0049 ppm 
8 h, 0.014 ppm 
8 h, 0.038 ppm 


C10-A015 

Chlorine trifluoride (N-Stoff) 

CAS: 7790-91-2 
RTECS: F02800000 
UN: 1749 
ERG: 124 

C1F 3 

Greenish-yellow fuming liquid or colorless gas with a sweet, irritating, and suffocating 
odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Can spontaneously ignite when in contact with organic matter. Reacts with moist air to 
produce Chlorine (C10-A001), Hydrogen fluoride (C11-A031), and Chlorine dioxide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.78 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

MEG ( !/,) Min: 0.12 ppm; Sig: 3.1 ppm; Sev: 15 ppm 

OSHA Ceiling: 0.1 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 0.1 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 0.01 ppm 

IDLH: 20 ppm 


Properties: 


MW: 92.4 

VP: 1060 

mmHg 

FIP: — 

D: 1.785 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° 

F) VD: 3.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: -117° F 

Vlt: — 


UEL: — 

BP: 53° F 

H 2 O: Decomposes 

RP: 0.01 

Vsc: 0.231 cS (77° F) 

Sol: — 


IP: — 

Interim AEGLs 




AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.12 ppm 

4 h, 0.12 ppm 

8 h, 0.12 ppm 


AEGL-2: 1 h, 2.0 ppm 

4 h, 0.7 ppm 

8 h, 0.41 ppm 


AEGL-3: 1 h, 21 ppm 

4 h, 7.3 ppm 

8 h, 7.3 ppm 



C10-A016 

Disulfur decafluoride (Agent Z) 
CAS: 5714-22-7 
RTECS: WS4480000 



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F 


\ / 

— S — 
/ \ 

F F 



S2F10 


Colorless liquid or gas that is odorless. Sulfur dioxide is a common impurity that will 
give the material a characteristic odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.39 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

OSHA PEL: 0.025 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 0.01 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 0.01 ppm 

IDLH: 1.0 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 254.1 
D: 2.08 g/mL (32° F) 
MP: -134° F 
BP: 84° F 
Vsc: — 


VP: 561 mmHg 
VD: 8.8 (calculated) 
Vlt: 750,000 ppm 
H 2 O: Insoluble 
So/: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.01 
IP: — 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Bis(chloromethyl) Ether ToxFAQs." July 1999. 

. "Chlorine ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

. "Nitrogen Oxides (Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, etc.) ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

. "Phosgene ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

. "Chlorine." In Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents Volume III — Medical Management 

Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
2000 . 

."Phosgene." In Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents Volume III — Medical Management 

Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures. Rev ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
2000 . 

. Toxicological Profile for Bis(chloromethul) Ether. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

December 1989. 

. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, July 1999. 

. Toxicological Profile for Chloroform. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 

1997. 

Brophy, Leo P., Wyndham D. Miles, and Rexmond C. Cohrane. The Chemical Warfare Service: From 
Laboratory to Field. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1968. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition: Bromine." March 4, 2005. 

. "Case Definition: Chlorine." March 9, 2005. 

"Case Definition: Phosgene." March 10, 2005. 

"Facts About Phosgene." March 17, 2003. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Damle, Suresh B. "Safe Handling of Diphosgene, Triphosgene." Chemical & Engineering News 71 (8 Feb 
1993): 4. 



References 


283 


Fries, Amos A., and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

Jackson, Kirby E., and Margaret A. Jackson. "Lachrymators." Chemical Reviews 16 (1935): 195-242. 

Lumsden, Malvern. Incendiary Weapons. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1975. 

Marrs, Timothy C., Robert L. Maynard, and Frederick R. Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents : Toxicology 
and Treatment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 2005. 

National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http:// toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ cgi- 
bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2005. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Prentiss, Augustin M. Chemicals in War: A Treatise on Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1937. 

Sartori, Mario F. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L.W. Marrison. London: J. & 
A. Churchill, Ltd, 1939. 

Sidell, Frederick R. Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties: A Handbook for Emergency 
Medical Services. Bel Air, MD: HB Publishing, 1995. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 2, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W., ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Somani, Satu M., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. New York: Academic Press, 1992. 

Somani, Satu M., and James A. Romano, Jr., eds. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels. Boca 
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. 

Swearengen, Thomas F. Tear Gas Munitions: An Analysis of Commercial Riot Gas Guns, Tear Gas Projectiles, 
Grenades, Small Arms Ammunition, and Related Tear Gas Devices. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas 
Publisher, 1966. 

True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume I, Edgewood Arsenal Special Report 
No. EO-SR-74001. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Potential Military Chemical /Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chem- 
ical Casualties Handbook. 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
Edition, http:/ /www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm. March 2004. 

Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection against It. Rev. ed. New York: 
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1944. 

Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts About Choking Agent Phosgene (CG). Aberdeen Proving Ground, 
MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

World Health Organization. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Report of a WHO Group 
of Consultants. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1970. 

. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004. 

http: / / www.cdc.gov/niosh/ ipcs/icstart.html. 

. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Geneva: World 

Health Organization, 2004. 

Yaws, Carl L. Matheson Gas Data Book. 7th ed. Parsippany, NJ: Matheson Tri-Gas, 2001. 




11 

Toxic Industrial Agents 


11.1 General Information 

Chemicals in this class include agricultural and industrial chemicals that are readily 
available and possess appropriate chemical and toxicological properties to create a mass 
impact if deliberately released. These materials were selected by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation (FBI), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Department of 
Defense. 

All of these chemicals pose an inhalation hazard but a toxic dose could also be obtained 
through skin absorption or ingestion. Factors that were considered when selecting potential 
candidate chemicals include global production, physical state of the material (i.e., gas, 
liquid, or solid), chemicals likely to cause major morbidity or mortality, potential to cause 
public panic and social disruption, chemicals that require special action for public health 
preparedness, history of previous use by the military, and/ or involvement in a significant 
industrial accident. 

In addition to the chemicals included on the other lists, the CDC also included heavy 
metals such as arsenic, lead, and mercury; volatile solvents such as benzene, chloroform, 
and bromoform; decomposition products such as dioxins and furans; polychlorinated 
biphenyls (PCBs); flammable industrial gases and liquids such as gasoline and propane; 
explosives and oxidizers; and all persistent and nonpersistent pesticides. Agents included 
in this volume are limited to those that are most likely to pose an acute toxicity hazard. 


11.2 Toxicology 
11.2.1 Effects 

Many of these chemicals are similar to, but generally less toxic than, military chemical 
agents identified in other chapters of this book (e.g., nerve agents, vesicant agents, etc.). 
Flowever, some of them are systemic poisons that act in ways that do not fit into one of the 
standard military classifications. 


1 1 .2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

All of these materials pose an inhalation hazard. In addition, many liquid and solid 
agents are hazardous through ingestion, or when introduced through broken, abraded. 


285 



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or lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin by debris). Some of these materials readily pass 
through the skin to induce systemic intoxication. Some materials may also cause irritation 
to the skin and eye. 


11.3 Protection 

11.3.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

There are no published recommendations for isolation or protective action distances for 
these materials deliberately released in mass casualty situations. However, traditional 
isolation and protective action distances for most of these materials can be found in the 
Department of Transportation 2004 Emergency Response Guide (ERG). These recommendations 
are based on an accidental release during transportation of the material and involving a 
small spill (i.e., a commercial gas cylinder or 200 liters or less of liquid material), or a large 
spill (i.e., more than one gas cylinder, a large gas container such as a railcar, or more than 
200 liters of liquid material). 

A simplified downwind hazard assessment can be developed by plotting these protective 
action distances in the form of a map overlay. The initial distance is the radius of a circle 
immediately surrounding the point of release where people may potentially be exposed to 
dangerous or life threatening concentrations of vapor. The downwind distance indicates 
the area of potential threat posed by vapors carried by the wind. These distances were not 
developed to account for additional contamination from a dispersal device. In such cases, 
the initial isolation and downwind evacuation distances should begin at the edge of any 
contamination caused by the release. Figure 11.1 is an example of a simplified downwind 
hazard assessment for an irregular release that should be used during a deliberate release 
scenario. 

The amount of contamination and the distance an agent cloud will travel is based primar- 
ily on the physical / chemical properties of the specific agent, method of release, local terrain, 
and weather conditions. 


Wind direction 



FIGURE 11.1 


Irregular release simplified downwind hazard diagram 









Toxic Industrial Agents 


287 


11.3.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

7 1.3.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. If chemical protective clothing is not available 
and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' 
gear will provide limited skin protection against agent vapors and aerosols. Contact with 
solid and liquid agents should be avoided. Depending on the material, firefighters who 
enter a contaminated area wearing only structural firefighters' gear may experience mild 
to moderate effects. Some materials, such as organophosphate pesticides, can accumulate 
in the body and responders who enter the hot zone without appropriate chemical protective 
clothing may be at increased risk during the remainder of the emergency. 

7 1. 3.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved self-contained 
breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) that have been tested by 
the manufacturer against the individual chemicals may be used. APRs should be equipped 
with a NIOSH approved Chemical /Biological /Radiological /Nuclear (CBRN) filter or a 
combination organic vapor/ acid gas /particulate cartridge. Ensure that the cartridge has 
been tested against the specific chemical and that the concentration of the agent does not 
exceed the saturation level of the cartridge. APRs are not recommended for use in atmo- 
spheres containing some of these chemicals because of poor warning properties of the agent 
and a short life span of respirator cartridges. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

7 1.3. 2. 3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone appropriate material and con- 
struction performance testing. If the concentration of vapor exceeds the level necessary to 
produce effects through dermal exposure, then responders should wear a Level A protect- 
ive ensemble. Reported permeation rates may be affected by solvents if solutions of agents 
have been released. 

11.3.3 Decontamination 

7 1.3.3. 1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

11.3.3.2 Vapors 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor 
after contact with the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and 
water. Ensure that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped 
vapor. If eye irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 
15 minutes. 

Small areas: Ventilate to remove the vapors. If deemed necessary, wash the area with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Collect and place into containers lined with high-density poly- 
ethylene. Removal of porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required because 
agents that have been absorbed into these materials may migrate back to the surface and 
pose a contact hazard. 



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1 1.3. 3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. Even clothing that has not come into 
direct contact with the agent may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of 
the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water 
to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Avoid rough scrubbing. Rinse with 
copious amounts of water. If water is not immediately available, the agent can be absorbed 
with any convenient material such as paper towels, toilet paper, flour, or talc. To minimize 
both spreading the agent and abrading the skin, do not rub the agent with the absorbent. 
Blot the contaminated skin with the absorbent. If there is a potential that the eyes have been 
exposed, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Small puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent materials 
such as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed mater- 
ial into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Larger puddles can be collected 
using vacuum equipment made of materials inert to the released material and equipped 
with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and appropriate vapor filters. If there is a 
potential for corrosive residue, the area should be treated with an appropriate neutralizing 
agent. Wash the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the 
rinseate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. 

1 1. 3.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties / personnel : Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing as 
this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that 
the eyes have been exposed, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 
15 minutes. 

Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that 
could create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize 
the agent such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner made of 
materials inert to the released material and equipped with a HEPA filter and appropriate 
vapor filters. Do not use a standard home or industrial vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum 
exhaust to stir the air in the affected area. Vacuum all surfaces with extreme care in a 
very slow and controlled manner to minimize aerosolizing the agent. Place the collected 
material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. If there is a potential for 
corrosive residue, the area should be treated with an appropriate neutralizing agent. Wash 
the area with copious amounts of the soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate 
in containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Ventilate the area to remove any agent 
vapors generated during the decontamination. 


11.4 Medical 

11.4.1 CDC Case Definition 

Case definitions exist for the following agents: anhydrous ammonia (C11-A061), arsenic 
trioxide (C11-A047), calcium arsenate (C11-A048), copper acetoarsenite (C11-A049), 



Toxic Industrial Agents 


289 


hydrogen fluoride (C11-A064), lead arsenate (C11-A050), methoxyethyl mercury acetate 
(C11-A052), methyl bromide (C11-A042), methyl isocyanate (C11-A127), methyl mercury 
dicyandiamide (C11-A053), methyl mercury hydroxide (C11-A054), nitric acid (C11-A066), 
paraquat (C11-A057), phenyl mercury acetate (C11-A056), phosphine (C11-A044), sodium 
arsenite (C11-A051), sodium fluoroacetate (C11-A058), stibine (C11-A080), and sulfuric acid 
(C11-A067). 

1 1 .4.2 Signs and Symptoms 

1 1.4.2. 1 Vapors 

Vary depending on the specific chemical involved, concentration of the cloud, and length 
of exposure. Common symptoms of acute exposure (in no specific order) may include 
dizziness, loss of coordination, disorientation, problems in breathing (e.g., rapid breathing, 
chest tightness, or shortness of breath), chest pains, heart palpitations, problems seeing 
(e.g., blurred vision, eye irritation, pinpointing, or dilation of the pupils), heavy sweating, 
headache, ringing in the ears, nose or skin irritation, coughing, nausea, vomiting, con- 
vulsions, and loss of consciousness. Exposure to low concentrations of chemical may not 
produce immediate effects. 

1 1.4.2. 2 Liquids/Solids 

Vary depending on the specific chemical involved, concentration of the agent, and length of 
exposure. Common symptoms of acute exposure (in no specific order) may include irritation 
and burning of the skin, eyes, mucous membrane, and respiratory system. Contact may 
also result in chemical burns to the skin and eyes. 

1 1 .4.3 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

The base station physician or regional poison control center should be consulted for advice 
on specific situations. However, in general, anyone who has been exposed should be trans- 
ported to a medical facility for evaluation. Individuals who are asymptomatic and have not 
been directly exposed to the chemical can be discharged after their names, addresses, and 
telephone numbers have been recorded. They should be instructed to seek medical care 
immediately if symptoms develop. 

1 1 .4.4 Casualty Management 

Remove casualty to fresh air and decontaminate with soap and water. Provide oxygen for 
respiratory distress. If the eyes of the casualty complains of eye irritation, irrigate the eyes 
with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open wounds with water 
or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, medical personnel do not need to wear a 
chemical-protective mask. 

Prior to administering antidotes or other drugs, ensure that the signs and symptoms 
(e.g., coma, seizures, etc.) are due to chemical exposure and not the result of head trauma 
or other physical injury. 

Consider tracheal intubation in cases of respiratory compromise. Treat patients who 
have bronchospasm with aerosolized bronchodilators. Use these and all catecholamines 
with caution because of the enhanced risk of cardiac dysrhythmias after exposure to some 
chemicals. When bronchodilators are needed, the lowest effective dose should be given and 
cardiac rhythm should be monitored. After decontamination, patients who are comatose. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


hypotensive, have cardiac dysrhythmias, or are having seizures should be treated according 
to established advanced life support (ALS) protocols. 

Consult the base station physician or regional poison control center for chemical specific 
information. 


11.5 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects and decontaminate with soap and water. While 
it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and more efficient 
to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. Items that will 
be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable containers, 
ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the outer one. 

Wash the remains with soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent 
may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. If 
remains are heavily contaminated with residue, wash and rinse waste should be contained 
for proper disposal. 

If organophosphorus pesticides are involved, then it may be necessary to wash the 
remains with a 2% sodium hypochlorite bleach solution (i.e., 2 gallons of water for every 
gallon of household bleach). This concentration of bleach will not affect remains but 
will neutralize organophosphorus pesticides. Higher concentrations of bleach can harm 
remains. The bleach solution should remain on the cadaver for a minimum of 5 minutes 
before rinsing with water. 

Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action 
is necessary. Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any addi- 
tional risks and should be contained and handled according to established procedures. Use 
standard burial procedures. 


Cll-A 

AGENTS 


C11-A001 

Azinphos-methyl 

CAS: 86-50-0 
RTECS: TE 1925000 



C10H12N3O3PS2 

Colorless to white or yellow crystalline material that has no odor. Technical grade is a cream 
to yellow-brown granular or waxy solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


291 


Used industrially as an insecticide, acaricide, and molluscicide. 
This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.98 mg/m 3 at 77°4 F 
OSHA PEL: 0.02 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.015 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 0.77 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 317.3 
D: 1.44 g/cm 3 
MP: 162°F 

MP: 153°F (commercial grade) 
BP: Decomposes 
Use: — 


VP: 0.0000016 mmFIg 
VD: 11 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.0023 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.00209% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 3,000,000 
IP: — 


C11-A002 

Bomyl 

CAS: 122-10-1 
RTECS: — 



C9H15O8P 

Yellow oily liquid. Commercial grade is 80-90% agent. Both geometric isomers have sim- 
ilar toxicity. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. This material is 
absorbed through the skin very quickly. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.54mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties (commercial grade): 

MW: 282.2 VP: 25 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 1.2 g/mL VD: 9.7 (calculated) 

MP: — Vlt: — 

BP: 311-329°F (17 mmHg) H 2 0: "Practically insoluble" 
Use: — Sol: Alcohols; Acetone; Xylene; 

Propylene Glycol 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.24 
IP: — 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C11-A003 

Bromophos-ethyl 

CAS: 4824-78-6 
RTECS: — 



CioH 12 BrCl20 3 PS 

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 16.12 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
Properties (commercial grade): 

MW: 394.1 VP: 0.000046 mmHg (86° F) FIP: — 

D: 1.52-1.55 g/mL VD: 14 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 0.06 ppm (86°F) UEL: — 

BP: 252-271 °F (0.001 mmHg) H 2 0: 0.000014-0.000044% RP: 110,000 
Use: — Sol: Most common solvents IP: — 


C11-A004 

Carbophenothion 

CAS: 786-19-6 
RTECS: TD5250000 


Cl 



CnH 16 C10 2 PS 3 

Colorless to light amber liquid with a foul odor. Commercial grade is 95% agent. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, 
and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. This material is absorbed through the 
skin very quickly. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


293 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 14.02 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LD 50 ( Ing ): 0.6 g (estimate) 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties (commercial grade): 

MW: 342.9 VP: 0.0000003 mmHg 

D: 1.285 g/mL VD: 12 (calculated) 

D: 1 .271 g/mL (77° F) Vlt: — 

MP: — H 2 0: 0.0000063% 

BP: 180°F (0.01 mmFIg) Sol: Most organic solvents 
Vsc: — 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 18,000,000 
IP: — 


C11-A005 

Chlorfenvinphos 

CAS: 470-90-6 
RTECS: TB8750000 



C12H14CI3O4P 

Colorless to yellow to amber liquid with a mild odor. Commercial grade is 90% agent. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken 
skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 14.71 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties (commercial grade): 

MW: 359.6 VP: 0.0000075 mmHg (77°F) FIP: None 

D: 1.36 g/mL VD: 12 (calculated) LEL: None 

MP: —9 to — 2°F Vlt: 0.01 ppm UEL: None 

BP: 333°F (0.5 mmHg) H 2 0: 0.012% (slowly decomposes) RP: 710,000 

BP: 255°F (0.008 mmHg) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 

Vsc: — 


C11-A006 

Demeton 

CAS: 8065-48-3 
RTECS: TF31 50000 



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Mixture 

Amber, oily liquid with an odor like sulfur. This material is hazardous through inhala- 
tion, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.57 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 0.009 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.005 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 0.94 ppm 


Properties (commercial grade): 


MW: Mixture 
D: 1.12 g/mL 
MP: <— 13°F 
BP: Decomposes 
Use: — 


VP: 0.0003 mmHg 
VD: 8.9 (calculated) 
Vlt: 0.40 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.01% 

Sol: — 


PIP: 113°F 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 21,000 
IP: — 


C11-A007 

Dicrotophos 

CAS: 141-66-2 
RTECS: TC3850000 



c 8 h :6 no 5 p 

Yellow-brown liquid with a mild ester odor. Commercial material is brown. Mixture of the 
E and Z geometric isomers. Commercial material containing 85% E isomer, which is the 
active isomer. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. It is corrosive to 
cast iron, mild steel, brass, and stainless steel. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.70 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.005 ppm [Skin] 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


295 


Properties: 

MW: 237.2 VP: 0.0001 mmHg PIP: >200°F 

D: 1.216 g/mL (59°F) VP: 0.00016 mmHg (77°F) LET: — 

MP: — VD: 8.2 (calculated) UEL: — 

BP: 752°F Vlt: 0.13 ppm RP: 64,000 

BP: 266°F(0.1 mmHg) H 2 0: Miscible IP : — 


Vsc: — Sol: Acetone; Alcohols; Chloroform; 

Xylene 

C11-A008 

Dimefox 

CAS: 115-26-4 
RTECS: — 



C 4 H 12 FN 2 OP 

Colorless liquid with a fishy odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.30 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 154.1 

VP: 0.11 mmHg 

PIP: — 

D: 1.1151 g/mL 

VP: 0.36 (77°F) 

LEE: — 

MP: — 

VD: 5.3 (calculated) 

UEL: — 

BP: 187°F (15 mmHg) 

Vlt: 150 ppm 

RP: 73 

BP: 153°F (4 mmHg) 

H 2 0: Miscible 

IP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: Most organic solvents 



C11-A009 

Dioxathion 

CAS: 78-34-2 
RTECS: TE3350000 

S S 


o— p — S s— P— O 




296 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C12H26O6P2S4 

Viscous, brown, tan, or dark-amber liquid. Commercial product is a mixture of cis and 
trans isomers. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 18.67 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.005 ppm [Skin] 


Properties: 

MW: 456.5 
D: 1.257 g/mL (79°F) 
MP: -4°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: 93.1 cS (77°F) 


VP: — 
VD: — 
Vlt : — 


H 2 O: Insoluble 

Sol: Alcohols; Ketones; Aromatic 
hydrocarbons 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 


C11-A010 

Disulfoton 

CAS: 298-04-4 
RTECS: TD9275000 


s 



C8H19O2PS3 

Oily, colorless to yellow liquid with a characteristic aromatic sulfur odor. Commercial 
product is a yellow to brown liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.22 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.004 ppm [Skin] 

FIP: >180°F 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 33,000 
IP: — 


Properties: 

MW: 274.4 
D: 1.144 g/mL 
MP: <-13°F 
BP: 235°F (0.4 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 0.00018 mmHg 
VD: 9.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.24 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.00163% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


C11-A011 

EPN 

CAS: 2104-64-5 
RTECS: TB 1925000 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


297 




N0 2 


C 14 H 14 NO 4 PS 

White to light yellow crystalline solid or brown liquid with an aromatic odor. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 13.22 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 0.04 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.008 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 0.38 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 323.3 

D: 1.270 g/cm 3 (77° F) 
MP: 97°F 

BP: 419°F (5 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: Negligible 

VP: 0.0003 mmHg (212°F) 

VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.000311% 

Sol: Alcohols; Ether; Acetone; 
Aromatic solvents 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 6,000,000 
IP: — 


C11-A012 


Fenamiphos 

CAS: 22224-92-6 
RTECS: TB3675000 



c 13 h 22 no 3 ps 

Colorless crystals or off-white to tan, waxy solid. This material is hazardous through inhal- 
ation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.41 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.05 mg/m 3 [Skin] 



298 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 303.4 VP: 0.000001 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 1.191 g/cm 3 (73°F) VP: 0.000047 mmFIg (commercial grade) 
MP: 121°F VD: 10 (calculated) 

BP: — Vlt: — 

Vsc: — H 2 0: 0.0329% 

Sol: Organic solvents 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 6,000,000 
IP: — 


C11-A013 


Fenophosphon 

CAS: 327-98-0 
RTECS: — 



C 10 H 12 Cl3O 2 PS 

Amber colored liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 13.64 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 333.6 
D: 1.365 g/ mL 
MP: — 

BP: 226. 4° F (0.01 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 0.000015 mmHg 
VD: 12 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.02 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.000059% 

Sol: Acetone; Alcohols; Kerosene 


FIP: — 

LEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 400,000 
IP: — 


C11-A014 

Fonofos 

CAS: 944-22-9 
RTECS: TA5950000 



CioHi50PS 2 

Clear, colorless to light-yellow liquid with an aromatic; pungent skunk-like odor. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/ eye impacts. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


299 


Used industrially as a soil fumigant. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.07 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.01 ppm [Skin] 

FIP: >201 °F 
TEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 19,000 
IP: — 


Properties: 

MW: 246.3 
D: 1.16 g / cm 3 
MP: 90°F 

BP: 266°F (0.1 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 0.0002 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 8.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.44 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.00157% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


C11-A015 


Isophenphos 

CAS: 25311-71-1 
RTECS: DH2255000 



C 15 H 24 NO 4 PS 

Yellow-brown liquid. Commercial material is a colorless oil. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural pesticide. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 14.13 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 345.4 
D: 1.131 g/ mL 
MP: 10°F 

BP: 248° F (0.01 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 0.000003 mmHg (77°F) FIP: — 

VD: 12 (calculated) LEE: — 

Vlt: — UEL: — 

H 2 0: 0.0022% RP: 2,000,000 

Sol: Acetone; Kerosene; n-Hexane IP: — 


C11-A016 

Mephosfolan 

CAS: 950-10-7 
RTECS: — 



300 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


O 




{ 


c 8 h :6 no 3 ps 2 

Colorless to yellow to amber liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used as an agricultural insecticide and acaricide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.02 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 269.3 

D: 1.539 g/mL (79°F) 

MP: — 

BP: 248 °F (0.003 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 0.0000318 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 9.3 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.04 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 0: 5.7% (77°F) 

Sol: Acetone; Ethanol; Toluene 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 200,000 
IP: — 


C11-A017 

Methamidophos 

CAS: 10265-92-6 
RTECS: TB4970000 


O 



NH 2 


c 2 h 8 no 2 ps 

Colorless crystalline solid with a mercaptan odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.77mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 141.1 VP: 0.000035 mmHg (77°F) FIP: — 

D: 1.27g/cm 3 VD: 4.9 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 129°F Vlt: 0.05 ppm UEL: — 

MP: 68-77°F (commercial grade) H 2 0: Miscible RP: 240,000 

BP: Decomposes Sol: Alcohols; Hexane; IP: — 


Use: — Dichloromethane; Toluene 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


301 


C11-A018 

Methidathion 

CAS: 950-37-8 
RTECS: — 



O 


C 6 H :i N 2 0 4 PS3 

Colorless to white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 
Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.37 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 302.3 
D: 1.51 g/cm 3 
MP: 102°F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: 0.00000337 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 10 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.004 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.0187% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: — 

LEU — 

UEL: — 

RP: 2,000,000 
IP: — 


C11-A019 

Methyl parathion 

CAS: 298-00-0 
RTECS: TG01 75000 
UN: 2783 (solid); 3018 (liquid) 
ERG: 152 


no 2 



c 8 h 10 no 5 ps 

White to tan, crystalline solid or powder. Commercial product (80% solution in xylene) is 
tan colored. The pure material is odorless; otherwise, it has a pungent odor like garlic or 
rotten eggs. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, 
and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

This material poses an explosive risk when heated above 122°F. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 



302 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.77 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.019 ppm [Skin] 


Properties: 

MW: 263.2 
D: 1.358 g/cm 3 
MP: 95°F 
BP: 289°F 
Vsc: — 


VP: 0.0000097 mmHg 
VD: 9.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.013 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.0055% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: 115°F 
LEU — 
UEL: — 

RP: 630,000 
IP: — 


C11-A020 

Mevinphos 

CAS: 7786-34-7 
RTECS: GQ5250000 



o 


/ 


c 7 H 13 o 6 p 

Pale-yellow to orange liquid with a mild or "weak" odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. The "cis" isomer is about 100 times more 
toxic than the " trans ” isomer. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 0.01 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.001 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH STEL: 0.03 ppm 
IDLH: 4 ppm 


Properties: 

FIP: 175°F 
LEE: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 52,000 
IP: — 

MP: 44°F (trans isomer) 

BP: Decomposes 
BP: 223°F (1 mmHg) 

Use: 6.6 cS (77° F) 


MW: 224.1 

D: 1.25 g/mL (mixture) 

D: 1.2345 g/mL ( cis isomer) 
D: 1.245 g/ mL ( trans isomer) 
MP: 70°F ( cis isomer) 


VP: 0.003 mmHg 
VD: 7.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.17 ppm 

H?0: Miscible (decomposes rapidly) 
Sol: Most organic solvents 


C11-A021 

Monocrotophos 

CAS: 6923-22-4 
RTECS: TC4375000 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


303 


N 



/ 


c 7 h 14 no 5 p 

Colorless to reddish-brown solid with a mild odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.13 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.005 ppm [Skin] 


Properties: 

MW: 223.2 
D: — 

ATP: 129°F 

ATP: 77-86°F (commercial grade) 
BP: 257°F 
Use: — 


VP: 0.000007 mmHg 
VD: 7.7 (calculated) 
Vlt: 0.01 ppm 
H 2 O: Miscible 
Sol: Acetone; Alcohols 


PIP: >200°F 
TEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 950,000 
IP: — 


C11-A022 

Parathion 

CAS: 56-38-2 
RTECS: TF4550000 



C 10 H 14 NO 5 PS 

Pale-yellow to dark-brown liquid with a faint odor like garlic. Odor becomes more pro- 
nounced during storage. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption 
(liquid), penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the FBI and CDC threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.91 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
hD50d«g) : 0.210 g 

MEG ah) Min: 0.024 ppm; Sig: 0.16 ppm; Sev: 0.8 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.008 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.004 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 0.8 ppm 



304 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 291.3 

D: 1.26 g/mL (77° F) 

MP: 43° F 

BP: 707°F 

Vsc: 12.14 cS (77°F) 


VP: 0.00004 mmHg 
VD: 10 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.05 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.0011% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: 392°F 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 150,000 
IP: — 


C11-A023 

Phorate 

CAS: 298-02-2 
RTECS: TD9450000 


S 



C 7 H 17 O 2 PS 3 

Colorless to light yellow liquid with a skunk-like odor. Commercial material may be light 
brown. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.005 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH STEL: 0.019 ppm [Skin] 

Properties: 

PIP: 320°F 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 9600 
IP: — 

BP: 167°F (0.1 mmHg) 

Use: — 


MW: 260.4 

D: 1.156 g/mL (77°F) 

D: 1.167 g/mL (77°F; commercial 
grade) 

MP: — 45°F 


VP: 0.000638 mmHg 
VD: 9.0 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.85 ppm 

H 2 0: 0.005% (decomposes slowly) 
Sol: Most organic solvents 


C11-A024 

Phosphamidon 

CAS: 13171-21-6 
RTECS: TC2800000 





Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


305 


c 10 h 19 cino 5 p 

Colorless to pale-yellow, oily liquid with a "faint" odor. Commercial product is a mixture 
of cis and trans isomers. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 
Used as an agricultural insecticide. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
PD50 (ing)- 0.49 g (estimate) 


Properties: 

MW: 299.7 

D: 1.2132 g/mL (77° F) 

MP: -49°F 

BP: 324°F (1.5 mmHg) 

BP: 248° F (0.001 mmHg) 

Use: 58 cS (77°F; Commercial material) 


VP: 0.0000165 (77°F) 

VD: 10 (calculated) 

VI t: 0.02 ppm 77°F) 

H 2 O: Miscible 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: — 

TEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 350,000 
IP: — 


C11-A025 

Schradan 

CAS: 152-16-9 
RTECS: — 


V O N 

\ II I / 

N — P— O— P — N 

/I II ' 

7 O 


C8H24N4O3P2 

Commercial material is a dark brown viscous liquid. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/eye impacts. 

Used as an agricultural systemic insecticide and acaricide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.71 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 286.3 

D: 1.1343 g/mL (77° F) 
MP: 63°F 

BP: 248° F (0.5mmHg) 
Use: — 


UP: 0.001 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 9.9 (calculated) 

Vlt: 1.3 ppm (77° F) 

H 2 O: Miscible 

Sol: Alcohols; Ketones; Aromatic 
hydrocarbons 


FIP: — 
LEE: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 6000 
IP: — 


C11-A026 

Sulfotepp 

CAS: 3689-24-5 
RTECS: XN4375000 



306 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


UN: 1704 
ERG: 153 



S S 


o— p— o— 





C8H20O5P2S2 

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid with an odor like garlic. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

OSHA PEL: 0.015 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.0076 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 0.76 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 322.3 

D: 1.196 g/mL (77°F) 

MP: — 

BP: Decomposes 
BP: 277°F (2 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 0.000105 mmHg 
VD: 11 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.14 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.0025% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 53,000 
IP: — 


C11-A027 

Terbufos 

CAS: 13071-79-9 
RTECS: — 



C 9 H 21 O 2 PS 3 

Clear, colorless to pale-yellow liquid. Commercial material may be reddish to brown. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a soil insecticide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


307 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.0008 ppm [Skin] 

FIP: 190°F 
TEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 18,000 
IP: — 


Properties: 

MW: 288.4 VP: 0.00032 mmHg 

D: 1.105 g/mL (75°F) VD: 9.9 (calculated) 

MP: -21 °F V/f: 0.43 ppm 

BP: 156°F (0.01 mmHg) H 2 0: 0.0005% 

Vsc: — Sol: Most organic solvents 


C11-A028 

Tetraethyl pyrophosphate (Agent EA 1285) 

CAS: 107-49-3 
RTECS: UX6825000 
UN: 3018 
ERG: 152 

O O 


II 



QH20O7P2 

Colorless to amber liquid with a faint fruity odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists, and on the ITF-25 low threat list. 
Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.87 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 0.004 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.004 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 0.42 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 290.2 VP: 0.0002 mmHg FIP: None 

D: 1.1998 g/mL VP: 0.00047 mmHg (86°F) LEE: None 

MP: 32°F VD: 10 (calculated) UEL: None 

BP: Decomposes Vlt: 0.27 ppm RP: 29,000 

BP: 255°F (1 mmHg) H 2 0: Miscible (decomposes) IP: — 


Vsc: — Sol: Acetone; Alcohols; Aromatic 

and Halogenated solvents 


C11-A029 

Aldicarb 

CAS: 116-06-3 
RTECS: UE2275000 



308 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C7H14N2O2S 

Colorless crystalline material with a faint sulfur odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a soil insecticide, acaricide, nematocide, and aviacide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.78 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
AIHA WEEL: 0.07 mg/m 3 [Skin] 

Properties: 

MW: 190.3 VP: 0.0000975 mmHg FIP: — 

D: 1.195 g/cm 3 (77°F) VD: 6.6 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: 210°F Vlt: Negligible UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes H 20 : 0.493% RP: 74,000 

Vsc: — Sol: Acetone; Ethanol IP: — 



C11-A030 

Bendiocarb 


CAS: 22781-23-3 
RTECS: FC1140000 


CnH 13 N0 4 



White solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken 
skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts without irritation. 

Used as a household insecticide to control cockroaches, other household pests, and soil 
insects. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.13 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 223.2 
D: 1.25 g/cm 3 
MP: 264° F 
BP: — 

Vsc: — 


VP: 0.0000345 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 7.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.05 ppm (77° F) 

H 2 0: 0.026% (77° F) 

Sol: Alcohols; Acetone; 
Dichloromethane 


FIP: — 

TEL: — 
UEL: — 

RP: 200,000 
IP: — 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


309 


C11-A031 

Carbofuran 

CAS: 1563-66-2 
RTECS: FB9450000 



C12H15NO3 

White to grayish crystalline solid. It is odorless when pure but impurities may give it an 
odor similar to phenol. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a soil insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.05 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIHTLV: 0.1 mg/m 3 

Properties: 

MW: 221 .3 VP: 0.0000034 mmHg (77° F) 

D: 1.180 g/cm 3 VD: 7.6 (calculated) 

MP: 304° F Vlt: Negligible 

BP: — H 2 0: 0.07% (77°F) 

Vsc: — Sol: Acetone; Acetonitrile; 

Dimethylformamide; Dimethyl 
sulfoxide 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 2,000,000 
IP: — 


C11-A032 

Methiocarb 

CAS: 2032-65-7 
RTECS: — 



CnHisNOzS 

Colorless to white crystalline powder with an odor like phenol. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Dust may be explosive. 

Used industrially as an acaricide and molluscicide. 



310 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 225.3 VP: Negligible 
D: — VD: — 

MP: 246 °F Vlt: Negligible 
BP: — H 2 0: 0.0027% 

Vsc: — Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: — 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 25,000,000 
IP: — 


C11-A033 

Dazomet 

CAS: 533-74-4 
RTECS: XI2800000 



\ 


C5H10N2S2 

White crystalline solid that is nearly odorless. This material is hazardous through inhala- 
tion, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
Even dilute solution can cause skin irritation and sensitization. 

Used industrially as a soil sterilant, biocide in industrial wastewater, slimicide in pulp and 
paper manufacture, and as a preservative in adhesives and glues. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.64 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 162.3 VP: 0.000002 77 mmHg FIP: — 

D: 1.30 g/cm 3 VD: 5.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 223°F (decomposes) Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 0: 0.12% (77°F) RP: 2,800,000 

Use: — Sol: Acids; Acetone; Benzene; Chloroform IP: — 


C11-A034 

Methomyl 

CAS: 16752-77-5 
RTECS: AK2975000 


O 



C 5 H 10 N2O2S 

White, crystalline solid with a faint sulfur odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


311 


Used industrially as an insecticide and acaricide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.63 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
ACGIHTLV: 2.5 mg/m 3 

FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 1,500,000 
IP: — 


Properties: 

MW: 162.2 VP: 0.0000054 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 1.295 g/cm 3 (75°F) VD: 5.6 (calculated) 

ATP: 172°F U/f: Negligible 

BP: — H 2 0: 5.8% (77°F) 

Use: — Sol: Most organic solvents 


C11-A035 


1,2-D ibromo-3-chlor oprop ane 

CAS: 96-12-8 
RTECS: TX8750000 
UN: 2872 
ERG: 159 



Br 


C 3 H 5 Br 2 Cl 

Colorless dense liquid that may become yellow or amber on standing. Commercial material 
is amber to dark brown. It has a pungent odor at high concentrations. This material is 
hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption (liquid), penetration through broken skin, 
and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an intermediate in organic synthesis and for production of retardants 
and in agriculture as a soil fumigant. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.67 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Irritation: 0.2 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
OSHA PEL: 0.001 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 236.4 
D: 2.08 g/mL 
MP: 41°F 

BP: 384° F (decomposes) 
BP: 328°F (300 mmHg) 
Use: — 


UP: 0.58 mmHg 
VD: 8.2 (calculated) 

Vlt: 780 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.123% 

Sol: Acetone; Isopropyl alcohol; 
Hydrocarbons 


FIP: 170°F 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 11 
IP: — 


C11-A036 

Dibromomethane 

CAS: 74-95-3 
RTECS: PA7350000 
UN: 2664 
ERG: 160 



312 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


CH 2 Br 2 

Clear, colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption 
(liquid), penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially as a solvent and in chemical synthesis; as a fire suppressant and a gage 
fluid. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.11 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. How- 
ever, based on available information, this material appears to be more toxic than 
either methylene chloride or methylene chlorobromide. It is carbon monoxide in the 
body. 


Properties: 

MW: 173.8 
D: 2.4969 g/ mL 
ATP: — 63°F 
BP: 207°F 
Use: 0.39 cS (77°F) 


VP: 44.4 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 6.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: 58,000 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 0: 1.193% 

Sol: Chloroform; Alcohol; Ether; Acetone 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.12 
IP: 10.41 eV 


C11-A037 

Dichloronitroethane 

CAS: 594-72-9 
RTECS: KI1 050000 
UN: 2650 
ERG: 153 


Cl 

C 2 H 3 NO 2 CI 2 

Colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a solvent and for organic synthesis; as a fumigant for stored produce 
and grain. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.89 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSH A Ceiling: 10 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm 
IDLH: 25 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 143.9 VP: 16 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 1.4271 g/mL VD: 5.0 (calculated) 

MP: — Vlt: 21,000 ppm (77°F) 

BP: 255°F H 2 0: 0.25% 

Use: — Sol: — 


FIP: 168°F 
LED — 
UEL: — 
RP: 0.6 
IP: — 




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313 


C11-A038 

1,2-D ichlor oprop ane 

CAS: 78-87-5 
RTECS: TX9625000 
UN: 1279 
ERG: 130 


Cl 



Cl 


c 3 H 6 ci 2 

Colorless liquid with a sweet odor similar to chloroform detectable at 130-190 ppm. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption (liquid), penetration through 
broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate, solvent, dry cleaning fluid, degreaser, and 
lead scavenger for antiknock fluids; used in agriculture as a fumigant. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.62 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSH A PEL: 75 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 10 ppm 
IDLH: 400 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 113.0 
D: 1.159 g/mL 
MP: — 149°F 
BP: 206°F 

BP: 26°F (10 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 53.3 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 3.9 (calculated) 

Vlt: 70,000 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 0 : 0.28% 

Sol: Miscible with organic solvents 


TIP: 60°F 
LET: 3.4% 
UEL: 14.5% 
RP: 0.18 
IP: 10.87 eV 


C11-A039 
Ethyl formate 

CAS: 109-94-4 
RTECS: LQ8400000 
UN: 1190 
ERG: 129 


O 



H 


c 3 h 6 o 2 

Colorless mobile liquid with a fruity odor and slightly bitter taste. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an intermediate in drug synthesis, in the manufacture of safety glasses, 
as a flavor for lemonade and for essences, in the manufacture of artificial rum and arrack, 
and in agriculture as a fumigant for dried fruits. 



314 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.03 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Eye and Nasal Irritation: 330 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

OSHA PEL: 100 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 100 ppm 

IDLH: 1500 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 74.1 
D: 0.9168 g/ mL 
MP: — 113°F 
BP: 130°F 
Vsc: 0.41 cS 


VP: 200 mmHg 
VP: 245 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 2.6 (calculated) 

Vlt: 270,000 ppm 

H 2 O: 9% (64°F); Decomposes slowly 
Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: — 4°F 
LEE: 2.8% 
UEL: 16.0% 
RP: 0.06 
IP: 10.61 eV 


C11-A040 
Ethylene bromide 

CAS: 106-93-4 
RTECS: KH9275000 
UN: 1605 
ERG: 154 



Br 


C2H4Br2 

Colorless heavy liquid with a mild, sweet odor like chloroform that is detectible at 8-10 
ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through 
broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, 
and polymers; as a special solvent, as an exhaust system scavenger for leaded fuels, and in 
gauge fluids; used in agriculture as a fumigant. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.68 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 20 ppm 
OSHA Ceiling: 30 ppm 
IDLH: 770 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 187.9 
D: 2.172 g/mL 
MP: 50°F 
BP: 268°F 
Use: 0.795 cS 


VP: 8.5 mmHg 
VP: 11.2 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 6.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: 15,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.4% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.66 
IP: 9.45 eV 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 
AEGL-2: Not Developed 
AEGLS: 1 h, 26 ppm 


4 h, 13 ppm 


8 h, 10 ppm 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


315 


C11-A041 


Ethylene chloride 

CAS: 107-06-2 
RTECS: KI0525000 
UN: 1184 
ERG: 131 


Cl 


Cl 


C 2 H 4 CI 2 

Clear, colorless oily liquid that darkens on storage due to decomposition. It has a pleas- 
ant, sweet odor similar to chloroform. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially as a solvent, for the production of various halogenated materials includ- 
ing vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, and trichloroethane, in the manufacture of soaps, 
scouring compounds, wetting agents, penetrating agents, for ore flotation, and in organic 
synthesis. Also used as a fumigant. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.05 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIHTLV: 10 ppm 
IDLH: 50 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 99.0 
D: 1.2351 g/mL 
MP: — 32°F 
BP: 182°F 
Use: 0.68 cS 


VP: 64 mmHg 

VP: 78.9 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 3.4 (calculated) 

Vlt: 86,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.869% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: 56°F 
LET: 6.2% 
UEL: 16% 
RP: 0.16 
IP: 11.05 eV 


C11-A042 

Methyl bromide 

CAS: 74-83-9 
RTECS: PA4900000 
UN: 1062 
ERG: 123 

CH 3 Br 

Colorless gas that is odorless except at high concentrations; then it has a sweetish odor like 
chloroform. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption of the liquid, 
and ingestion, and the liquid produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a fumigant, herbicide and in organic synthesis. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists, and on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 



316 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.88 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been fully established. However, deaths have 
been reported for exposures of 6% for 1 h, and 1600-8200 for 4-6 h. 

MEG(ife) Min: 15 ppm; Sig: 50 ppm; Sev: 200 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm [Skin] 

OSHA Ceiling: 20 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 250 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 94.9 

D: 1.732 g/mL (32°F) 

MP: — 135°F 
BP: 38°F 

Vsc: 0.23 cS (32°F) 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 210 ppm 4 h, 67 ppm 8 h, 67 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 740 ppm 4 h, 230 ppm 8 h, 130 ppm 


VP: 1600 mmHg (77°F) PIP: — 

VD: 3.3 (calculated) EEL: 10% 

Vlt: 2,100,000 ppm UEL: 16% 

H 2 0: 1.34% (77°F) RP: 0.006 

Sol: Ethanol; Chloroform; Ether IP: 10.54 eV 


C11-A043 

/l-Methallyl chloride 

CAS: 563-47-3 
RTECS: UC8050000 
UN: 2554 
ERG: 130P 



Cl 


C4H7C1 

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid with a sharp, penetrating, disagreeable odor. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for insecticides, plastics, and pharmaceuticals; 
and as a fumigant. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.70 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
concentrations above 1500 ppm cause gasping, refusal to breathe, coughing, substernal 
pain, and extreme respiratory distress. 


Properties: 

MW: 90.6 
D: 0.9165 g/mL 

D: 0.93 g/ mL (Commercial material) 
MP: — 112°F 
BP: 160°F 
Use: 4.58 cS 


VP: 101.7 mmHg 
VD: 3.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: 140,000 ppm 

H 2 0: 0.14% (decomposes slowly) 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Chloroform 


FIP: 10°F 
LEE: 3.2% 
UEL: 8.1% 
RP: 0.10 
IP: — 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


317 


C11-A044 

Phosphine 

CAS: 7803-51-2 
RTECS: SY7525000 
UN: 2199 
ERG: 119 

ph 3 

Colorless gas that is odorless when pure; otherwise, like decaying fish or garlic that is 
detectable at 0.03 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation. 

May spontaneously ignite in air if traces of diphosphorous hydride (P2H2) are present. 

Used industrially as a fumigant, doping agent for semiconductors, and intermediate for 
preparation of some flame retardants. 

Phosphine is generated when phosphide salts (i.e.. Aluminum phosphide; Calcium phos- 
phide; Magnesium phosphide; Magnesium aluminum phosphide; Potassium phosphide; 
Sodium phosphide; Stannic phosphide; Strontium phosphide; Zinc phosphide) come into 
contact with water. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists, and on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 
Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.39 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LC50 (inh ) : 500 ppm for a 30-min exposure 
LCsofjn/,): 1000 ppm "after a few breaths". 

MEGp/j) Min: — ; Sig: 0.3 ppm; 

Sev: 1.1 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.3 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.3 ppm 
ACGIH STEL: 1 ppm 
NIOSH STEL: 1 ppm 
IDLH: 50 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 34.0 

D: 0.491 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) 

MP: — 207°F 
BP: — 126°F 

Use: 0.0713 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 2 ppm 4 h, 0.5 ppm 8 h, 0.25 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 3.6 ppm 4 h, 0.90 ppm 8 h, 0.45 ppm 


VP: 31,400 mmHg FIP: — 

VD: 1.2 (calculated) TEL: 1.79% 
Vlt: — UEL: — 

H 2 0: "Slight" RP: 0.001 

Sol: Alcohols; Ether IP: 9.96 eV 


C11-A045 

Sulfonyl fluoride 

CAS: 2699-79-8 
RTECS: WT5075000 



318 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


UN: 2191 
ERG: 123 


O 


F 



F 


SF2O2 

Colorless odorless gas. This material is hazardous through inhalation. 

Used industrially as a fumigant and in organic synthesis. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists, and on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

MEG^h) Min: — ; Sig: — ; Sev: 200 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 5 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm 

ACGIH STEL: 10 ppm 

NIOSH STEL: 10 ppm 

IDLH: 200 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 102.1 

D: 1.386 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) 
MP: — 213°F 
BP: — 68°F 

Use: 0.1097 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


VP: 12,750 mmHg (70°F) 
VD: 3.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.2% (32°F) 

Sol: Sparingly soluble in 
most organic solvents 


FIP: None 
LEE : None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.001 
IP: 13.04 eV 


C11-A046 

Trichloroacetonitrile 

CAS: 545-06-2 
RTECS: AM2450000 


Cl 


Cl 



CN 


Cl 


C2CI3N 

Clear, pale-yellow liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.91 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


319 


Properties: 

MW: 144.4 VP: 74.1 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 1 .4403 g/mL (77° F) VD: 5.0 (calculated) 
MP: — 44°F Vlt: 97,000 ppm (77°F) 

BP: 186°F H 2 0: 0.0715% (77°F) 

Vsc: — Sol: — 


FIP: 166°F 
TEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 0.11 
IP: 11.9 eV 


C11-A047 

Arsenic trioxide 

CAS: 1327-53-3 
RTECS: CG3325000 
UN: 1561 
ERG: 151 

As 2 0 3 

Colorless crystalline solid that is odorless and tasteless. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a rodenticide, raw material for glass and ceramic production, and 
intermediate for preparation of other arsenical products. 

Produces Arsine (C08-A001) and Arsenic oxide fumes when burned. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.09 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 0.010 mg/ m 3 as arsenic 
ACGIH TLV: 0.01 mg/ m 3 as arsenic 
NIOSH Ceiling: 0.002 mg/m 3 as arsenic (15 min) 

IDLH: 5 mg/ m 3 as arsenic 

Properties: 

MW: — 

D: 3.87-4.15 g/cm 3 
MP: 525°F (arsenolite) 

MP: 595°F (claudetite) 

BP: Sublimes 
Use: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 3.0 mg/m 3 4 h, 1.9 mg/m 3 8 h, 1.2 mg/m 3 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 9.1 mg/m 3 4 h, 5.7 mg/m 3 8 h, 3.7 mg/m 3 


VP: 0.00024 7 mmHg (77°F) FIP: None 
VD: 6.8 (calculated) LEL: None 

Vlt: 0.32 ppm UEL: None 

H z O: 1.6% (61 °F) RP: 29,000 

Sol: Glycerol IP: — 


C11-A048 

Calcium arsenate 

CAS: 7778-44-1 
RTECS: CG0830000 
UN: 1573 
ERG: 151 



320 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Ca3(AsC>4)2 

Colorless to white odorless solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide, molluscicide, and preemergence herbicide. 

Exposure Hazards 

OSHA PEL: 0.01 mg/ m 3 as arsenic 
IDLH: 5 mg/ m 3 as arsenic 

Properties: 

MW: 398.1 VP: Negligible 

D: 3.620 g/cm 3 VD: — 

MP: Decomposes Vlt: — 

BP: — H 2 0: 0.013% (77°F) 

Use: — Sol: Dilute mineral acids 


PIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 


C11-A049 

Copper acetoarsenite 

CAS: 12002-03-8 
RTECS: GL6475000 
UN: 1585 
ERG: 151 

Cu 4 (As02)6(CH 3 C02)2 

C4H6AS6CU4016 

Brilliant bluish-green or deep green, odorless powder. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide, fungicide, wood preservative, as paint pigment, and 
veterinary medication. 

This material is on the FBI threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 1013.8 VP: Negligible 
D: — VD: — 

MP: — Vlt: Negligible 

BP: — H 2 0: <0.1% 

Use: — Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 


C11-A050 

Lead arsenate 

CAS: 7784-40-9 
RTECS: CG0990000 
UN: 1617 
ERG: 151 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


321 


HPbAs0 4 

Colorless to white odorless solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide, herbicide and veterinary medication. 

Exposure Hazards 

ACGIH TLV: 0.15 mg/m 3 as lead 


Properties: 

MW: 347.1 
D: 5.943 g/ cm 3 
MP: 536°F (decomposes) 
BP: — 

Use: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: Negligible 
H 2 O : Insoluble 

Sol: Ammonium hydroxide; Nitric acid 


PIP: — 
TEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP : — 
IP: — 


C11-A051 
Sodium arsenite 

CAS: 7784-46-5 
RTECS: CG3675000 
UN: 2027 
ERG: 151 

NaAsC >2 

White or grayish-white powder that is somewhat hygroscopic. It absorbs carbon dioxide 
from the air. Technical grade is 90-95% pure. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a fungicide, insecticide, herbicide, wood preservation, textile drying 
agent, corrosion inhibitor; as a veterinary medication; and in the manufacture of specialty 
soaps. 

This material is on the FBI threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 129.9 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: 1.87 g/cm 3 

VD: — 

TEL: — 

MP: 1139°F 

Vlt: Negligible 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 O: "Freely soluble" 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: Slightly in alcohol 

IP: — 


C11-A052 

Methoxyethyl mercury acetate 

CAS: 151-38-2 
RTECS: — 


O 


Hg 




O 


O 



322 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C5H 10 HgC>3 

White crystalline material. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, 
and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a fungicide and disinfectant. 

This material is on the FBI threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 318.7 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

ATP: 104°F Vlt: Negligible UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 O: "Readily soluble" RP: — 


Use: — Sol: Polar organic solvents IP: — 


C11-A053 

Methyl mercury dicyandiamide 

CAS: 502-39-6 
RTECS: — 


N 



C 3 H 6 HgN 4 

Colorless crystalline solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, 
and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a seed fungicide and disinfectant, and as a timber preservative. 

This material is on the FBI threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 298.7 VP: 0.000065 mmHg (95°F) 
D: — VD: 10 (calculated) 

MP: 313°F Vlt: 0.008 ppm (95°F) 

BP: — H 2 0: 2.17% 

Use: — Sol: Acetone; Ethanol; 

Ethylene glycol 


PIP: — 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 93,000 
IP: — 


C11-A054 

Methyl mercury hydroxide 

CAS: 1184-57-2 
RTECS: OW4900000 

CH 3 HgOH 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
Used industrially as a pesticide. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


323 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 232.6 VP: — 

D: — VD: — 

MP: 279°F Vlt: — 

BP: — H 2 0: 0.1-1% (70°F) 

Vsc: — Sol: — 


FIP: — 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: — 
IP: — 


C11-A055 
Mercuric chloride 

CAS: 7487-94-7 
RTECS: OV9100000 
UN: 1624 
ERG: 154 

HgCl 2 

White powder or crystalline material that is odorless. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an insecticide and fungicide, for leather and fur production, and as a 
topical antiseptic and disinfectant. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 271.5 VP: 1 mmHg (277° F) FIP: None 

D: 5.6 g/cm 3 VD: 9.4 (calculated) LEL: None 

MP: 531°F Vlt:— UEL: None 

BP: 576°F H 2 0: 6.5% RP: 8.4 

Use: — H 2 0: 33% (77°F) IP: — 


Sol: Polar organic solvents 


C11-A056 

Phenyl mercury acetate 

CAS: 62-38-4 
RTECS: OV6475000 
UN: 1674 



CsHgHgCb 

White to cream-white powder or crystalline material. Odorless when pure, impurities may 
give it a slight vinegar odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 



324 


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Used industrially as a disinfectant, paint preservative, mildewcide, slimicide, and 
herbicide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 13.77 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 336.7 

D: 0.24 g/ cm 3 (estimate) 
MP: 300°F 
BP: — 

Use: — 


VP: 0.000006 mmHg 
VD: 12 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.01 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.6% 

Sol: Acetone; Alcohol; Acetic acid 


FIP: 284° F 
LEU — 
UEL: — 

RP: 900,000 
IP: — 


C11-A057 

Paraquat 

CAS: 4685-14-7; 1910-42-5 (Dichloride) 
RTECS: DW2275000 



C12H14N2 

Salts are colorless, white, or pale-yellow hygroscopic crystalline solids. Commercial grade 
material is a dark red solution. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an herbicide. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.61 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEGpft) Min: 0.15 mg/m 3 ; Sig: 1.0 mg/m 3 ; Sev: — 

OSH A PEL: 0.5 mg/m 3 (Dichloride salt) 

ACGIH TLV: 0.5 mg/m 3 (Dichloride salt) 

IDLH: 1 mg/m 3 (Dichloride salt) 


Dichloride salt: 

MW: 257.2 VP: Negligible FIP: — 

D: 1.25 g/cm 3 VD: — FLU- 
MP: Decomposes Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 0: 70% RP: — 


Vsc: — Sol: Practically insoluble in IP: — 

organic solvents 


C11-A058 

Sodium fluoroacetate 

CAS: 62-74-8 
RTECS: AH9100000 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


325 


UN: 2629 
ERG: 151 


O 



C 2 H 2 F0 2 Na 

Fluffy, colorless to white powder that is odorless. Commercial material is sometimes dyed 
black. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially in poison baits to control rodents, wild pigs, and predators. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 


Exposure Hazards 

OSHA PEL: 0.05 mg/m 3 [Skin] 
ACGIH TLV: 0.05 mg/m 3 [Skin] 
NIOSH STEL: 0.15 mg/m 3 [Skin] 
IDLH: 2.5 mg/m 3 


Properties: 

MW: 100.0 
D: — 

MP: 392°F 
BP: Decomposes 
Use: — 


VP: Negligible FIP: None 
VD: — LEE: None 

Vlt: — UEL : None 

HoO: Miscible RP: — 

Sol: — IP: — 


C11-A059 

Strychnine 

CAS: 57-24-9 
RTECS: WL2275000 



C 2 iH 22 N 2 0 2 

Colorless and odorless solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorp- 
tion, and ingestion. 

Used industrially in poison baits to control rodents, wild pigs, and predators. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

OSHA PEL: 0.15 mg/m 3 
ACGIH TLV: 0.15 mg/m 3 



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Properties: 

MW: 334.4 
D: 1.36 g/ cm 3 
MP: 549 °F 
BP: Decomposes 
BP: 518°F (5 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible PIP: — 

VD: — LEL: — 

Vlt: — UEL: — 

H 2 0: 0.016% RP: — 

Sol: Chloroform IP: — 


C11-A060 

Thallium sulfate 

CAS: 7446-18-6 
RTECS: XG6800000 

T1 2 S0 4 

Colorless to white odorless crystalline solid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, 
skin absorption, and ingestion. 

Used industrially in poison baits to control rodents and ants, and as an analytical chemistry 
reagent. 

This material is on the CDC and FBI threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 504.8 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: 6.77 g / cm 3 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 1170°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 4.87% (59°F) 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

H 2 0: 19.14% (212°F) 
Sol: — 

IP: — 


C11-A061 

Anhydrous ammonia 

CAS: 7664-41-7 
RTECS: B00875000 
UN: 1005 
ERG: 125 

NH 3 

Colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor detectable at 47 ppm. Shipped as a liquefied 
compressed gas. This material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 

Used in agriculture as a fertilizer and defoliant; in the manufacture of nitric acid, hydrazine, 
hydrogen cyanide, urethanes, acrylonitrile, nitrocellulose, nitroparaffins, melamine, ethyl- 
ene diamine, and sodium carbonate; as an intermediate in producing explosives, synthetic 
fibers and dyes; and used industrially as a refrigerant gas, neutralizing agent in the 
petroleum industry, latex preservative, and the production of fuel cells. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 



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327 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 0.70 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LC(i„hy 7100 mg/m 3 (5000 ppm); "short" exposure 

Eye Irritation: 698 ppm; immediate upon exposure 

Respiratory Irritation: 408 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Skin Bums: 2-3% on wet skin 

MEG(Ud Min: 25 ppm; Sig: 110 ppm; Sev: 1100 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 50 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 25 ppm 

ACGIH STEL: 35 ppm 

NIOSH STEL: 35 ppm 

IDLH: 300 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 17.0 

D: 0.682 g/mL (-28°F) 

D: 0.602 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) 
MP: -108°F 
BP: -28° F 

Vsc: 0.2243 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


VP: 6500 mmFIg 
VD: 0.59 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 34% 

Sol: Alcohol; Chloroform; Ether 


PIP: — 

LEE: 15% 
UEL: 28% 
RP: 0.004 
IP: 10.18 eV 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 30 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 160 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 1100 ppm 


4 h, 30 ppm 
4 h, 110 ppm 
4 h, 550 ppm 


8 h, 30 ppm 
8 h, 110 ppm 
8 h, 390 ppm 


C11-A062 

Hydrogen bromide 

CAS: 10035-10-6 
RTECS: MW3850000 
UN: 1048 
ERG: 125 

HBr 

Colorless to faintly yellow gas with a sharp, irritating acrid odor. Shipped as a liquefied com- 
pressed gas. This material is hazardous through inhalation, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a brominating agent, reducing agent, and catalyst. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.31 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

MEG ( 2 1 ,^ Min: 3 ppm (ceiling); Sig: 6 ppm; Sev: 30 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 3 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 2 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 3 ppm 

IDLH: 30 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 80.9 VP: 15,000 mmHg FIP: None 

D: 1.728 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) VP: 18,400 mmHg (77°F) LEL: None 



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MP: — 124°F VD: 2.8 (calculated) UEL: None 

BP: — 88°F Vlt: — RP: 0.001 

Vsc: 0.1163 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) H 2 0: 49% IP: 11.62 eV 

Sol: Most organic solvents 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: lh, 1-0 ppm 4 h, 1.0 ppm 8 h, 1.0 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 22 ppm 4 h, 11 ppm 8 h, 11 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 120 ppm 4 h, 31 ppm 8 h, 31 ppm 


C11-A063 


Hydrogen chloride 

CAS: 7647-01-0 
RTECS: MW4025000 
UN: 1050 
ERG: 125 

HC1 

Colorless to faintly yellow gas with a sharp, irritating acrid odor. Shipped as a liquefied com- 
pressed gas. This material is hazardous through inhalation, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used in metal treating/ cleaning operations, petroleum well activation, refining ore in the 
production of tin and tantalum, hydrolyzing of starch and proteins in production of various 
foods, in the production synthetic rubber, vinyl chloride and alkyl chlorides; and in the 
manufacture of fertilizers, dyes and dyestuffs, artificial silk and pigments for paints. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.49 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

MEG (if,) Min: 1.8 ppm; Sig: 22 ppm; Sev: 100 ppm 

OSH A Ceiling: 5 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 2 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 5 ppm 

IDLH: 50 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 36.5 

D: 0.796 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) 
MP: — 174°F 
BP: — 121°F 

Use: 0.0842 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


VP: 30,800 mmHg 
VD: 1.3 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 67% (86°F) 

Sol: Alcohol; Benzene; Ether 


FIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.001 
IP: 12.74 eV 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 1.8 ppm 4 h, 1.8 ppm 8 h, 1.8 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 22 ppm 4 h, 11 ppm 8 h, 11 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 100 ppm 4 h, 26 ppm 8 h, 26 ppm 


C11-A064 

Hydrogen fluoride 

CAS: 7664-39-3 
RTECS: MW7875000 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


329 


UN: 1052 
ERG: 125 

HF 

Colorless fuming liquid or gas with a strong, pungent, irritating "odor". This material is 
hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye 
impacts. 

Used as an etchant in the manufacture of semiconductors, frosting/polishing agent 
(glass /enamel), aluminum brightening agent, metal cleaning, electropolishing bath 
ingredient, stainless steel pickling agent, to separate uranium isotopes, and as a chemical 
reagent in the dye chemistry. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list and on the Australia Group Export Control 
List. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 0.82 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

MEG(i/,) Min: 1.0 ppm; Sig: 24 ppm; Sev: 44 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 3 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.5 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 1 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 3 ppm 

IDLH: 30 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 20.0 

D: 0.941 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) 
MP: — 118°F 
BP: 67°F 

Use: 0.2168 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


VP: 783 mmHg 
VP: 400 mmHg (37° F) 
VD: 0.69 (calculated) 
Vlt: — 

H 2 O: Miscible 
Sol: Alcohol 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.028 
IP: 15.98 eV 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: lh, 1.0 ppm 4 h, 1.0 ppm 8 h, 1.0 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 24 ppm 4 h, 12 ppm 8 h, 12 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 44 ppm 4 h, 22 ppm 8 h, 22 ppm 


C11-A065 

Hydrogen iodide 

CAS: 10034-85-2 
RTECS: MW3760000 
UN: 2197 
ERG: 125 

HI 

Colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor that rapidly turns yellow or brown on 
exposure to light and air. This material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially in the preparation of iodine salts, as a reducing agent, chemical ana- 
lytical reagent, disinfectant, and in expectorant formulation; used in the manufacture of 
pharmaceuticals and other organic materials. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 



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Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.23 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 127.9 VP: 5637 mmHg FIP: None 

D: 2.54 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) VD: 4.4 (calculated) LEL: None 

MP: — 59°F Vlt: — UEL: None 

BP: — 32°F H 2 0: Miscible RP: 0.002 

Vsc: 0.24 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) Sol: Alcohols IP: — 

Proposed AEGLs (Values based on anhydrous hydrogen bromide) 

AEGL-1: lh, 1.0 ppm 4 h, 1.0 ppm 8 h, 1.0 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 22 ppm 4 h, 11 ppm 8 h, 11 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 120 ppm 4 h, 31 ppm 8 h, 31 ppm 


C11-A066 
Fuming nitric acid 

CAS: 8007-58-7 
RTECS: QU5900000 
UN: 2032 
ERG: 157 

HNOs + N 2 0 4 

Fuming nitric acid is concentrated acid that contains dissolved nitrogen dioxide. It is a 
colorless, yellow, or red fuming liquid with an acrid, suffocating odor. Fumes are primar- 
ily nitrogen dioxide. This material is hazardous through inhalation, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, dye intermediates, explosives, various inor- 
ganic and organic nitrates, nitro compounds; and used industrially for ore flotation, 
metallurgy, photoengraving, and reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. 

This material is on the CDC threat list, and on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.58 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

The following exposure limits have been developed for nitric acid. 

MEGqft) Min: 0.5 ppm; Sig: 4 ppm; Sev: 22 ppm 
OSHAPEL: 2 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm 
ACGIH STEL: 4 ppm 
NIOSH STEL: 4 ppm 
IDLH: 25 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: Mixture VP: 760 mmHg (45% 

D: 1.64 g/ mL (77° F) and 55% acid) 

MP: — VD: >2 (calculated) 

BP: — Vlt: — 

Vsc: — H 2 0: Miscible 

Sol: Ether 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.26 

IP: 11.95 eV (nitric acid) 

IP: 9.59 eV (nitrogen dioxide) 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


331 


Interim AEGLs (for nitric acid) 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.53 ppm 4 h, 0.53 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 24 ppm 4 h, 6.0 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 92 ppm 4 h, 23 ppm 


8 h, 0.53 ppm 
8 h, 3.0 ppm 
8 h, 11 ppm 


Interim AEGLs (for nitrogen dioxide) 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.50 ppm 4 h, 0.50 ppm 8 h, 0.50 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 12 ppm 4 h, 8.2 ppm 8 h, 6.7 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 20 ppm 4 h, 14 ppm 8 h, 11 ppm 


C11-A067 

Fuming sulfuric acid 

CAS: 8014-95-7 
RTECS: WS5605000 
UN: 1831 
ERG: 137 

H 2 SO 4 + SO 3 

Fuming colorless to dark-brown, oily liquid with a choking, irritating "odor." This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for sulfonate surfactants, dyes, explosives, 
and nitrocellulose; for petroleum refining, and as a drying agent in production of chlorine 
and nitric acid. 

This material is on the CDC threat list and on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.28 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

The following exposure limits have been developed for sulfuric acid. 

MEG(u , ) Min: 2 mg/m 3 ; Sig: 10 mg/m 3 ; Sev: 30 mg/m 3 
OSHAPEL: 1 mg/m 3 


ACGIHTLV: 0.2 mg/m 3 


IDLH: 15 mg/m 3 


Properties: 


MW: Mixture TP: 2 mmHg 

PIP: None 

D: 1.902 g/mL VD: >2.8 (calculated) 

LEL: None 

MP: — Vlt: — 

UEL: None 

BP: — H 2 0: Miscible 

RP: 5000 

Use: — Sol: — 

IP: — 

Proposed AEGLs 


AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.05 ppm 4 h, 0.05 ppm 

8 h, 0.05 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 2.2 ppm 4 h, 2.2 ppm 

8 h, 2.2 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 40 ppm 4 h, 27 ppm 

8 h, 23 ppm 


C11-A068 

Bromine pentafluoride 

CAS: 7789-30-2 
RTECS: EF9350000 



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UN: 1745 
ERG: 144 


BrF 5 

Colorless to pale-yellow, fuming liquid with a pungent odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. It reacts violently 
with organic material. 

Used industrially as a fluorinating agent and as an oxidizer in rocket propellant systems. 
This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.15 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 174.9 
D: 2.48 g/mL 
D: 2.466 g/mL (77°F) 

MP: — 79°F 
BP: 105°F 
Use: 0.193 cS (77°F) 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: lh, 1.0 ppm 4 h, 0.5 ppm 8 h, 0.36 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 33 ppm 4 h, 8.3 ppm 8 h, 4.2 ppm 


VP: 328 mmHg FIP: None 

VD: 6.1 (calculated) LEL: None 

Vlt: 440,000 ppm UEL: None 

H 2 O: Reacts violently RP: 0.02 
Sol: — IP: — 


C11-A069 

Bromine trifluoride 

CAS: 7787-71-5 
RTECS: — 

UN: 1746 
ERG: 144 


BrF 3 

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid that fumes and smokes in air with an extremely irritat- 
ing odor. Solid is crystalline material. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. It reacts violently with organic material. 
Used industrially as a fluorinating agent, electrolytic solvent; used in forming uranium 
fluorides for isotopic enrichment and fuel element reprocessing. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.60 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
IDLH: 20 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 136.9 

D: 2.803 g/mL (77°F) 

MP: 48° F 

BP: 258°F 

Use: 0.457 cS (77°F) 


VP: 18 mmHg (102°F) 
VD: 4.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: 23,000 ppm (102°F) 
H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.5 
IP: — 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


333 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : 1 h, 0.12 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 2.0 ppm 
AEGL-3 : 1 h, 21 ppm 


4 h, 0.12 ppm 
4 h, 0.70 ppm 
4 h, 7.3 ppm 


8 h, 0.12 ppm 
8 h, 0.41 ppm 
8 h, 7.3 ppm 


C11-A070 

Chlorine pentafluoride 

CAS: 13637-63-3 
RTECS: — 

UN: 2548 
ERG: 124 

cif 5 

Colorless fuming gas with a pungent, sweet odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a fluorinating agent and in wood pulp bleaching. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.34 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCsodnhy 150 ppm for a 1 h exposure 

Properties: 

MW: 130.4 VP: 2550 mmHg 

D: 1.9 g/ mL (liq. gas, 68°F) VD: 4.5 (calculated) 

MP: — 152°F Vlt: — 

BP: 9.1 °F HoO: Decomposes 

Use: — Sol: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.30 ppm 4 h, 0.30 ppm 8 h, 0.30 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 1.0 ppm 4 h, 0.50 ppm 8 h, 0.36 ppm 

AEGL-3: 1 h, 8.0 ppm 4 h, 4.0 ppm 8 h, 2.8 ppm 


FIP: None 
LEE: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: 13.54 


C11-A071 

Fluorine 

CAS: 7782-41-4 
RTECS: LM6475000 
UN: 1045 
ERG: 124 


F 2 

Pale-yellow to greenish gas with a pungent, irritating "odor." This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of fluorocarbons; as a chemical intermediate in the 
manufacture of sulfur hexafluoride, chlorine trifluoride, bromine trifluoride uranium hex- 
afluoride, molybdenum hexafluoride, perchloryl fluoride, and oxygen difluoride; and as a 
rocket propellant. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 



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Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.55 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

MEG(ife) Min: 1.7 ppm; Sig: 5.0 ppm; Sev: 13 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 1.0 ppm 

ACGIH STEL: 2.0 ppm 

IDLH: 25 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 38.0 

D: 1.28 g/mL (liq. gas, — 156°F) 
MP: — 363°F 
BP: — 307°F 

Vsc: 0.084 cS (liq. gas, -238°F) 


VP: — 

VD: 1.3 
Vlt: — 

H 2 O: 0.000169% (reacts) 
Sol: — 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 1.7 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 5.0 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 13 ppm 


4 h, 1.7 ppm 
4 h, 2.3 ppm 
4 h, 5.7 ppm 


8 h, 1.7 ppm 
8 h, 2.3 ppm 
8 h, 5.7 ppm 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: 15.70 eV 


C11-A072 
Nitric oxide 


CAS: 10102-43-9 
RTECS: QX0525000 
UN: 1660 
ERG: 124 

NO 

Colorless gas that becomes reddish-brown in high concentrations. It has a sharp, suffocat- 
ing, sweet odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. It is rapidly converted in air to nitrogen dioxide. 

Used industrially for the manufacture of nitric acid and nitrosyl carbonyls, in the bleaching 
of rayon, as a stabilizer for propylene and methyl ether, and as a medication. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.23 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEGqft) Min: 0.61 ppm; Sig: 15 ppm; Sev: 25 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 25 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 25 ppm 
IDLH: 100 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 30.0 

D: 1.012 g/mL (liq. gas, — 166°F) 
MP: — 258°F 
BP: -241 °F 

Use: 0.05 cS (liq. gas, — 148°F) 


VP: 26,000 mmHg 
VD: 1.0 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 4.6% 

H 2 0: 7.38% (32°F) 

Sol: Alcohols; Carbon disulfide 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.001 
IP: 9.27 eV 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL values for nitrogen dioxide should be used for emergency planning. Short-term 
exposures below 80 ppm of nitric oxide should not constitute a health hazard. 



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335 


C11-A073 

Nitrogen dioxide 

CAS: 10102-44-0 
RTECS: QW9800000 
UN: 1067 
ERG: 124 

no 2 

Yellow-brown liquid to reddish-brown gas with a pungent, acrid, suffocating odor detect- 
able at 1 .1 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, and ingestion, and produces 
local skin/eye impacts. Strong oxidizing agent that accelerates combustion. 

Used industrially for the production of nitric acid and as a nitrating agent, oxidizing agent; 
polymerization inhibitor for acrylates; and as an oxidizer for rocket fuels. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.88 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Eye Irritation: 11 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
MEG m Min: 0.5 ppm; Sig: 12 
OSHA Ceiling: 5 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 3 ppm 
ACGIH STEL: 5 ppm 
NIOSH STEL: 1 ppm 
IDLH: 20 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 46.0 

D: 1.448 g/mL (liq. gas, 68°F) 

MP: 12°F 
BP: 70°F 

Use: 0.29 cS (liq. gas, 68°F) 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : 1 h, 0.50 ppm 4 h, 0.50 ppm 8 h, 0.50 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 12 ppm 4 h, 8.2 ppm 8 h, 6.7 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 20 ppm 4 h, 14 ppm 8 h, 11 ppm 


ppm; Sev: 20 ppm 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.02 
IP: 9.75 eV 


VP: 720 mmHg 
VD: 1.6 (calculated) 

Vlt: 960,000 ppm 

H 2 0: Decomposes 

Sol: Concentrated nitric acid 


C11-A074 

Osmium tetroxide 

CAS: 20816-12-0 
RTECS: RN1 140000 
UN: 2471 
ERG: 154 

Os0 4 

Colorless, crystalline solid or pale-yellow mass with an unpleasant, acrid odor like chlorine 
detectable at 0.0019 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an oxidizing agent especially in conversion of olefins to glycols, and 
in the preparation of chlorates, peroxides, and periodates; as a biological stain for adipose 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


tissues; and agriculturally as a micronutrient in soil for optimum microbial fixation of 
nitrogen. 

This material is on the FBI threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.40 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

OSHA PEL: 0.0002 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.0002 ppm 

ACGIH STEL: 0.0006 ppm 

NIOSH STEL: 0.0006 ppm 

IDLH: 0.1 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 254.2 
D: 5.10 g/cm 3 
MP: 105°F 
BP: Sublimes 
Vsc: — 


VP: 6.98 mmHg PIP: None 

VP: 11 mmHg (81°F) LEL: None 

VD: 8.8 (calculated) UEL: None 

Vlt: 12,000 ppm (77°F) RP: 8.9 

H 2 0: 7.24% (77°F) IP: 12.60 eV 

Sol: Benzene; Alcohol; Ether 


C11-A075 

Sulfur dioxide 

CAS: 7446-09-5 
RTECS: WS4550000 
UN: 1079 
ERG: 125 

so 2 

Colorless gas with a characteristic suffocating, irritating, and pungent odor detectable at 
0.45-4.8 ppm. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially for the bleaching of flour, fruit, grain, oil straw, wood pulp, wool; in the 
tanning of leather; in manufacture of glass; as a reducing agent in minerals processing; 
as an oxidizing agent in lithium primary batteries; as a preservative for fruit and wine; 
as a disinfectant in breweries and food factories; as a refrigerant gas; as warning agent 
for liquid fumigants; and as a chemical intermediate in the production of sodium hydro- 
sulfite, chlorine dioxide, sodium sulfate, sulfuryl chloride, thionyl chloride, and organic 
sulfonates. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.62 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LC(j n }jy 1000 ppm; exposure duration "10 min to several hours" 

Eye Irritation: 10 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Respiratory Irritation: 5 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

MEG(ik) Min: — ; Sig: 3 ppm; Sev: 15 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 5 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm 

ACGIH STEL: 5 ppm 

NIOSH STEL: 5 ppm 

IDLH: 100 ppm 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 337 

Properties: 

MW: 64.1 VP: 2400 mmHg PIP: None 

D: 1.366 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) VD: 2.3 (calculated) LEL: None 

MP: — 104°F Vlt: — UEL: None 

BP: 14°F H 2 0: 7.8% (77°F) RP: 0.001 

Vsc: 0.188 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) H 2 0: 17.7% (32°F) IP: 12.30 eV 


Sol: Acetic acid; Alcohol; Ether; 
Chloroform 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.20 ppm 4 h, 0.20 ppm 8 h, 0.20 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.75 ppm 4 h, 0.75 ppm 8 h, 0.75 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 27 ppm 4 h, 19 ppm 8 h, 16 ppm 


C11-A076 

Sulfur trioxide 

CAS: 7446-11-9 
RTECS: WT4830000 

so 3 

Colorless fuming liquid. Solid is colorless to white crystalline solid. Liquefied material may 
also contain a low-melting solid polymer. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an oxidizing agent; to manufacture sulfuric acid, sulfonated oils, 
detergents, and explosives; used in solar energy collectors. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.27 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Eye Irritation: 1 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
Respiratory Irritation: 10 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 80.1 

D: 1.9224 g/mL 

D: 2.29 g/cm 3 (solid, 14°F) 

MP: 62°F 

BP: 113°F 

Use: — 


VP: 433 (77° F) 

VD: 2.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 570,000 ppm (77°F) 
H 2 0: Forms sulfuric acid 
Sol: — 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.03 
IP: 12.8 eV 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.061 ppm 4 h, 0.061 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 2.7 ppm 4 h, 2.7 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 49 ppm 4 h, 34 ppm 


8 h, 0.061 ppm 
8 h, 2.7 ppm 
8 h, 28 ppm 


C11-A077 

Hydrogen selenide 


CAS: 7783-07-5 
RTECS: MX1 050000 



338 


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UN: 2202 
ERG: 117 


H 2 Se 

Colorless gas with a "very offensive" odor that resembles decayed horse radish detectable 
at 0.3 ppm. However, can cause olfactory fatigue and sense of smell is not reliable. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin/eye impacts. It is highly 
flammable. 

Used industrially for preparation of metallic selenides, organoselenium compounds, and 
preparation of semiconductor materials. 

This material is on the ITF-25, medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.31 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

" Intolerable " Eye and Respiratory Irritation: 1.5 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

MEG (if,) Min: — ; Sig: 0.20 ppm; Sev: 2.0 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm 

IDLH: 1 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 81.0 

D: 1.766 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) 
D: 2.12 g/mL (liq. gas, -44°F) 
MP: -83.2°F 
BP: -42°F 

Use: 0.074 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.73 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 2.2 ppm 


VP: 7220 mmHg (70°F) 

VD: 2.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.64% (77° F) 

Sol: Phosgene; Carbon disulfide 


8 h, 0.26 ppm 
8 h, 0.78 ppm 


4 h, 0.37 ppm 
4 h, 1.1 ppm 


PIP: — 
LEE: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 0.002 
IP: 9.88 eV 


C11-A078 

Selenium hexafluoride 

CAS: 7783-79-1 
RTECS: VS9450000 
UN: 2194 
ERG: 125 

SeF 6 

Colorless gas. This material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially as an electric insulator. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.89 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG( if,) Min: 0.15 ppm; Sig: 0.25 ppm; Sev: 2 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm 
IDLH: 2 ppm 



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339 


Properties: 

MW: 192.9 VP: 651 .2 mmHg (-56°F) 

D: — VD: 6.7 (calculated) 

MP: — 59°F Vlt: — 

BP: — 30°F H 2 O: Insoluble (slowly decomposed) 
Vsc : — Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 


C11-A079 

Silicon tetrafluoride 

CAS: 7783-61-1 
RTECS: VW2327000 
UN: 1859 
ERG: 125 


SiF 4 

Colorless gas that forms heavy clouds in moist air. It has a sharp, irritating and suffocat- 
ing odor similar to hydrogen chloride. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially for the manufacture of pure silicon, silane, and fluosilicic acid; used to 
seal water out of oil wells during drillings. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
OSHA PEL: 2.5 mg/m 3 as fluorine 
ACGIH TLV: 2.5 mg/m 3 as fluorine 


Properties: 

MW: 104.1 

D: 1.517 g/mL (-94°F) 

D: 2.145 g/cm 3 (solid, -319°F) 
MP: — 130°F (under pressure) 
BP: Sublimes (— 123°F) 

Use: 0.4 cS (— 58°F) 


VP: — 

VD: 3.6 (calculated) 
Vlt: — 

H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: Absolute alcohol 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 


C11-A080 

Stibine 

CAS: 7803-52-3 
RTECS: WJ0700000 
UN: 2676 
ERG: 119 

H 3 Sb 

Colorless gas with a disagreeable odor like hydrogen sulfide. It decomposes slowly on 
standing depositing elemental antimony. This material is hazardous through inhalation. It 
is highly flammable. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of semiconductors, and as a fumigating agent. It may 
be a by-product formed during charging of some lead storage batteries. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 



340 


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Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.10 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
MEG(ife) Min: — ; Sig: 0.5 ppm; Sev: 1.5 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm 
IDLH: 5 ppm 

FIP: — 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: — 

IP: 9.51 eV 


C11-A081 


Properties: 

MW: 124.8 

D: 2.204 g/mL(-l°F) 
MP: — 126°F 
BP: — 1°F 
Vsc: — 


VP: — 

VD: 4.3 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.41% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


Tellurium hexafluoride 

CAS: 7783-80-4 
RTECS: WY2800000 
UN: 2195 
ERG: 125 

TeF 6 

Colorless gas with a "repulsive" odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation. 
It is a by-product of ore refining. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.88 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(ih) Min: 0.06 ppm; Sig: 1 ppm; Sev: >1 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.02 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.02 ppm 
IDLH: 1 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 241.6 VP: — 

D: 2.499 g/mL (14°F) VD: 8.3 (calculated) 
MP: — 36°F Vlt: — 

BP: Sublimes HoO: Decomposes 

Use: — Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 


C11-A082 

Titanium tetrachloride (Agent FM) 

CAS: 7550-45-0 
RTECS: XR1 925000 
UN: 1838 
ERG: 137 

TiCl 4 

Colorless to light-yellow liquid that fumes in moist air. It has a penetrating acid odor. 
This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin / eye 
impacts. 



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341 


Used industrially to produce pure titanium and titanium salts, pigments, as an additive in 
decorative glass, and as a polymerization catalyst. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.76 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(i/,) Min: 0.64 ppm; Sig: 2.6 ppm; Sev: 12.9 ppm 
AIHAWEEL: 0.06 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 189.7 VP: 9.96 mmHg FIP: None 

D: 1.726 g/mL VD: 6.5 (calculated) LEE: None 

MP: — 11°F U/L 13,000 ppm UEL: None 

BP: 277°F H 2 0: Decomposed RP: 0.72 

Use: 0.0458 cS Sol: Most organic solvents IP: 11.5 eV 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.070 ppm 4 h, 0.070 ppm 8 h, 0.070 ppm 
AEGL-2: lh, 1.0 ppm 4 h, 0.21 ppm 8 h, 0.094 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 5.7 ppm 4 h, 2.0 ppm 8 h, 0.91 ppm 

C11-A083 

Tungsten hexafluoride 

CAS: 7783-82-6 
RTECS: Y07720000 
UN: 2196 
ERG: 125 

WF 6 

Colorless gas or pale-yellow liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially to apply tungsten coatings to other surfaces; as a chemical intermediate 
and in the manufacture of electronics. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this material appears to be approximately 
one-sixth as toxic as Hydrogen fluoride (C11-A031). 

Properties: 

MW: 297.5 VP: — FIP: — 

D: 3.387 g/mL (liq. gas, 77°F) VD: 10 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: 31°F Vlt: — UEE: — 

BP: 63°F H 2 0: Decomposes RP: — 

Use: 0.1332 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) Sol: Benzene; Dioxane; Cyclohexane IP: 15.2 eV 

C11-A084 
Boron tribromide 

CAS: 10294-33-4 
RTECS: ED7400000 



342 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


UN: 2692 
ERG: 157 

BBr 3 

Colorless, fuming liquid with a pungent, sharp, irritating odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of diborane, ultra high purity boron, and semicon- 
ductors; used as a catalyst in polymerizations, alkylations, and acylations. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.25 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(ih) Min: 1 ppm; Sig: — ; Sev: — 

ACGIH Ceiling: 1 ppm 
NIOSH Ceiling: 1 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 250.5 

D: 2.64 g/mL (65°F) 

D: 2.698 g/mL (32°F) 

MP: — 51°F 

BP: 194°F 

Use: 0.28 cS (75°F) 


VP: 40 mmHg (57°F) PIP: None 
VP: 100 mmHg (92°F) LET: None 

VD: 8.6 (calculated) UEL: None 

Vlt: 55,000 ppm (57°F) RP: 0.1 
HiO: Reacts violently IP: 9.70 eV 
Sol: Carbon tetrachloride; 

Carbon disulfide 


C11-A085 

Boron trichloride 

CAS: 10294-34-5 
RTECS: EDI 925000 
UN: 1741 
ERG: 125 

BC1 3 

Colorless fuming liquid with a sharp, irritating, pungent odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially for the production and purification of boron and boron compounds; in 
purification of metal alloys to remove oxides, nitrides, and carbides; as a soldering flux 
for alloys of aluminum, iron, zinc, tungsten, and monel; as an extinguishing agent for 
magnesium fires in heat treating furnaces; as a stabilizer for liquid sulfur trioxide; for the 
manufacture of boron filaments for advanced composites; and in semiconductors. It has 
been used in the field of high energy fuels and rocket propellants as a source of boron for 
raising the British Thermal Unit (BTU) value. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.79 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



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343 


Properties: 

MW: 117.2 

D: 1.318 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) 
MP: — 161°F 
BP: 54°F 

Vsc: 0.170 cS (liq. gas, 77° F) 


VP: 440 mmHg (30°F) 
VD: 4.0 (calculated) 
Vlt: — 

H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: 11.62 eV 


C11-A086 


Boron trifluoride 

CAS: 7637-07-2 
RTECS: ED2275000 
UN: 1008 
ERG: 125 


BF 3 

Colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a catalyst in organic synthesis, to protect molten magnesium and 
its alloys from oxidation, as a flux for soldering magnesium; manufacture of specialty 
electronics; as a fumigant; and in ionization chambers for detection of weak neutrons. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.77 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG (1 ;o Min: 0.22 ppm; Sig: 5.8 ppm; Sev: 14 ppm 
OSHA Ceiling: 1 ppm 
ACGIH Ceiling: 1 ppm 
IDLH: 25 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 67.8 

D: 1.433 g/mL (liq. gas, -94°F) 
MP: — 196°F 
BP: — 150°F 

Use: 0.05 cS (liq. gas, -58°F) 


VP: 36,560 mmHg (8°F) 

VD: 2.4 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 20 : 106% (cold water, 
decomposes) 

Sol: Most saturated hydrocarbons; 
Aromatic compounds 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: 15.50 eV 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 2.5 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 37 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 110 ppm 


4 h, 2.5 ppm 8 h, 2.5 ppm 
4 h, 24 ppm 8 h, 12 ppm 
4 h, 72 ppm 8 h, 36 ppm 


C11-A087 

Phosphorus pentafluoride 

CAS: 7647-19-0 
RTECS: TH4070000 
UN: 2198 
ERG: 125 



344 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


pf 5 

Colorless gas with an "unpleasant" odor that fumes in contact with air. This material is 
hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a catalyst in ionic polymerizations, mild fluorinating agent; used in 
the manufacture of semiconductors. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.15 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, the Compressed Gas Association has established an LC 50 
of 260 ppm with an exposure of 1 h, or approximately one-fifth as toxic as hydrogen 
fluoride. 


Properties: 

MW: 126.0 VP: 21,432 mmHg (70°F) 

D: 1.13 g/ mL (liq. gas, 32°F) VD: 4.3 (calculated) 

MP: — 137°F Vlt: — 

BP: — 120°F H 2 O: Reacts violently 

Vsc: 0.16 cS (liq. gas, — 4°F) Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0 

IP: 15.54 eV 


C11-A088 
Sulfuryl chloride 

CAS: 7791-25-5 
RTECS: WT4870000 
UN: 1834 
ERG: 137 

O 

Cl — S — Cl 
O 

CI 2 O 2 S 

Clear, colorless to light yellow-green mobile liquid with a very pungent odor. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially to treat wool to prevent shrinking; in the manufacture of rayon, rubber- 
base plastics, chlorophenol disinfectants, phosphate insecticides, heterocyclic fungicides 
and herbicides, and pharmaceuticals. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.52 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 135.0 VP: 105 mmHg 

D: 1 .665 g/mL VP: 140 mmHg (77° F) 
MP: — 65°F VD: 4.7 (calculated) 

BP: 156°F Vlt: 140,000 ppm 

Use: — H 2 O: Reacts 

Sol: Toluene; Ether 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.08 
IP : — 



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345 


C11-A089 

Acetone cyanohydrin 

CAS: 75-86-5 
RTECS: OD9275000 
UN: 1541 
ERG: 155 


OH 



C4H7NO 

Clear, colorless to light yellow liquid. Pure material is practically odorless but usually has 
an odor of bitter almond due to residual hydrogen cyanide. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. Forms cyanide in the body. 

Used industrially in organic synthesis, in the manufacture of insecticides and pharmaceut- 
icals, as an intermediate in the synthesis of methacrylates; used as a complexing agent for 
metals refining and separation. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.48 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(i/,) Min: 4.7 ppm; Sig: — ; Sev: — 

ACGIH Ceiling: 1 .4 ppm as cyanide [Skin] 
NIOSH Ceiling: 1 ppm [15 min limit] 

AIHA WEEL: 2 ppm [Skin] 

AIHA STEL: 5 ppm [Skin] 


Properties: 

MW: 85.1 

D: 0.9267 g/mL (77°F) 
MP: — 2°F 
BP: 203°F 

BP: 154°F (11 mmHg) 
Use: — 


VP: 0.75 mmHg 
VD: 2.9 (calculated) 

Vlt: 1000 ppm 
H 2 O: Miscible 
Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: 165°F 
EEL: 2.2% 
UEL: 12% 
RP: 14 
IP: — 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 2.0 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 7.1 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 15 ppm 


4 h, 1 .3 ppm 
4 h, 3.5 ppm 
4 h, 8.6 ppm 


8 h, 1.0 ppm 
8 h, 2.5 ppm 
8 h, 6.6 ppm 


C11-A090 

Acrylonitrile 

CAS: 107-13-1 
RTECS: AT5250000 
UN: 1093 
ERG: 131P 

=\ 

CN 



346 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C3H3N 

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid with an odor that is pungent, irritating, and resembles 
onions or garlic. It is detectable at 21 .4 ppm. Typically stabilized with 35-50 ppm of methyl- 
hydroquinone. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption (liquid), 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially for the manufacture of plastics, surface coatings, and adhesives; phar- 
maceuticals, dyes, ion exchange resins, corrosion inhibitors, water treatment resins; used 
agriculturally as a pesticide fumigant. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.17 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG ( if,) Min: 10 ppm; Sig: 35 ppm; Sev: 75 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 2 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm [Skin] 

OSHA Ceiling: 10 ppm [15 min] [Skin] 

IDLH: 86 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 53.1 
D: 0.81 g/mL 
D: 0.8004 g/mL (77° F) 
MP: — 116°F 
BP: 171°F 

Use: 0.0425 cS (77°F) 


VP: 83 mmHg 
VP: 109 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 1.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 120,000 ppm 
Vlt: 180,000 ppm (86°F) 
H 2 0: 7.45% 

Sol: Alcohols; Ethyl acetate; 
Toluene 


FIP: 30°F 
LEE: 3.1% 
UEL: 17% 
RP: 0.16 
IP: 10.75 eV 


C11-A091 


Allyl alcohol 

CAS: 107-18-6 
RTECS: BA5075000 
UN: 1098 
ERG: 131 



OH 


c 3 H 6 o 

Mobile colorless liquid with a pungent odor like mustard detectable at 0.8 ppm. This mater- 
ial is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. Acts synergistically with alcohol in blood. 

Used industrially for the manufacture of flavorings, perfumes, acrolein, diallyl phthalate, 
diallyl isophthalate, and pharmaceuticals; used to denature alcohol. Used agriculturally as 
herbicide and fungicide. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 



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347 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.38 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Minor Eye Irritation: 5 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
Severe Eye Irritation: 25 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
Nasal Irritation: 10 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
MEG(i/ ;) Min: 2.1 ppm; Sig: 4.2 ppm; Sev: 67 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 2 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.5 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH STEL: 4 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 20 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 58.1 
D: 0.8540 g/mL 
MP: — 200°F 
BP: 207°F 
Vsc: 1.31 cS (77° F) 


VP: 17 mmFIg 

VP: 26.1 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 2.0 (calculated) 

Vlt: 24,000 ppm 
Vlt: 41,000 ppm (86°F) 

H 2 O: Miscible 

Sol: Alcohol; Chloroform; Ether 


FIP: 70°F 
LEE: 2.5% 
UEL: 18.0% 
RP: 0.77 
IP: 9.63 eV 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 2.1 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 14.2 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 20 ppm 


4 h, 2.1 ppm 
4 h, 4.2 ppm 
4 h, 10 ppm 


8 h, 2.1 ppm 
8 h, 4.2 ppm 
8 h, 10 ppm 


C11-A092 


Allylamine 

CAS: 107-11-9 
RTECS: BA5425000 
UN: 2334 
ERG: 131 



nh 2 


C3H7N 

Colorless to yellow liquid with a strong, pungent ammonia odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially for synthesis of ion-exchange resins and pharmaceutical intermediates. 
This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.34 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Irritation: 2.5 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 14 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



348 


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Properties: 

MW: 57.1 VP: 193 mmHg PIP: -18°F 

D: 0.761 g/mL VP: 242 mmHg (77°F) LEL: 2.2% 

MP: — 126°F VD: 2.0 (calculated) UEL: 22% 

BP: 127°F HP: 260,000 ppm RP: 0.06 

Vsc: — H 2 0: Miscible IP: 8.8 eV 


Sol: Alcohol; Chloroform; Ether 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.42 ppm 4 h, 0.42 ppm 8 h, 0.42 ppm 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 3.3 ppm 4 h, 1.8 ppm 8 h, 1.2 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 18 ppm 4 h, 3.5 ppm 8 h, 2.3 ppm 


C11-A093 


Carbon disulfide 

CAS: 75-15-0 
RTECS: FF6650000 
UN: 1131 
ERG: 131 


CS 2 

Colorless to faint-yellow mobile liquid with a sweet, ethereal odor. On standing, the odor 
becomes a foul stench. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption of 
the liquid, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Carbon disulfide is highly flammable and has an autoignition temperature of 212°F. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate in the production of rayon, carbon tetra- 
chloride, xanthogenates, flotation agents, and pesticides; used in the cold vulcanization 
of vulcanized rubber, in adhesive compositions for food packaging; as a solvent for phos- 
phorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubbers, waxes, lacquers, camphor, 
resins; and in the production of optical glass, paints, enamels, varnishes, paint removers, 
tallow, putty preservatives, rubber cement, soil disinfectants, explosives, rocket fuel, and 
electronic vacuum tubes. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.11 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEGqft) Min: 1.0 ppm; Sig: 50 ppm; Sev: 500 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 20 ppm 
OSH A Ceiling: 30 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH STEL: 10 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 500 ppm 

PIP: — 22°F 
LEL: 1.3% 
UEL: 50% 
RP: 0.038 
IP: 10.08 eV 


Properties: 

MW: 76.1 
D: 1.2632 g/mL 
MP: — 169°F 
BP: 116°F 
Vsc: 0.288 cS 


VP: 297 mmHg 
VP: 359 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 2.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: 400,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.286% 

Sol: Alcohols; Ether; Benzene; Oils 



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349 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 4.0 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 160 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 480 ppm 


4 h, 2.5 ppm 
4 h, 100 ppm 
4 h, 300 ppm 


8 h, 2.0 ppm 
8 h, 50 ppm 
8 h, 150 ppm 


C11-A094 

Chloroacetonitrile 

CAS: 107-14-2 
RTECS: AL8225000 
UN: 2668 
ERG: 131 



C 2 H 2 C1N 

Clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Lacrimation usually gives adequate warning of vapor exposure. 

Used to manufacture insecticides and pharmaceuticals; used agriculturally as a fumigant. 
This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.09 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 75.5 VP: 15 mmHg (86°F) FIP: — 

D: 1.1930 g/mL VD: 2.6 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: — Vlt: 19,000 ppm (86°F) UEL: — 

BP: 257°F H 2 Q: 10% RP: 0.79 


Vsc: — Sol: Hydrocarbons; Alcohols; Ether IP: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 23 ppm 4 h, 13 ppm 8 h, 10 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 49 ppm 4 h, 28 ppm 8 h, 21 ppm 


C11-A095 

Diborane 

CAS: 19287-45-7 
RTECS: — 

UN: 1911 
ERG: 119 

B 2 H 6 

Colorless gas with a repulsive, sickly sweet odor detectable at 1. 8-3.5 ppm. Industrially, it 
can be found diluted with a variety of gases including hydrogen, argon, nitrogen, or helium. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Diborane is highly flammable and has an autoignition temperature of 125°F. It is also 
moisture sensitive and will ignite spontaneously in moist air at room temperature. 



350 


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Used industrially as a catalyst for ethylene, styrene, butadiene, acrylic, and vinyl polymer- 
izations; reducing agent in the synthesis of organic chemicals; for production of hard boron 
coatings on metals and ceramics; as a component or additive for high-energy fuels; and 
as a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of organic boron compounds and metal boro- 
hydrides. Used in the electronics industry to improve crystal growth, to impart electrical 
properties in pure crystals, and as a doping agent for p-type semiconductors. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.13 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LC(i„f,y. 180 mg/ m 3 (159 ppm) for a 15-min exposure 
MEGpft) Min: 0.3 ppm; Sig: 1.0 ppm; Sev: 3.7 ppm 
OSH A PEL: 0.1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm 
IDLH: 15 ppm 


Properties: 

FIP: — 130°F 
EEL: 0.9% 
UEL: 98% 
RP: 0.001 
IP: 11.38 eV 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: lh, 1.0 ppm 4 h, 0.25 ppm 8 h, 0.13 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 3.7 ppm 4 h, 0.92 ppm 8 h, 0.46 ppm 


MW: 27.7 

D: 0.308 g/mL (liq. gas, 14°F) 
MP: — 265°F 
BP: — 135°F 

Use: 0.0812 cS (liq. gas, 14°F) 


VP: 30,000 mmHg (62°F) 

VD: 0.96 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: Carbon disulfide; Ammonium 
hydroxide 


C11-A096 

Diketene 

CAS: 674-82-8 
RTECS: — 
UN: 2521 
ERG: 131P 



O 


C 4 H 4 O 2 

Clear, colorless to orange liquid with a pungent odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and produces local skin/eye impacts. Violent polymerization can occur in 
presence of acids, bases, or heat. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments and 
toners, food preservatives, insecticides, and fungicides. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.44 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEGqft) Min: 1.0 ppm; Sig: 5.0 ppm; Sev: 20 ppm 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


351 


Properties: 

MW: 84.1 
D: 1.0897 g/mL 
MP: 19.7°F 
BP: 262°F 

BP: 158°F (99 mmHg) 
Vsc: 0.808 cS 


VP: 8.03 mmHg PIP: 93°F 

VD: 2.9 (calculated) LET: — 

Vlt: 11,000 ppm UEL: — 

H 2 O: Decomposes RP: 1.3 

Sol: Common organic solvents IP: 9.6 eV 


C11-A097 

Ethylene oxide 

CAS: 75-21-8 
RTECS: KX2450000 
UN: 1040 
ERG: 119P 


O 

AA 


c 2 h 4 o 

Colorless gas or liquid with an odor like ether. The odor has also been described as sweet 
and reminiscent of bruised apples. Industrially, it can be found diluted with a variety of 
gases including carbon dioxide, fluorocarbon 12, and nitrogen. This material is hazard- 
ous through inhalation, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. Exposure 
to high vapor concentrations or direct contact with liquid may cause burns to the eyes 
and skin. 

Used industrially as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles, sterilizing agent for surgical 
instruments and other heat sensitive material, agricultural fungicide, ripening agent for 
fruits, rocket propellant; in the manufacture of acrylonitrile, ethylene glycol, dioxane, ethyl- 
ene chlorohydrin, ethanolamines, glycol ethers, carbowax, the cellosolves and carbitols, 
polyethylene terephthalate polyester fiber, and nonionic surfactants. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.80 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Lethal human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, "symptoms of illness" occur at 100 ppm (exposure duration unspecified) and 
"severe toxic effects" occur at 250 ppm for a 60 min exposure. 

MEG ah) Min: 7.5 ppm; Sig: 45 
OSHA PEL: 1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm 
NIOSH Ceiling: 5 ppm 
IDLH: 800 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 44.1 

D: 0.882 g/mL (50°F) 

D: 0.862 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) 

MP: — 168°F 
BP: 51°F 

Use: 0.3016 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


ppm; Sev: 200 ppm 


PIP: — 67°F 
LEE: 3% 
UEL: 100% 
RP: 0.014 
IP: 10.56 eV 


VP: 1100 mmHg 
VP: 1314 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 1.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 O: Miscible 

Sol: Most organic solvents 



352 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 45 ppm 4 h, 14 ppm 8 h, 7.9 ppm 

AEGL-3: 1 h, 200 ppm 4 h, 63 ppm 8 h, 35 ppm 


C11-A098 

Ethyleneimine 

CAS: 151-56-4 
RTECS: KX5075000 
UN: 1185 
ERG: 131P 

N 

AA 


C2H5N 

Mobile, colorless liquid with an odor like ammonia that is detectable at 2 ppm. The odor 
becomes annoying at 11 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorp- 
tion, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
Dermal exposure causes skin sensitization. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, textile chemicals, adhesives, 
binders, petroleum refining chemicals, fuels, lubricants, coating resins, varnishes, poly- 
merizations, lacquers, agricultural chemicals, cosmetics, ion exchange resins, photographic 
chemicals, surfactants; used in the paper industry and as a flocculation aid. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.76 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Irritation: 100 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
MEGqh) Min: 1.5 ppm; Sig: 4.6 ppm; Sev: 9.9 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.5 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 100 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 43.1 

D: 0.8321 g/mL (75°F) 
MP: — 97°F 
BP: 133°F 
Use: — 


VP: 160 mmHg 
VP: 213 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 1 .5 (calculated) 

Vlt: 210,000 ppm 

Vlt: 280,000 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 0: Miscible 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Benzene 


PIP: 12°F 
LEE: 3.3% 
UEL: 54.8% 
RP: 0.095 
IP: 9.20 eV 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: lh, 4.6 ppm 4 h, 1.0 ppm 8 h, 0.47 ppm 

AEGL-3: 1 h, 9.9 ppm 4 h, 2.8 ppm 8 h, 1.5 ppm 


C11-A099 

Formaldehyde 

CAS: 50-00-0; 30525-89-4 (Paraformaldehyde) 
RTECS: LP8925000; RV0540000 (Paraformaldehyde) 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


353 


O 


H 



ch 2 o 

Nearly colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor detectable at 0.005-1 ppm. Solu- 
tions are colorless to light yellow oils and the solid paraformaldehyde is a white powder, 
granules, or flakes. This material is hazardous through inhalation, ingestion of solutions or 
solids, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of amino and phenolic resins, fertilizers; as a nickel- 
plating brightening agent, reducing agent in the recovery of gold and silver, latex coagulant, 
crease-proof textile finishing agent, photographic gelatin hardening agent, taxidermy pre- 
servative, cross linking agent, corrosion inhibitor, hydrogen sulfide scavenger, industrial 
sterilant, preservative, and biocide. Used medically as an ingredient in embalming fluids, 
as a fixative of histological specimens, and to alter bacterial toxins to toxoids for vaccines. 

This material is on the ITF-25 high threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.23 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Eye Irritation: 4 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

MEG m Min: 1.0 ppm; Sig: 10 ppm; Sev: 25 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 0.75 ppm 

OSHA STEL: 2 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 0.3 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 1 ppm 

IDLH: 20 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 30.0 
D: — 

ATP: — 134°F 
BP: — 3.1°F 
Use: — 


UP: 3890 mmHg (77°F) 

UD: 1.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 40% 

Sol: Alcohols; Ether; Acetone; 
Benzene 


FIP: — 

LEE: 7.0% 
UEL: 73% 
RP: 0.005 
IP: 10.88 eV 


Paraformaldehyde: 

MW: Polymer 
D: 1.46 g/cm 3 (59°F) 

MP: 327°F (decomposes) 
BP: 248° F (sublimes) 

Use: — 


UP: 10.5 mmHg (77°F) 

UD: 1.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: Insoluble 
Sol: Insoluble in most organic 
solvents 


PIP: 158°F 
EEL: 7% 
UEL: 73% 
RP: — 

IP: 10.88 eV 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.9 ppm 4 h, 0.9 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 14 ppm 4 h, 14 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 56 ppm 4 h, 35 ppm 


8 h, 0.9 ppm 
8 h, 14 ppm 
8 h, 35 ppm 


C11-A100 

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 


CAS: 77-47-4 
RTECS: GY1225000 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


UN: 2646 
ERG: 135 


Cl Cl 



Cl 


C 5 C1 6 

Dense, pale-yellow to amber-colored oily liquid with an unpleasant pungent odor detect- 
able at 0.3 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used to manufacture pesticides, shockproof plastics, acids, esters, ketones, flame retard- 
ants, fluorocarbons; used as biocide. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.16 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG (if,) Min: 0.01 ppm; Sig: 0.03 ppm; Sev: 0.15 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.01 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 272.8 

D: 1.7019 g/mL (77° F) 
ATP: 16°F 
BP: 462 °F 
Use: 4.56 cS (77°F) 


UP: 0.08 mmHg (77°F) 

UD: 9.4 (calculated) 

Vlt: 110 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 O: 0.00018% (slowly decomposes) 
Sol: Acetone; Methanol; Hexane 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 76 
fP: — 


C11-A101 


Methyl mercaptan 

CAS: 74-93-1 
RTECS: PB4375000 
UN: 1064 
ERG: 117 

CH 3 SH 

Colorless gas or water-white liquid with a disagreeable odor like garlic or rotten cabbage 
that is detectable at 0.0021 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation. 

Used as a gas odorant; used to manufacture methionine, plastics, jet fuel additives, 
pesticides, fungicides; used as a catalyst and as a synthetic flavoring. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


355 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.97 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(ih) Min: 0.5 ppm; Sig: 5 ppm; Sev: 23 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.5 ppm 
OSH A Ceiling: 10 ppm 
IDLH: 150 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 48.1 

D: 0.862 g/mL (77°F) 

MP: — 189°F 
BP: 43°F 

Vsc: 0.291 cS (liq. gas, 77° F) 


VP: 1300 mmFIg 
VP: 1510 mmFIg (77° F) 

VD: 1.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 2.4% (59°F) 

H 2 0: 1.54 % (77° F) 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Petroleum 
naphtha 


FIP: 64°F 
LET: 3.9% 
UEL: 21.8% 
RP: 0.011 
IP: 9.44 eV 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 47 ppm 4 h, 30 ppm 8 h, 19 ppm 

AEGLS: 1 h, 68 ppm 4 h, 43 ppm 8 h, 22 ppm 


C11-A102 

Octyl mercaptan 

CAS: 111-88-6 
RTECS: — 


SH 


CsHigS 

Clear, colorless to water-white liquid with a mild odor. This material is hazardous through 
inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a polymerization conditioner and as an intermediate in organic 
synthesis. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.98 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
NIOSH Ceiling: 0.5 ppm [15 min] 


Properties: 

MW: 146.3 
D: 0.8433 g/mL 
MP: —57° F 
BP: 390°F 

BP: 187°F (15 mmHg) 
Use: 0.522 cS 


VP: 0.4245 mmHg (77° F) 
VP: 1.55 mmHg (100°F) 
VD: 5.0 (calculated) 

Vlt: 560 ppm (77°F) 

H 2 0: Insoluble 
Sol: Ethanol 


FIP: 156°F 
TEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 20 
IP: — 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C11-A103 
Tetraethyl lead 

CAS: 78-00-2 
RTECS: TP4550000 
UN: 1649 
ERG: 131 



C 8 H 20 Pb 

Colorless oily liquid with a pleasant, musty, or sweet odor. Commercial material may be 
dyed red, orange, or blue. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption 
(liquid), penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially to manufacture metal alkyls, fungicides; used as a gasoline additive. 
This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 13.23 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Intoxication: 7.6 ppm for a 60 min exposure 

MEGqft) Min: 0.01 ppm as lead; Sig: 0.06 ppm as lead; Sev: 0.30 ppm as lead 
OSHA PEL: 0.007 ppm as lead [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.008 ppm as lead [Skin] 

IDLH: 3.0 ppm as lead 


Properties: 

MW: 323.5 VP: 0.2 mmHg FIP: 200°F 

D: 1.653 g/mL VP: 0.26 mmHg (77° F) LEL: 1.8% 

MP: — 202°F VD: 8.6 UEL: — 

BP: 392°F (decomposes) Vlt: 340 ppm (77°F) RP: 22 

BP: 183°F (15 mmHg) H 2 0: 0.00002% IP: 11.10 eV 


Use: 0.522 cS Sol: Benzene; Ether; Ethanol 

C11-A104 
Tetramethyl lead 

CAS: 75-74-1 
RTECS: TP4725000 
UN: 1649 
ERG: 131 


Pb — 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


357 


C 4 H 12 Pb 

Colorless oily liquid with a musty or fruity odor. Commercial material may be dyed red, 
orange, or blue. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption (liquid), 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 
Used industrially as an antiknock additive for gasoline. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.93 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(i/,) Min: — ; Sig: — ; Sev: 3.7 ppm as lead 
OSHA PEL: 0.007 ppm as lead [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.014 ppm as lead [Skin] 

IDLH: 3.7 ppm as lead 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this material appears to be approximately 
one-third as toxic as Tetraethyl lead (C11-A103). 


Properties: 

MW: 267.3 VP: 23 mmHg PIP: 100°F 

D: 1 .995 g/mL VP: 26 mmHg (77° F) TEL: 1 .8% 

MP: — 22°F VD: 6.5 UEL: — 

BP: 230°F (decomposes) Vlt: 35,000 ppm RP: 0.23 

Use: 0.286 cS H 2 Q: 0.0015% (77°F) IP: 8.26 eV 


Sol: Fats; Oils; Gasoline 


C11-A105 
Vinyl chloride 

CAS: 75-01-4 
RTECS: KU9625000 
UN: 1086P 
ERG: 116 


=\ 


Cl 


C 2 H 3 C1 

Colorless gas or liquid with a pleasant, sweet odor at high concentrations (>3000 ppm). 
This material is prone to polymerization and is often stabilized with phenol. This material is 
hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially to produce poly( vinyl chloride) and copolymers, as an inhibitor in the pro- 
duction of ethylene oxide, and as a chemical intermediate for various materials including 
methyl chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chloroacetaldehyde. 

This material is on the CDC threat lists. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.56 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

OSHA PEL: 1 ppm 

OSHA Ceiling: 5 ppm [15 min] 

ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 62.5 

D: 0.969 g/ mL (liq. gas, 6°F) 

D: 0.9106 g/mL (liq. gas, 68°F) 
MP: — 256°F 
BP: 7° F 

Vsc: 0.193 cS (liq. gas, 77° F) 


VP: 2500 mmHg 
VD: 2.2 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.1% (77° F) 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: — 108°F 
LEL: 3.6% 
UEL: 33% 
RP: 0.005 
IP: 9.99 eV 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 250 ppm 4 h, 140 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 1200 ppm 4 h, 820 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 4800 ppm 4 h, 3400 ppm 


8 h, 70 ppm 
8 h, 820 ppm 
8 h, 3400 ppm 


C11-A106 

Allyl chloroformate 

CAS: 2937-50-0 
RTECS: LQ5775000 
UN: 1722 
ERG: 155 


O 



C4H5CIO2 

Colorless watery liquid with a pungent odor detectable at 1.4 ppm. This material is 
hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Monomer used in the manufacture of some polycarbonate lenses; used as a chemical 
intermediate for numerous compounds. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.93 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 120.5 VP: 20 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 88°F 

D: 1.1394 g/mL VD: 4.2 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — 112°F Vlt: 26,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 230°F H 2 0: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) RP: 0.46 

Vsc: 0.622 cS Sol: — IP: — 


C11-A107 

Butyl chloroformate 

CAS: 592-34-7 
RTECS: LQ5890000 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


359 


UN: 2743 
ERG: 155 


Cl 



c 5 h 9 cio 2 

Clear, colorless to light yellow liquid with an unpleasant odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for numerous compounds. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.59 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 136.6 
D: 1.057 g/mL 
MP: — 

BP: 288°F 
Use: 0.899 cS 


VP: 5.4 mmHg 
VD: 4.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: 7200 ppm 

H 2 0: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) 
Sol: — 


PIP: 100°F 
TEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 0.07 
IP: — 


C11-A108 

Carbonyl fluoride 

CAS: 353-50-4 
RTECS: FG6125000 
UN: 2417 
ERG: 125 



cf 2 o 

Hygroscopic colorless gas that fumes in moist air with a very irritating, pungent odor. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation and produces local skin/eye impacts. Hydro- 
gen fluoride generated during decomposition poses a significant inhalation and dermal 
hazard. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate in organic synthesis. Produced by decompos- 
ition of fluorocarbon plastics when heated between 932 and 1202°F. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.70 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm 
ACGIH STEL: 4.8 ppm 
NIOSH STEL: 5.6 ppm 



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Properties: 

MW: 66.0 VP: 42,000 mmHg 

D: 0.987 g/mL (liq. gas, -58°F) VP: 44,500 mmHg (77°F) 
MP: — 168°F VD: 2.3 (calculated) 

BP: — 120°F Vlt: — 

Vsc: — HoO: Reacts 

Sol: — 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: 13.02 eV 


C11-A109 
Carbonyl sulfide 

CAS: 463-58-1 
RTECS: FG6400000 
UN: 2204 
ERG: 119 


Colorless gas with an odor of rotten eggs. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for alkyl carbonates and organic sulfur 
compounds. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.46 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 60.1 

D: 1.005 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) 
MP: — 218°F 
BP: — 58°F 

Use: 0.0915 cS (liq. gas, 77°F) 


VP: 9412 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 2.1 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.122% (77°F) 

Sol: Alcohol; Toluene; Carbon 
disulfide 


FIP: — 

LEL: 12% 
UEL : 28.5% 
RP: 0.001 
IP: 11.18 eV 


C11-A110 

Chloroacetaldehyde 

CAS: 107-20-0 
RTECS: AB2450000 
UN: 2232 
ERG: 153 


O 



C 2 H 3 C10 

Clear, colorless liquid with an acrid, penetrating odor detectable at 0.9 ppm. Typically found 
as a 40% aqueous solution. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


361 


Used industrially as a chemical intermediate; used agriculturally to facilitate bark removal 
from tree trunks and as a fungicide. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.21 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

MEG (1 ;n Min: 1.0 ppm; Sig: 22 ppm; Sev: 45 ppm 

OSHA Ceiling: 1 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 1 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 1 ppm 

IDLH: 45 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 78.5 

D: 1.19 g/mL (40% solution) 
MP: — 3°F (40% solution) 

BP: 185°F 
Use: — 


VP: 100 mmFIg (40% solution) 
VD: 2.7 (calculated) 

Vlt: — 

H 2 O: Miscible 

Sol: Ether; Acetone; Methanol 


PIP: 190°F (40% solution) 
LEE: — 

UEL: — 

RP: — 

IP: 10.61 eV 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : 1 h, 1.3 ppm 
AEGL-2 : 1 h, 2.2 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 9.9 ppm 


4 h, 0.40 ppm 
4 h, 0.69 ppm 
4 h, 3.1 ppm 


8 h, 0.23 ppm 
8 h, 0.39 ppm 
8 h, 1.8 ppm 


Cll-Alll 

Chloroacetyl chloride 

CAS: 79-04-9 
RTECS: A06475000 
UN: 1752 
ERG: 156 


Cl 



Cl 


C 2 H 2 C1 2 0 

Colorless to yellowish liquid with a sharp, pungent, and irritating odor detectable at 0.140 
ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through 
broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an intermediate in the manufacture of chloroacetophenone, herbicides, 
pharmaceuticals, and organic chemical synthesis. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.62 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Eye Irritation: 1 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
MEG ( i/j) Min: 0.05 ppm; Sig: 0.5 ppm; Sev: 10 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH STEL: 0.15 ppm [Skin] 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 112.9 
D: 1.419 g/mL 
MP: — 7°F 
BP: 223°F 
Vsc: 0.147 cS 


VP: 19 mmFIg 

VP: 25.2 mmFIg (77°F) 

VD: 3.9 (calculated) 

Vlt: 25,000 ppm 

H 2 O: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) 
Sol: Ethyl ether; Acetone; Benzene 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.49 
IP: 10.30 eV 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.040 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 1.6 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 52 ppm 


4 h, 0.040 ppm 
4 h, 0.40 ppm 
4 h, 13 ppm 


8 h, 0.040 ppm 
8 h, 0.20 ppm 
8 h, 6.5 ppm 


C11-A112 


Crotonaldehyde 

CAS: 4170-30-3; 123-73-9 (Trans); 15798-64-8 (Cis) 

RTECS: GP9499000 
UN: 1143 
ERG: 131P 

H 

c 4 h 6 o 

Water-white liquid that becomes pale yellow on contact with air. It has a tarry, extremely 
irritating and suffocating odor that is detectable at 0.13 ppm. It exists as two configurational 
isomers. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local 
skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of butyl alcohol, butyraldehyde, quinaldine, resins, 
rubber antioxidants, insecticides, and other chemicals; used as a solvent, warning agent in 
fuel gases, as a rubber accelerator, in leather tanning, and as a denaturant in alcohol. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 



Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.87 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(ih) Min: 0.91 ppm; Sig: 4.4 ppm; Sev: 14 ppm 
OSHAPEL: 2 ppm 
ACGIH Ceiling: 0.3 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 50 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 70.1 
D: 0.858 g/mL 
MP: — 105°F 
BP: 219°F 
Use: 0.873 cS 


VP: 19 mmHg 
VP: 30 mmHg (77° F) 

VD: 2.4 (calculated) 

Vlt: 25,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 18.1% 

H 2 0: 19.2% (41 °F) 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Toluene 


PIP: 55°F 
LEL: 2.1% 
UEL: 15.5% 
RP: 0.62 
IP: 9.73 eV 


Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.19 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 4.4 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 14 ppm 


4 h, 0.19 ppm 
4 h, 1.1 ppm 
4 h, 2.6 ppm 


8 h, 0.19 ppm 
8 h, 0.56 ppm 
8 h, 1 .5 ppm 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


363 


C11-A113 

Ethyl chloroformate 

CAS: 541-41-3 
RTECS: LQ6 125000 
UN: 1182 
ERG: 155 


O 



c 3 h 5 cio 2 

Clear, water-white liquid with an irritating, sharp odor like hydrogen chloride. This 
material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye 
impacts. 

Used in the production of carbamates that are used to synthesize dyes, drugs, veterinary 
medicines, herbicides, and insecticides; as a solvent in the photographic industry; used as 
a stabilizer for PVC. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.44 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 108.5 VP: 22.4 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 1.139 g/mL VD: 3.7 (calculated) 

MP: — 113°F Vlt: 29,000 ppm (77°F) 

BP: 200°F H 2 0: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) 

Use: 2.81 cS Sol: Alcohol; Benzene; Ether 

C11-A114 

Ethyl chlorothioformate 

CAS: 2941-64-2 
RTECS: LQ6950000 
UN: 2826 
ERG: 155 


O 



C 3 H 5 CIOS 

Clear, colorless liquid with a foul stench. Colors of commercial material vary depending 
on the impurities present and range from grey to green to yellow to purple. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.10 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


FIP: 61°F 
LET: 3.5% 
UEL: 10.2% 
RP: 0.43 
IP: — 



364 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 124.6 
D: 1.195 g/mL 
MP: — 76°F 
BP: 270°F 
Vsc: 2.51 cS 


VP: 8.3 mmHg (70°F) 

VD: 4.3 (calculated) 

Vlt: 11,000 ppm (70°F) 

H 2 O: <0.1% (decomposes slowly) 
Sol: — 


PIP: 86°F 
LEL: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 1.1 
IP: — 


C11-A115 

Isobutyl chloroformate 

CAS: 543-27-1 
RTECS: — 


C5H9CIO2 

Clear, colorless liquid with a pungent, unpleasant odor. Commercial material may have a 
very faintly brown color. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.59 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 136.6 VP: 6.5 mmHg PIP: 87°F 

D: 1 .044 g/mL VP: 8.35 mmHg (77° F) LEL: — 

MP: — 112°F VD: 4.7 (calculated) UEL: — 

BP: 264° F Vlt: 8700 ppm RP: 1.3 

Vsc: — H 2 O: Decomposes slowly IP: — 


Sol: Benzene; Chloroform; Ether 


C11-A116 

Isopropyl chloroformate 

CAS: 108-23-6 
RTECS: LQ6475000 
UN: 2407 
ERG: 155 


o 



C4H7CIO2 

Colorless liquid with a strong odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used in the manufacture of pesticides, herbicides, veterinary medicines, polymerization 
initiators, blowing agents, and other chemicals. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 




Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


365 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.01 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 122.6 
D: 1.078 g/mL 
MP: — 

BP: 217°F 
Vsc: 0.603 cS 


VP: 21 mmHg 
VP: 37 mmHg (77°F) 
VD: 4.2 (calculated) 
Vlt: 28,000 ppm 
H 2 O: Decomposes 
Sol: Ether 


PIP: 82°F 
LET: 4% 
UEL: 15% 
RP: 0.43 
IP: — 


C11-A117 

Methanesulfonyl chloride 

CAS: 124-63-0 
RTECS: PB2790000 
UN: 3246 
ERG: 156 


O 

S — ci 

O 


CH 3 CIO 2 S 

Clear, colorless to slightly yellow oily liquid with a pungent odor. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals and herbicides; used in 
the manufacture of flame-resistant products; used as a stabilizer for liquid sulfur trioxide. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.69 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Severe Eye Irritation: 1 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Severe Respiratory Irritation: 10 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 114.6 VP: 12 mmHg (127°F) FIP: 230°F 

D: 1.474 g/mL VD: 4.0 (calculated) EEL: — 

MP: — 27°F Vlt: 14,000 ppm (127°F) UEL: — 

BP: 322°F H 2 O: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) RP: 0.86 

BP: 144°F (18 mmHg) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: 11.6 eV 

Use: 1.34 cS (77° F) 


C11-A118 

Methyl chloroformate 

CAS: 79-22-1 
RTECS: FG3675000 



366 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


UN: 1238 
ERG: 155 


O 



Cl 


C 2 H 3 C10 2 

Clear, colorless to light yellow liquid with a sharp, unpleasant, acrid odor. This material 
is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of carbamates, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, 
and pharmaceuticals; used as a solvent in the photographic industry. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.87 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LC ( j„/j): 190 ppm for a 10 min exposure 
Lacrimation: 10 ppm, exposure duration unspecified 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 94.5 
D: 1.228 g/mL 
MP: — 78°F 
BP: 159°F 
Use: 0.393 cS 


C11-A119 

Propyl chloroformate 

CAS: 109-61-5 
RTECS: LQ6830000 
UN: 2740 
ERG: 155 


VP: 108.5 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 76°F 

VD: 3.3 (calculated) LEL: 6.7% 

Vlt: 140,000 ppm (77°F) UEL: 23% 

H 2 O: Slight (decomposes slowly) RP: 0.96 
Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Benzene IP: — 


O 



Cl 


C 4 H 7 CIO 2 

Colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetra- 
tion through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an intermediate for polymerization initiators and other chemicals. 
This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.01 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


367 


Properties: 

MW: 122.6 VP: 20 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 94°F 

D: 1.091 g/mL VD: 4.2 (calculated) LET: — 

MP: — Vlt: 26,000 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 238°F H 2 O: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) RP: 0.46 
Vsc: 0.73 cS Sol: Benzene; Chloroform; Ether IP: — 

C11-A120 

Trichloroacetyl chloride 

CAS: 76-02-8 
RTECS: A07140000 
UN: 2442 
ERG: 156 



C 2 CI 4 O 

Clear, colorless to very faintly yellow liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.44 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Eluman toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 181.8 VP: 16 mmEIg PIP: None 

D: 1.6202 g/mL VP: 21.3 mmHg (77° F) LEE: None 

MP: — 25°F VD: 6.3 (calculated) UEL: None 

BP: 244° F Vlt: 21,000 ppm RP: 0.46 

Use: — H 2 O: Decomposes IP: 11.31 eV 

Sol: Ether; Alcohols 

C11-A121 

Trifluoroacetyl chloride 

CAS: 354-32-5 
RTECS: A07150000 
UN: 3057 
ERG: 125 


O 




368 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C2CIF3O 

Colorless gas that fumes strongly in moist air. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and produces local skin/ eye impacts. Hydrogen fluoride generated during decomposition 
poses a significant inhalation and dermal hazard. 

Used industrially for organic synthesis. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.42 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 132.5 VP: 3700 mmHg (77°F) FIP: None 

D: 1 .3844 g/mL (liq. gas, 77° F) VD: 4.6 (calculated) LET: None 

ATP: — 231°F Vlt: — UEL: None 

BP: — 8°F H 2 O: Reacts vigorously RP: 0.002 

Use: — Sol: — IP: — 


C11-A122 

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine 

CAS: 540-73-8, 306-37-6 (Dihydrochloride salt) 

RTECS: — 

UN: 2382 
ERG: 131 

/ 

N — N 

/ 

c 2 h 8 n 2 

Mobile, hygroscopic clear, colorless liquid that fumes in air. Slowly turns yellow after 
exposure to air. Has a fishy or ammonia-like odor. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 
This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken 
skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Used industrially for research; limited use as a high-energy rocket fuel. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.46 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 60.1 
D: 0.8274 g/mL 
MP: 16°F 
BP: 178°F 
Use: — 


UP: 68 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 7 3°F 

VD: 2.1 (calculated) LED — 

Vlt: 89,000 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

H 2 0: Miscible RP: 0.19 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Hydrocarbons IP: 9.02 eV 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 3.0 ppm 4 h, 0.75 ppm 8 h, 0.38 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 11 ppm 4 h, 2.7 ppm 8 h, 1.4 ppm 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


369 


C11-A123 
Methyl hydrazine 

CAS: 60-34-4; 7339-53-9 (Hydrochloride salt) 
RTECS: MV5600000 
UN: 1244 
ERG: 131 


\ 


N— N 


ch 6 n 2 

Hygroscopic, clear, colorless, fuming liquid with an odor like ammonia that is detectable 
between 0.9 and 2.8 ppm. Various salts (solids) have been reported. This material is hazard- 
ous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, 
and produces local skin/ eye impacts. It is a strong sensitizer. It spontaneously ignites in 
contact with strong oxidizers. 

Used industrially to manufacture pesticides, pharmaceuticals; used as a solvent, and as a 
rocket fuel. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 1.89 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG ah) Min: — ; Sig: 1 ppm; Sev: 3 ppm 
OSHA Ceiling: 0.2 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.01 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH Ceiling: 0.04 ppm (120 min) 

IDLH: 20 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 46.1 VP: 38 mmHg FIP: 17°F 

D: 0.874 g/mL (77°F) VP: 50 mmHg (77°F) TEL: 2.5% 

MP: — 62°F VD: 1.6 (calculated) UEL: 92% 

BP: 190°F Vlt: 51,000 ppm RP: 0.39 

Use: 0.887 cS (77°F) H 2 0: Miscible IP: 7.70 eV 


Sol: Ether; Alcohols; Hydrocarbons 

Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.90 ppm 4 h, 0.23 ppm 8 h, 0.11 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 2.7 ppm 4 h, 0.68 ppm 8 h, 0.34 ppm 


C11-A124 

Allyl isothiocyanate 

CAS: 57-06-7 
RTECS: NX8225000 
UN: 1545 
ERG: 155 


N=C = S 



370 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C4H5NS 

Clear, colorless to pale-yellow, oily liquid with an irritating, pungent odor like mustard 
that is detectable at 0.008 ppm. It tends to darken on storage. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. It causes sensitization through both inhalation and skin 
contact. 

Used industrially as a fumigant, fungicide, animal repellent, insect attractant; used in the 
preparation of medicinal ointments and mustard plasters; used as a flavoring agent, and 
denaturant for alcohol. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.06 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
AIHA STEL: 1 ppm [Skin] 

Properties: 

MW: 99.2 VP: 3.7 mmHg (86°F) FIP: 115°F 

D: 1.0175 g/mL VD: 3.4 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: — 112°F Vlt: 4800 ppm (86°F) UEL: — 

BP: 306°F H 2 0: 0.2% RP: 2.8 

Vsc: — Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 

C11-A125 
Butyl isocyanate 

CAS: 111-36-4 
RTECS: NQ8250000 
UN: 2485 
ERG: 155 



C5H9NO 

Colorless liquid with a strong odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially in the manufacture of insecticides, fungicides, and pharmaceuticals. 
This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.05 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEGqft) Min: 0.01 ppm; Sig: 0.05 ppm; Sev: 1.0 ppm 

Properties: 

MW: 99.1 VP: 10.6 mmHg FIP: 66°F 

D: 0.88 g/mL VP: 17.6 mmHg (77° F) LEE: — 

MP: <-94° F VD: 3.4 (calculated) UEE: — 

BP: 239°F Vlt: 14,000 ppm RP: 0.94 

Use: — H?0: Slight (decomposes slowly) IP: 10.14 eV 

Sol: — 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


371 


C11-A126 

Isopropyl isocyanate 

CAS: 1795-48-8 
RTECS: NQ9230000 
UN: 2483 
ERG: 155 



N = C = 0 


C 4 H 7 NO 

Clear, colorless to faint-yellow liquid with a strong penetrating odor. This material is hazard- 
ous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, 
and produces local skin/ eye impacts. It causes sensitization. 

Used industrially as an intermediate to manufacture pesticides and other chemicals. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.48 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 85.1 VP: — FIP: 27°F 

D: 0.866 g/ mL VD: 2.9 (calculated) TEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 166°F H 2 O: Decomposes RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: — 


C11-A127 

Methyl isocyanate 

CAS: 624-83-9 
RTECS: NQ9450000 
UN: 2480 
ERG: 155 


N = C = 0 


C 2 H 3 NO 

Colorless liquid with a strong, sharp, pungent odor. However, less than 10% of attentive 
persons can detect this material at the industrial exposure limits. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and 
produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an intermediate to manufacture pesticides, polyurethane foams, and 
plastics. 

This material is on the ITF-25 medium threat list. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.34 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
Eye Irritation: 1 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Unbearable " Irritation: 21 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
MEG (if,) Min: 0.025 ppm; Sig: 0.067 ppm; Sev: 0.2 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.02 ppm [Skin] 

ACGIH TLV: 0.02 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 3 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 57.1 VP: 348 mmHg FIP: 19°F 

D: 0.9599 g/mL VD: 1.4 LEE: 5.3% 

MP: — 49°F Vlt: 470,000 ppm L IEL: 26% 

BP: 103°F H 20 : 10% (59°F; decomposes slowly) RP: 0.38 

Vsc: — So/:— IP: 10.67 eV 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 

AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.067 ppm 4 h, 0.017 ppm 8 h, 0.008 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.20 ppm 4 h, 0.05 ppm 8 h, 0.025 ppm 


C11-A128 


Methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate 

CAS: 101-68-8 
RTECS: NQ9350000 


0=C=N 



N=C=0 


C15H10N2O2 

White to light-yellow flakes odorless flakes. This material is hazardous through inhalation 
and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially to manufacture adhesives, coatings, elastomers, and polyurethane foams. 
This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.24 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
MEG(ift) Min: 0.02 ppm; Sig: 0.20 ppm; Sev: 2.4 ppm 
OSHA Ceiling: 0.02 ppm 
ACGIH Ceiling: 0.005 ppm 
NIOSH Ceiling: 0.02 ppm [10 min] 

IDLH: 7 ppm 



Toxic Industrial Agents Cll-A 


373 


Properties: 

MW: 250.3 
D: 1.23 g/cm 3 (77° F) 
D: 1.19 g/mL (122°F) 
MP: 99°F 
BP: 597°F 

BP: 385°F (5 mmHg) 
Use: 4.22 cS (122°F) 


VP: 0.000005 mmHg (77° F) 

VD: 8.6 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.01 ppm (77°F) 

H 20 : 0 . 2 % (decomposes slowly) 
Sol: Acetone; Benzene; Kerosene 


PIP: 396°F 
TEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 1,200,000 
IP: — 


C11-A129 


ferf-Butyl isocyanate 

CAS: 1609-86-5 
RTECS: NQ8300000 
UN: 2484 
ERG: 155 



=c=o 


C5H9NO 

Clear, colorless liquid. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.05 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 99.1 VP: 57 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 24°F 
D: 0.844 g/mL VD: 3.4 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: — Vlt: 75,000 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 183°F H 2 O: Decomposes RP: 0.18 

Use:— Sol:— IP: 10. 14 eV 


C11-A130 

Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate 

CAS: 584-84-9 
RTECS: CZ6300000 
UN: 2078 
ERG: 156 




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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C9H5N2O2 

Colorless solid or liquid with a sharp, pungent fruity odor that is detectable at 2.1 ppm. It 
turns pale yellow on exposure to air. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin 
absorption, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin/eye 
impacts. 

Used industrially to manufacture polyurethane foams, elastomers, coatings; used as a 
cross-linking agent. 

This material is on the ITF-25 low threat list. 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.12 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

MEG (if,) Min: 0.02 ppm; Sig: 0.083 ppm; Sev: 0.51 ppm 

OSH A Ceiling: 0.02 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.005 ppm 

ACGIH STEL: 0.02 ppm 

IDLH: 2.5 ppm 

Properties: 

FIP: 260°F 
LEL: 0.9% 
UEL: 9.5% 
RP: 940 
IP: — 


Final AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.02 ppm 4 h, 0.01 ppm 8 h, 0.01 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.083 ppm 4 h, 0.021 ppm 8 h, 0.021 ppm 
AEGLS: 1 h, 0.51 ppm 4 h, 0.32 ppm 8 h, 0.16 ppm 


MW: 174.2 
D: 1.22 g/mL (77° F) 
MP: 70°F 
BP: 484° F 

BP: 255°F (18 mmHg) 
Use: 3.75 cS (77°F) 


VP: 0.008 mmHg 
VP: 0.01 mmHg (77°F) 

VD: 6.0 (calculated) 

Vlt: 11 ppm 

H 2 O: Insoluble (decomposes slowly) 
Sol: Ether; Acetone; Benzene 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "l,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane ToxFAQs." 
September 1995. 

. "1,2-Dibromoethane ToxFAQs." September 1995. 

. "1,2-Dichloroethane ToxFAQs." September 2001. 

. "1,2-Dichloropropane ToxFAQs." July 1999. 

. "Acrylonitrile ToxFAQs." July 1999. 

. "Ammonia ToxFAQs." September 2004. 

. "Bromomethane ToxFAQs." September 1995. 

. "Carbon Disulfide ToxFAQs." September 1997. 

. "Chlorfenvinphos ToxFAQs." September 1997. 

. "Crotonaldehyde ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

. "Diborane ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

. "Disulfoton ToxFAQs." September 1996. 

. "Ethylene Oxide ToxFAQs." July 1999. 

. "Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine ToxFAQs." September 2003. 

. "Formaldehyde ToxFAQs." June 1999. 

. "Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD) ToxFAQs." June 1999. 

. "Hydrazines ToxFAQs." September 1997. 



References 


375 


— . "Hydrogen Chloride ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

— . Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents Volume III — Medical Management Guidelines for Acute 
Chemical Exposures. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2000. 

— . "Methyl Isocyanate ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

— . "Methyl Mercaptan ToxFAQs." July 1999. 

— . "Methyl Parathion ToxFAQs." September 2001. 

— . "Phosphine ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

— . "Selenium Hexafluoride ToxFAQs." April 2002. 

— . "Sulfur Dioxide ToxFAQs." June 1999. 

— . "Sulfur Trioxide (SO 3 ) and Sulfuric Acid ToxFAQs." June 1999. 

— . "Titanium Tetrachloride ToxFAQs." September 1997. 

— . "Vinyl Chloride ToxFAQs." September 2004. 

— . Toxicological Profile for l,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane. Washington, DC: Government Printing 
Office, September 1992. 

— . Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dibromoethane. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, July 
1992. 

— . Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
August 1996. 

— . Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloropropane. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
December 1989. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Acrylonitrile. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 
1990. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Aluminum. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, July 1999. 
— . Toxicological Profile for Ammonia. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 
2004. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Antimony and Compounds. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
September 1992. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 2000. 
— . Toxicological Profile for Boron and Compounds. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
July 1992. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Bromomethane. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Septem- 
ber 1992. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Carbon Disulfide. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, August 

1996. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Chlorfenvinphos. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
September 1997. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Disulfoton. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, August 1995. 
— . Toxicological Profile for Ethylene Oxide. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1990. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine. Washington, DC: Government 
Printing Office, 2003. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Formaldehyde. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, July 1999. 
— . Toxicological Profile for Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD). Washington, DC: Government 
Printing Office, July 1999. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Hydrazines. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 

1997. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Iodine. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, April 2004. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Mercury. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, March 1999. 
— . Toxicological Profile for Methyl Mercaptan. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
September 1992. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Methyl Parathion. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 
September 2001. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Selenium. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 
2003. 

— . Toxicological Profile for Sulfur Dioxide. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 

1998. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


. Toxicological Profile for Sulfur Trioxide and Sulfuric Acid. Washington, DC: Government Printing 

Office, December 1998. 

. Toxicological Profile for Titanium Tetrachloride. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

September 1997. 

. Toxicological Profile for Tungsten (DRAFT). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

September 2003. 

. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride (DRAFT). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

September 2004. 

. Toxicological Profile for White Phosphorus. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 

September 1997. 

. "Titanium Tetrachloride ToxFAQs." September 1997. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for 
Preparedness and Response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup." 
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. "Case Definition: Arsine or Stibine Poisoning." March 4, 2005. 

Cook, H. G., B. C. Saunders, and F. E. Smith. "Esters Containing Phosphorus. VIII. Structural Require- 
ments for High Toxicity and Miotic Action of Esters of Fluorophosphonic Acid." Journal of the 
Chemical Society, Abstracts (1949): 635-638. 

Department of Health and Human Services. National Toxicology Program, Technical Reports. August 9, 
2005. http:/ /ntp.niehs.nih.gov/index.cfm?objectid=070E4598-9C8B-DF77-lC266EBE08732EB4. 
March 22, 2006. 

Fries, Amos A., and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 
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National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2004. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Sartori, Mario F. "New Developments in the Chemistry of War Gases." Chemical Reviews 48 (1951): 
225-257. 

. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L. W. Marrison. London: J. & A. Churchill, 

Ltd, 1939. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 1, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Somani, Satu M., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. New York: Academic Press, 1992. 

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True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, Field 
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United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
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Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection against It. Rev ed. New York: 
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World Health Organization. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http:/ /www.cdc.gov/niosh/ 
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Yaws, Carl L. Matheson Gas Data Book. 7th ed. Parsippany, NJ: Matheson Tri-Gas, 2001. 



Section IV 

Incapacitation and Riot Control 

Agents 




12 

Incapacitating Agents 


12.1 General Information 

Used in a military context, incapacitation means the inability of personnel to perform an 
assigned duty. For the purpose of this manual, incapacitation means the inability to perform 
any military task effectively and implies that the condition was achieved via the deliberate 
use of a nonlethal weapon. Incapacitating agents differ from other chemical agents in that 
the lethal dose is theoretically many times greater than the incapacitating dose. Under 
normal battlefield conditions, they do not pose a serious danger to the life of an exposed 
individual and do not produce any permanent injury. The military does not consider the 
use of lethal agents at sublethal doses as incapacitating agents. 

Military incapacitating agents are third and fourth generation chemical warfare agents 
that became popular during the Cold War. Incapacitating agent BZ (Cl 2-A001 ) and two key 
components necessary to synthesize BZ, 3-quinuclidinol (C12-C022) and benzilic acid (Cl 2- 
C023), are listed in Schedule 2 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). In addition 
to military-specific agents, materials in this class encompass a wide variety of commer- 
cially available medicinal dugs that interfere with the higher functions of the brain such as 
attention, orientation, perception, memory, motivation, conceptual thinking, planning, and 
judgment. They produce their effects mainly by altering or disrupting the higher regulatory 
activity of the central nervous system. 

Incapacitating agents are relatively easy to isolate from natural sources or to synthesize. 
Several agents are clandestinely synthesized and used as recreational drugs. For inform- 
ation on some of the chemicals used to manufacture military incapacitating agents, see 
the Component section (C12-C) following information on the individual agents. Although 
relatively easy to disperse, it is difficult to effectively control the dose received by the target 
population and prevent fatalities. 

Incapacitating agents have been stockpiled by numerous countries and there have been 
unverified reports that they have been utilized on the battlefield. In addition, they have 
been employed by police and special forces as a way to end hostage situations (e.g., the 
September 2002 counter terrorism raid on the Moscow theater). These operations have met 
with mixed success. 


379 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


12.2 Toxicology 

12.2.1 Effects 

Incapacitating agents produce their effects mainly by altering or disrupting the higher regu- 
latory activity of the central nervous system. Military incapacitating agents can be separated 
into four fairly discrete categories: deliriants (producing confusion, hallucinations, and dis- 
organized behavior), stimulants (essentially flooding the brain with too much information), 
calmatives (depressants that induce passivity or even sleep), and psychedelics (producing 
abnormal psychological effects resembling mental illness). 

In normal usage, incapacitating agents will not cause permanent or long-lasting injury. 
Unlike lachrymatory agents (Chapter 13) or vomiting/ sterna tory agents (Chapter 14), 
incapacitating agents produce effects that may last for hours or even days postexposure. 


1 2.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Incapacitating agents are primarily a hazard through inhalation. However, exposure to 
liquid or solid agents may be hazardous through skin absorption (if the agent is dissolved 
in an appropriate solvent), ingestion, introduction through abraded skin (e.g., breaks in 
the skin or penetration of skin by debris), and may also produce local skin/eye effects 
(e.g., dilation of the pupil). 


12.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Incapacitating agents do not have good warning properties. They have little or no odor, 
and the vapors do not irritate the eyes. Contact with liquid or solid agents neither irritates 
the skin nor causes cutaneous injuries. This class of agents does not seriously endanger life 
except at exposures greatly exceeding an effective dose. 


12.2.4 Latency Period 

12.2.4.1 Vapors/ Aerosols (Mists or Dusts) 

Depending on the specific agent and the concentration of vapor or aerosol, the effects begin 
to appear in seconds or may be delayed up to several hours. 

12.2.4.2 Liquids 

Typically, there is a latent period with no visible effects between the time of exposure and 
the sudden onset of symptoms. Effects from dermal exposure may be delayed up to several 
days. Some factors affecting the length of time before the onset of symptoms are the amount 
of agent involved, the amount of skin surface in contact with the agent, previous exposure 
to materials that chap or dry the skin (e.g., organic solvents such as gasoline or alcohols), 
and addition of additives designed to enhance the rate of percutaneous penetration by the 
agents. 

Another key factor affecting the rate of percutaneous penetration by the agent is the part 
of the body that is exposed. It takes the agent longer to penetrate thicker and tougher skin. 
The regions of the body that allow the fastest percutaneous penetration are the groin, head, 
and neck. The least susceptible body regions are the hands, feet, front of the knee, and 
outside of the elbow. 



Incapacitating Agents 


381 


12.2.4.3 Solids (Nonaerosol) 

Typically, there is a latent period with no visible effects between the time of exposure and 
the sudden onset of symptoms. Effects from dermal exposure may be delayed up to several 
days and is affected by such factors as the amount of agent involved, the amount of skin 
surface in contact with the agent, and the area of the body exposed (see Section 12.2.4.2). 
Moist, sweaty areas of the body are more susceptible to percutaneous penetration by solid 
agents. 


12.3 Characteristics 

12.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

12.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless liquids or solids. Depending on the specific 
agent, liquids may be mobile, viscous, or even waxy in nature. Many solids are salts of 
the free-base liquid that are colorless to white to beige crystalline materials. In either state, 
these materials typically have little or no odor when pure. 

12.3. 1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically white to light brown powders, waxy solids, or viscous 
liquids. Production impurities and decomposition products in these agents may give them 
an odor. Odors for all agents may become more pronounced during storage. 

12.3. 1.3 Modified Agents 

Solvents have been added to incapacitating agents to facilitate handling, to stabilize 
the agents, or to increase the ease of percutaneous penetration by the agents. Per- 
cutaneous enhancement solvents include dimethyl sulfoxide, N ,N-d i methyl forma m icie, 
N,N-di m e th y 1 pa 1 m i ta m i d e, N ,N-d i methyldeca na mid e, and saponin. Color and other 
properties of these solutions may vary from the pure agent. Odors will vary depending 
on the characteristics of the solvent(s) used and concentration of incapacitating agent in the 
solution. 


12.3.2 Stability 

Military-specific agents are stable even under tropical conditions and can be stored in 
glass, aluminum, or steel. Stabilizers are not required. Some potentially dual use agents are 
sensitive to heat and light and may require stabilizers for long-term storage. 


12.3.3 Persistency 

Depending on the properties of the specific agent, unmodified incapacitating agents are 
classified as either nonpersistent or persistent by the military. 

Addition of solvents may alter the persistency of these agents. Salts of agents have 
negligible vapor pressure and will not evaporate. Depending on the size of the indi- 
vidual particles and on any encapsulation or coatings applied to the particles, they can 
be reaerosolized by ground traffic or strong winds. 



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12.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Vapors of volatile incapacitating agents have a density greater than air and tend to collect 
in low places. Most incapacitating agents are nonvolatile and produce negligible amounts 
of vapor. 

Most of these agents are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water. However, the solubility 
of any agent may be modified (either increased or decreased) by solvents, components, or 
impurities. The specific gravities of unmodified liquid agents are slightly greater than that 
of water. Incapacitating agents are typically soluble in most organic solvents including 
gasoline, alcohols, and oils. Salts of agents are water soluble. 


12.4 Additional Hazards 

12.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent vapors, aer- 
osols, or to solid agents may be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened 
items exposed to solid agents or solutions of agents should be decontaminated within a 
few hours postexposure or destroyed. Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged 
only in paper or cardboard, should be destroyed. 


12.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/soap and water (see Section 12.5.3). If the 
animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline 
solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be quarantined until tested. Leaves of forage vegetation could 
still retain sufficient agent to produce effects for several weeks post release, depending on 
the level of contamination and the weather conditions. 


12.4.3 Fire 

Because of their low vapor pressures, heat from a fire will destroy incapacitating agents 
before generating any significant concentration of agent vapor. However, actions taken to 
extinguish the fire can spread the agent. Salts are water soluble and runoff from firefighting 
efforts will pose a significant threat. Some of the decomposition products resulting from 
hydrolysis or combustion of incapacitating agents are water soluble and highly toxic (see 
Section 12.4.5). Other potential decomposition products include toxic and/or corrosive 
gases. 


12.4.4 Reactivity 

Some incapacitating agents decompose slowly in water. Raising the pH of an aqueous 
solution of these agents significantly increases the rate of decomposition. 



Incapacitating Agents 


383 


12.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

12.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 

Varies depending on the specific agent but may include various complex alkaloids and 
organic acids. 

12.4.5.2 Combustion 

Varies depending on the specific agent but volatile decomposition products may include 
hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HC1), phosgene (COCI 2 ), nitrogen oxides 
(NO. r ), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, as well as potentially toxic lower molecular 
weight hydrocarbons. 


12.5 Protection 

12.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis for 
the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 
BZ is the only incapacitating agent addressed and recommendations are based on a release 
scenario involving direct aerosolization of the solid agents with a particle size between 
2 and 5 pm. Under these conditions, the difference between a small and a large release of 
BZ is not based on the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial hazardous materials 
listed in the ERG. A small release involves 10 kilograms of powdered agent (approximately 
120 cubic in.) and a large release involves 500 kilograms of powdered agent (approximately 
11 cubic ft). 



Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind day 
(miles) 

Downwind night 
(miles) 

BZ C12-A001 




Small device (10 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.3 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

200 

0.3 

1.2 


12.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

12.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. If chemical protective clothing is not available 
and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' 
gear will provide very limited skin protection against agent vapors and aerosols. Contact 
with solid and liquid agents should be avoided. 

12.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Elealth (NIOSH) and Chem- 
ical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification. Elowever, during emergency 




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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


operations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by 
the manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
Incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor/ acid gas /particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

12.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Currently, there is no information on performance testing of chemical protective clothing 
against incapacitating agent. 


12.5.3 Decontamination 

12.5.3.1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

12.5.3.2 Vapors 

Casualties / personnel: Remove all clothing as it may contain "trapped" agent. To avoid further 
exposure of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing 
that must be pulled over the head. Shower using copious amounts of soap and water. Ensure 
that the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped agent. If there is a 
potential that the eyes have been exposed to the agent, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline 
solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Ventilate to remove the vapors or dissipate the aerosol. If deemed necessary, 
wash the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and place into containers 
lined with high-density polyethylene. Removal of porous material, including painted sur- 
faces, may be required because agents that have been absorbed into these materials may 
migrate back to the surface and pose a residual hazard. 

12.5.3.3 Liquids/Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water 
to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to 
find warm or hot water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could 
abrade the skin and increase percutaneous absorption of residual agent. Rinse with copious 
amounts of water. If there is a potential that the eyes have been exposed to incapacitating 
agents, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Small puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material 
such as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed mater- 
ial into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Larger puddles can be collected 
using vacuum equipment made of materials inert to the released material and equipped 
with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and appropriate vapor filters. Wash 
the area with copious amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. 
Ventilate the area to remove vapors. 



Incapacitating Agents 


385 


12.5.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing 
as this can aerosolize the agent. If possible, dampen the agent with a water mist to help 
prevent aerosolization. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the 
eyes have been exposed to incapacitating agents, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution 
for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that could 
create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize the 
agent such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped 
with a HEPA filter. Do not use a standard home or industrial vacuum. Do not allow the 
vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the affected area. Vacuum all surfaces with extreme care in 
a very slow and controlled manner to minimize aerosolizing the agent. Place the collected 
material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate in containers lined with 
high-density polyethylene. 


12.6 Medical 

12.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

A case in which incapacitating agents are detected in the urine. Remember that fentanyl 
derivatives and some other synthetic opioids might not be detected by routine toxicologic 
screens. If an analytical methodology is available, then detection of incapacitating agents 
in environmental samples. The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed 
because either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is 
present or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 


12.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with a 
potential case of exposure to incapacitating agents: conduct disorder, personality disorders, 
dysthymic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, panic disorders, delirium, 
dementia, amnesia, anxiety, headache, migraine, brain abscess; encephalitis, CNS infection, 
acute respiratory distress syndrome; heat exhaustion/heatstroke, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, 
electrolyte abnormalities, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, diabetic ketoacidosis; sub- 
stance abuse (alcohol, plant and mushroom poisoning, scopolamine-tainted heroin), 
withdrawal syndromes, delirium tremens, methemoglobinemia, organophosphate and 
carbamate pesticide exposure, carbon monoxide, and cyanides. 


12.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

Varies according to the type of incapacitating agent. Care must be taken in that many 
signs and symptoms associated with exposure to incapacitating agents are also associated 
with anxiety or physical trauma. Potential indications of exposure include apprehension. 



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restlessness, dizziness, confusion, erratic behavior, inappropriate smiling or laughing, 
irrational fear, difficulty in communicating (mumbling, slurred, or nonsensical speech), 
euphoria, lethargy, trembling, pleading, crying, perceptual distortions, hallucinations, dis- 
robing, stumbling or staggering, blurred vision, dilated or pinpointed pupils, flushed face 
and skin, elevated temperature, dry mouth and skin, foul breath, stomach cramps, vomit- 
ing, difficulty in urinating, change in pulse rate (slow or elevated), change in blood pressure 
(lowered or elevated), changes in breathing rate, stupor, or coma. 


1 2.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

12.6.4.1 Priority 1 

A casualty with cardiovascular collapse or severe hyperthermia. Immediate attention to 
ventilation, hemodynamic status, and temperature control could be life-saving. 

1 2. 6. 4.2 Priority 2 

A casualty with severe or worsening signs after exposure. 

1 2. 6. 4.3 Priority 3 

A casualty with mild peripheral or central nervous system effects. However these patients 
will not be able to manage themselves and should be controlled. 


12.6.4.4 Priority 4 

A casualty with severe cardiorespiratory compromise when treatment or evacuation 
resources are unavailable. 


12.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all incapacitating agents have been removed. If 
incapacitating agents have gotten into the eyes, irrigate the eyes with water or 0.9% saline 
solution for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for 
at least 10 minutes. However, do not delay treatment if thorough decontamination cannot 
be undertaken immediately. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Antidotes are available for some incapacitating agents. Prior to administering antidotes 
or other drugs, ensure that the signs and symptoms (e.g., coma, seizures, etc.) are due to 
chemical exposure and not the result of head trauma or other physical injury. Otherwise, 
general treatment consists of observation, supportive care with fluids, and possibly restraint 
or confinement. Casualties should be isolated in a safe area. Remove any potentially harmful 
material from individuals suspected of being exposed to incapacitating agents including 
such items as cigarettes, matches, medications, and other small items they might attempt 
to ingest. Observe casualties for signs of heatstroke as some incapacitating agents eliminate 
the ability of exposed individuals to sweat. Monitor to ensure that casualties are breathing. 
Casualties will usually recover from exposure to incapacitating agents without medical 
treatment; however, full recovery from effects may take several days. 



Incapacitating Agents C12-A 


387 


12.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects and decontaminate with soap and water. Although 
it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and more efficient 
to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. Items that will 
be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable containers, 
ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the outer one. 

Wash the remains with soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent 
may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. 
If remains are heavily contaminated with residue, wash and rinse waste should be contained 
for proper disposal. 

Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action 
is necessary. Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any addi- 
tional risks and should be contained and handled according to established procedures. Use 
standard burial procedures. 


C12-A 

AGENTS 


C12-A001 

3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (Agent BZ) 
CAS: 6581-06-2 
RTECS: — 



C21H23NO3 

White to beige crystalline solid that is odorless. Various salts have been reported. 

Also reported as a mixture with ortho-Chlorobenzylmalononitrile (C13-A009). 

Exposure Hazards 

LCtso^nhy. 200,000 mg-min/ m 3 . This value is from an older source (ca. 1960) and is 
not supported by modern data. No updated toxicity estimates have 
been proposed. 

ICt 50anh) : 100 mg-min/m 3 

" Mild incapacitation": 90 mg-min/m 3 (some hallucinations) 

"Severe incapacitation": 135 mg-min/m 3 (marked hallucinations) 



388 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Properties: 

MW: 337.4 

D: 1.33 g/cm 3 (crystalline) 

D: 0.51 g/ cm 3 (powder) 

MP: 334° F 

BP: 774° F (estimate) 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 


Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.0012% (77°F) 

Sol: Common organic solvents 


FIP: 475°F 

FIP: 428 °F (munition 
grade) 

LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 200,000 
IP: — 


C12-A002 


l-Methyl-4-piperidyl cyclopentyl-l-propynyl-glycolate (Agent 302196 (B)) 

CAS: 53034-67-6 ' 

RTF.CS: — 



C16H25NO3 


Ivory colored powder. Various salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 279.4 
D: 1.14 g/cm 3 
MP: 253°F 
BP: 671°F (estimate) 
Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 2.25% (77° F) 
Sol: Chloroform 


FIP: 376°F 
LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 13,000,000 
IP: — 


C12-A003 

3-Quinuclidinyl cyclopentyl-phenylglycolate (Agent EA 3167) 
CAS: 26758-53-2 
RTECS: — 



C20H27NO3 

Straw-colored, extremely viscous, and tacky liquid that is odorless. Various salts have been 
reported. 



Incapacitating Agents C12-A 


389 


Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 329.5 

D: 1.14 g/mL (77° F) 

MP : — 

BP: 613°F (estimate) 
Vsc: 15,000 cS (131°F) 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: <0.001% 

Sol: Ethanol; Chloroform 


PIP: 448 °F 
LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 11,000,000 
IP: — 


C12-A004 


N-Methyl-4-piperidyl cyclopentyl-phenylglycolate (Agent EA 3443) 
CAS: 37803-21-0 


RTECS: — 



C 19 H 27 NO 3 


Waxy solid or viscous liquid that is odorless. Various salts have been reported. 


Exposure Hazards 

ICt 5 Q( In i,y. 54.4 mg-min/m 

Properties: 

MW: 317.5 
D: 1.1 g/mL 
MP: 119°F 
BP: 714°F 

Vsc: 86,000 cS ( 86 °F) 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.12% (77° F) 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


PIP: 424° F 
LEL: — 

UEL: — 

RP: 11,000,000 
IP: — 


C12-A005 

l-Methyl-4-piperidyl cyclobutyl-phenylglycolate (Agent EA 3580B; Hydrochloride salt is 
Agent EA 3580 A) 

CAS: 54390-94-2 
RTECS: — 



C18H25NO3 

Waxy solid to white crystalline material that is odorless. Hydrochloride salt is a white to 
yellow crystalline solid. 



390 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


An aerosol cloud from the hydrochloride salt can be thermally generated with little decom- 
position of the agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

tCtsoanhy 71 mg-min/m 3 

ICtsQdnk) : 79 mg-min/ m 3 (Hydrochloride salt) 


Properties: 

MW: 303.4 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: 1.10 g/cm 3 (77° F) VD: — LEL: — 

MP: 133°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 710°F H 2 0: 9.42% (77°F) RP: 1,200,000 

Vsc: 4060 cS (77°F) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 


Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 339.9 

D: 1.21 g/cm 3 (77° F) 

MP: 387°F 

H 2 Q: 39% (77° F) 

C12-A006 

l-Methyl-4-piperidyl isopropyl-phenylglycolate (Agent EA 3834B; Hydrochloride salt is 
Agent EA 3834A) 

CAS: 75321-25-4; 137444-35-0 (Hydrochloride salt) 

RTECS: — 



C 17 H 25 NO 3 

White crystals to brown oil that is odorless. Hydrochloride salt is a white crystalline solid. 

An aerosol cloud from the hydrochloride salt can be thermally generated with little decom- 
position of the agent. Salt has greater absorption via lungs than the free base. 

Also reported as a mixture with l-Methoxy-l,3,5-cycloheptatriene (C13-A014). 

Exposure Hazards 

ICt 50{Inh) : 73.4 mg-min/ m 3 

ICtsQQnhy 82.6 mg-min/m 3 (Hydrochloride salt) 


Properties: 

MW: 291.4 VP: 0.000015 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 397°F 

D: 1.0626 g/cm 3 VD: 10 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 120°F Vlt: 0.02 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 639°F H 2 0: <0.002% RP: 390,000 

Vsc: 13,525 cS (77°F) Sol: Hexane; Ether IP: — 


Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 327.9 
D: 1.18 g/cm 3 
MP: 399°F 
H 2 0: 43.9% (77°F) 



Incapacitating Agents C12-A 


391 


C12-A007 

Phencyclidine (Agent SN) 
CAS: 77-10-1 
RTECS: — 



Ci 7 H 25 N 

Colorless crystals. Various salts have been reported. 

Used as a veterinary anesthetic. Also used as an illegal street drug. 

Exposure Hazards 

ICt^QQnh ) : 1000 mg-min/m 3 . Concentration of 25-50 mg-min/m 3 produce anesthetic 
effects, and concentrations >100 mg-min/m 3 cause mental disturbances. 

ID50 (ing)' 0.010-0.020 g 

LD 5 0 Qn g y- 7 g 


Properties: 


MW: 243.4 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 115°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 275°F (1 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 

Hydrochloride salt 

Hydrobromide salt 


MW: 279.9Z 

MW: 324.3 


MP: 451 °F 

MP: 417°F 



C12-A008 

Cocaine 

CAS: 50-36-2 
RTECS: YM2800000 



C17H21NO4 

Colorless to white crystals or powder with no odor. Various salts have been reported. 

Used medicinally and by veterinarians as a local anesthetic. Also used as an illegal street 
drug. 



392 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

LD 50( i ng) : 1-1.2 g (estimate) 


Properties: 


MW: 303.4 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 208°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 369°F (1 mmHg) 

H 2 0: 0.17% 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: Most organic solvents 

IP: — 

Hydrochloride salt 

Nitrate salt 


MW: 339.9 

MW: 366.4 


MP: 383°F 

MP: 136°F 


H 2 0: 250% 

H 2 0: "Freely soluble" 



C12-A009 

Dexamphetamine 

CAS: 51-64-9 
RTECS: — 



C 9 H 13 N 

Colorless liquid. The sulfate salt is a white, odorless crystalline solid. 

Used by veterinarians as a stimulant of the central nervous system. Also used as an illegal 
street drug. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.53 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
hDsodng)- 1.4-1. 8 g (estimate) 


Properties: 


MW: 135.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 0.949 g/mL (59°F) 

VD: 4.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 397°F 

HoO: "Slightly" 

RP: — 

BP: 181°F (15 mmHg) 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether 

IP: — 


Sulfate salt 

MW: 233.3 
D: 1.15 g/cm 3 
MP: 572°F 
H 2 0: 10% 


C12-A010 

Methamphetamine 

CAS: 537-46-2 
RTECS: — 



Incapacitating Agents C12-A 


393 



CioH :5 N 

Clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic odor resembling geranium leaves. The hydro- 
chloride salt is a crystalline solid that is odorless. 

Used medicinally as an anesthetic. Also used as an illegal street drug. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.10 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
LD 50 ( Ing y. 1.4-1. 8 g (estimate) 


Properties: 


MW: 149.2 

VP: 0.163 mmHg (77° F) 

FIP: — 

Di- 

VD: 5.1 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MF:— 

Vlt: 210 ppm (77°F) 

UEL: — 

BP: 414°F 

H z O: 1.33% 

RP: 50 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Ethanol; Ether; Chloroform 

IP: — 


Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 185.7 
MP: 338°F 
H 2 0: 50% 


C12-A011 
Ecstasy 

CAS: 42542-10-9 
RTECS: — 

o 

o 

CnHisNOz 

Oily liquid. The hydrochloride salt is a crystalline solid. 

There is no approved medical use in the United States, but it is used as an illegal street 
drug. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.90 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LD 50 (i ng) : 1.4-1. 8 g (estimate) 

This material is approximately three times more potent than Mescaline (C12-A014). 


Properties: 


MW: 193.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 6.7 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 212°F (0.4 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 




394 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Hydrochloride salt 

MW: 229.7 
MP: 297°F 


C12-A012 

Mescaline 

CAS: 54-04-6 
RTECS: — 

/ 


o 



C11H17NO3 

Crystalline solid. Various salts have been reported. 

Used in religious ceremonies by the North American Church of Native Americans. Also 
used as an illegal street drug. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.64 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 211.3 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: 7.3 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: 97°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 356°F (12 mmHg) HSO: "Moderate" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Alcohol; Chloroform; Benzene 

IP: — 

Hydrochloride salt 

Sulfate salt 


MW: 247.7 

MW: 309.3 


MP: 358°F 

MP: 361 °F 



C12-A013 

LSD 

CAS: 50-37-3 
RTECS: — 



C 20 H 25 N 3 O 

Colorless crystalline solid that is odorless. Various salts have been reported. 



Incapacitating Agents C12-A 


395 


Used in biochemical research as an antagonist to serotonin. Also used as an illegal street 
drug. 

Exposure Hazards 

hDso (ingy 0.021-3.5 g 


Properties: 

MW: 323.4 VP: Negligible PIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: 180°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 0: 0.0002% RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: 7.25 eV 


Tartrate salt 

MW: 861.0 
MP: 388°F 
H 2 0: "Soluble" 


C12-A014 

Morphine 

CAS: 57-27-2 
RTECS: — 



C17H19NO3 

White crystalline solid that is odorless. Acetate has a slight acetic odor. Various salts have 
been reported. 

Used medicinally as an anesthetic. Also used as an illegal street drug. 


Exposure Hazards 

PP>5Q(IV)- 0.03 g 

Properties: 


MW: 285.3 

VP: — 

PIP: — 

D: 1.31 g/cm 3 

VD: 9.8 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: 387°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: Sublimes 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: Methanol 

IP: — 


C12-A015 

Fentanyl 

CAS: 437-38-7 
RTECS: UE5550000 



396 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 



C 22 H 2 gN 2 0 

Crystalline solid that is odorless. Various salts have been reported. 

Used medicinally as an anesthetic, by veterinarians as a tranquilizer. Also used as an illegal 
street drug and as an illegal stimulant for racehorses. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this material is between 50 and 100 times more potent than Morphine (C12-A017). 


Properties: 


MW: 336.5 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 181°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 0.02% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Citrate salt 

MW: 528.6 
MP: 300°F 
H 2 0: 2.5% 


C12-A016 

Sufentanil 

CAS: 56030-54-7 
RTECS: — 



\ 


C22H30N2O2S 

Crystalline solid. Various salts have been reported. 

Used medicinally as an anesthetic. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
this material is approximately 700 times more potent than Morphine (C12-A017). 



Incapacitating Agents C12-A 


397 


Properties: 


MW: 386.6 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 206°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 0.0076% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C12-A017 

Alfentanil 

CAS: 71195-58-9; 70879-28-6 (Hydrochloride salt) 
RTECS: — 



o 

\ 


C21H32N6O3 

Hydrochloride is a colorless solid with no odor. This material is hazardous through inhal- 
ation, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion. May cause nausea and vomiting as 
well as muscle rigidity that includes the chest wall causing apnea. 

Used medicinally as a short-acting general anesthetic. Effects dissipate after approximately 
20 min. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 416.5 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 285° F (Hydrochloride salt) 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 2 0: 0.0035% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

H 2 0: Soluble (Hydrochloride salt) 
Sol: — 

IP: — 


C12-A018 


Lofentanil 

CAS: 61380-40-3; 61380-41-4 (Oxalate salt) 
RTECS: — 




398 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C25H32N2O3 

Oxalate is a colorless solid with no odor. This material is hazardous through inhalation, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion. 

Used medicinally as an anesthetic. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 408.5 

VP: Negligible 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 351 °F (Oxalate salt) 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H z O: 0.00007% 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C12-A019 


Prolixin 

CAS: 69-23-8; 146-56-5 (Hydrochloride salt); 
(Dimaleate salt); 

2746-81-8 (Enanthate salt) 

RTECS: — 



5002-47-1 (Decanoate salt); 



3093-66-1 


C22H26F3N3OS 


Dark brown viscous oil. The hydrochloride salt is a white crystalline solid, while the 
decanoate and enanthate esters are pale yellow to yellowish orange viscous liquids or 
oily solids. 

Used medicinally as an anesthetic. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 437.5 VP: Negligible FIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 482°F (0.3 mmHg) H 2 0: 0.003% (99°F) RP: — 

Use: — Sol: — IP: 8.64 eV 


Dihydrochloride salt 

MW: 510.4 
MP: 436 °F 
H 2 0: "Soluble" 



Incapacitating Agents C12-A 


399 


C12-A020 

Halothane 

CAS: 151-67-7 
RTECS: KH6550000 


Br 



C 2 HBrClF 3 


Clear, colorless liquid with a sweetish, pleasant odor. 
Used medicinally as an inhalation anesthetic. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.07 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

ACGIH TLV: 50 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 2.0 ppm [60 min limit] 


Properties: 

MW: 197.4 
D: 1.871 g/mL 
MP: -180°F 
BP: 122°F 
Use: — 


VP: 243 mmHg 
VP: 302 mmHg (77° F) 

VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 330,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.345% 

H 2 0: 0.407% (77°F) 

Sol: Hydrocarbon solvents 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 0.029 
IP: — 


C12-A021 

Methoxyflurane 

CAS: 76-38-0 
RTECS: KN7820000 


Cl 





Cl 


C3H4C12F20 

Clear, colorless liquid with a fruity odor. 

Used medicinally as an inhalation anesthetic. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.75 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
NIOSH Ceiling: 2.0 ppm [60 min limit] 

Properties: 

MW: 165.0 VP: 23 mmHg FIP: 145°F 

D: 1.4223 g/mL VP: 49.1 mmHg (77° F) LEL: 7% 

MP: -31°F VD: 5.7 (calculated) UEL: — 



400 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


BP: 221°F Vlt: 65,000 ppm RP: 0.16 

BP: 124°F (100 mmHg) H 2 0: 2.8% (100°F) IP: 11 eV 

Vsc: — Sol: — 


COMPONENTS AND PRECURSORS C12-C 


C12-C022 

3-Quinuclidinol 

CAS: 1619-34-7 
RTECS: VD6191700 

HO 

' N 



C 7 H 13 NO 

White to beige crystalline powder. This material produces local skin/eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 

This material is a component for numerous incapacitating agents and several organophos- 
phorus nerve agents (Chapter 1). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.20 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Fluman toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 127.2 VP: — FIP: — 

D: — VD: — LEE: — 

MP: 424° F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: — H 2 0: "Soluble" RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: <8.1 eV 


C12-C023 

Benzilic acid 

CAS: 76-93-7 
RTECS: DD2064000 




Components and Precursors C12-C 


401 


Q4H12O3 

White to cream powder. This material produces local skin /eye impacts. 

Used industrially as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list and Schedule 2 of the CWC. 
This material is a component for numerous incapacitating agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.33 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 228.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 300°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 356°F 

H 2 O: "Slightly soluble" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C12-C024 

Methyl Benzilate 

CAS: 76-89-1 
RTECS: — 



C 15 H 14 O 3 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this material. 
Used industrially as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. 

This material is on the Australia Group Export Control list. 

This material is a component for numerous incapacitating agents. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.91 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 242.3 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 163°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 369°F (13 mmHg) 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



402 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


References 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for 
Preparedness and Response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup." 
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 49 (RR-4) (2000): 1-14. 

. "Case Definition: 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate (BZ)." March 11, 2005. 

. "Case Definition: Opioids (Fentanyl, Etorphine, or Others)." March 11, 2005. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Lakoski, Joan M., W. Bosseau Murray, and John M. Kenny. The Advantages and Limitations of Calmat- 
ives for Use as Non-Lethal Technique. College of Medicine, Applied Research Laboratory, The 
Pennsylvania State University, October 3, 2000. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 2005. 

National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2004. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Perrine, Daniel M. The Chemistry of Mind- Altering Drugs: History, Pharmacology, and Cultural Context. 
Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1996. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, ed. Medical Aspects of Chemical and 
Biological Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 1, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W., ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, ed. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Sommer, Harold Z., and Jacob I. Miller. "Quaternary Quinuclidinones." US Patent 3,919,240, 
November 11, 1975. 

True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume I, Edgeivood Arsenal Special Report 
No. EO-SR-74001. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume II, Edgeivood Arsenal Special Report No. EO-SR-74002. 

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chem- 
ical Casualties Handbook. 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts About Psychedelic Agent 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate (BZ). Aberdeen 
Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 
1996. 

World Health Organization. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http:/ /www.cdc.gov/niosh/ 
ipcs/icstart.html. 2004. 

. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Report of a WHO Group of Consultants. Geneva: 

World Health Organization, 1970. 

. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Geneva: World 

Health Organization, 2004. 



13 

Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents 


13.1 General Information 

The majority of these materials are alkylating agents that react with the moisture in the eyes 
to cause irritation. Under normal battlefield conditions, they do not pose a serious danger 
to the life of an exposed individual and do not produce any permanent injury They are first 
generation chemical warfare agents and were the first agents deployed in World War I. Since 
the end of World War I, numerous new agents have been developed, typically with greater 
irritating power and less toxicity. Under the general purpose criterion of the Chemical 
Weapons Convention (CWC) the use of irritating and lachrymatory agents is banned during 
a war. However, they may still be used by the military during operations other than war 
such as when responding to incidents of civil unrest. Lachrymatory agents are also used by 
police forces throughout the world to control rioters and disband unruly crowds. In some 
countries, agents can be purchased by individuals for personal protection. 


13.2 Toxicology 
13.2.1 Effects 

Irritating and lachrymatory agents cause intense eye pain and tears. They may also irritate 
the respiratory tract, causing the sensation that the casualty has difficulty breathing. In high 
concentrations, they are irritating to the skin and cause a temporary burning or itching 
sensation. High concentration can cause nausea, vomiting, and blistering on the skin. In 
an enclosed or confined space, very high concentration can be lethal. 


13.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Irritating and lachrymatory agents are primarily an eye-contact and inhalation hazard. 
Aerosols and vapors are irritating to the eyes and skin at low concentrations but are 
otherwise relatively nontoxic via these routes. However, exposure to bulk liquid or solid 
agents may be hazardous through skin absorption, ingestion, and introduction through 
abraded skin (e.g., breaks in the skin or penetration of skin by debris). 


403 



404 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


13.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Irritating and lachrymatory agents have excellent warning properties. In general, they 
produce eye, respiratory, and/ or skin irritation at concentrations well below lethal levels. 

This class of agents does not seriously endanger life except at exposures greatly exceeding 
an effective dose, usually only achieved in a confined or enclosed space. 


13.2.4 Latency Period 

Exposure to irritating and lachrymatory agents produces immediate effects. 


13.3 Characteristics 

13.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

13.3.1.1 Labora tory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless to yellow liquids or solids. They typically 
have little or no odor when pure. If present, odors range from sweetish to floral to pepper- 
like. Most simply cause a burning sensation in the nose and nasal passages. 

13.3.1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically off-white to yellow to brown. As the agent ages and 
decomposes it continues to discolor. Production impurities and decomposition products in 
these agents may give them additional odors. 

13.3.1.3 Modified Agents 

Solvents have been added to these materials to increase the efficacy of the agents, to facilitate 
handling, to stabilize the agents, or to aid in dispersing the agents. Typical solvents include 
propylene glycol, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and/or trioctylphosphite. 
Solvents may pose toxic hazards themselves (e.g., chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and 
benzene). Color and other properties of these solutions may vary from the pure agent. 
Odors will vary depending on the characteristics of the solvent(s) used and concentration 
of agent in the solution. 

Agents have also been micropulverized, encapsulated, or treated with flowing agents 
such as silica aerogel to facilitate their dispersal and increase their persistency. Color and 
other physical properties of the agent may be affected by these additives. 


13.3.2 Stability 

Modern irritating and lachrymatory agents are stable and can be stored even under tropical 
conditions. Older agents, typically simple halogenated acyl or aryl compounds, tend to be 
sensitive to air, moisture, and/or light. Some older agents are also prone to polymeriza- 
tion during storage. Stabilizers may be added to enhance stability and increase shelf life. 
Stabilizers include butylphenol, butylhydroquinone, amyl nitrate, and calcium carbonate. 
Modern agents can typically be stored in aluminum, glass, or steel containers. Older agents 
typically require glass, enamel lined, or lead lined containers. Many halogenated agents 
tend to deteriorate in the presence of metals such as iron and aluminum. 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents 


405 


13.3.3 Persistency 

As typically deployed, unmodified irritating and lachrymatory agents are classified as 
nonpersistent by the military However, bulk solid agents deployed for the purpose of area 
denial may persist for weeks or months. Depending on the size of the individual particles 
and on any encapsulation or coatings applied to the particles, they can be reaerosolized by 
ground traffic or strong winds. 


13.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Many irritating and lachrymatory agents are nonvolatile and produce negligible amounts 
of vapor. Vapors of volatile agents have a density greater than air and tend to collect in low 
places. 

Most agents are insoluble in water and have specific gravities that range from near water 
to greater than water. Lack of solubility inhibits reaction of these agents with water. Further, 
solvents used to disperse irritating and lachrymatory agents are generally insoluble in water 
and will help prevent interaction of the agent with water. Solvents may have densities 
less than or greater than water and may cause agents to either float or sink in a water 
column. Most of these agents are soluble in organic solvents including gasoline, alcohols, 
and ketones. 

Agents may be absorbed into porous material, including painted surfaces, and these 
materials may be difficult to decontaminate. 


13.4 Additional Hazards 

13.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent vapors or aerosols 
may be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to solid 
or liquid agents, or solutions of agents, should be decontaminated within a few hours 
postexposure or destroyed. Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper 
or cardboard, should be destroyed. 

Plants, fruits, and vegetables should be washed thoroughly with soap and water. Skins 
should be removed prior to use. 


1 3.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/ soap and water (see Section 13.5.3). If the 
animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline 
solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be quarantined until tested. 


13.4.3 Fire 

Heat from a fire will increase the amount of agent vapor in the area. A significant amount 
of the agent could be volatilized and escape into the surrounding environment before 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


the agent is consumed by the fire. Actions taken to extinguish the fire can also spread 
the agent. Although many irritating and lachrymatory agents are only slightly soluble or 
insoluble in water, runoff from firefighting efforts will still pose a potential contact threat. 
Many decompose to produce toxic and/ or corrosive gases such as hydrogen chloride (HC1), 
hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and phosgene (COCI 2 ). Some of the decomposition products 
resulting from hydrolysis or combustion of incapacitating agents are water soluble and 
highly toxic (see Section 13.4.5). In addition, solvents used in many formulation are highly 
flammable. 


1 3.4.4 Reactivity 

Irritating and lachrymatory agents either do not react with water or are very slowly decom- 
posed by it. Some agents may be corrosive and react with metal. In some cases these 
reactions may be violent. Most of these agents are incompatible with strong oxidizers, 
including household bleach, and may produce toxic decomposition products. Solvents used 
to disperse agents may be incompatible with strong oxidizers and may also decompose to 
form toxic and/ or corrosive decomposition products. 


1 3.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 
13.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 

Irritating and lachrymatory agents are generally stable or very slowly decomposed by 
water. Further, solvents used to disperse these agents are generally insoluble in water 
and will help prevent interaction of the agent with water. However, should hydrolysis 
occur, decomposition products may include HC1, HCN, hydrogen bromide (HBr), and/ or 
aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as complex condensation products. 


13.4.5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include HC1, HBr, HCN, COCI 2 , nitrogen oxides 
(NO v ), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, and/ or halogenated aromatic compounds. 


13.5 Protection 

13.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis for 
the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 
For irritating and lachrymatory agents, these recommendations are based on a release scen- 
ario involving direct aerosolization of the solid agents with a particle size between 2 and 
5 pm. Under these conditions, the difference between a small and a large release is not based 
on the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial hazardous materials listed in the ERG. 
A small release involves 10 kilograms of powdered agent (approximately 200 cubic inch) 
and a large release involves 500 kilograms of powdered agent (approximately 
18 cubic feet). 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents 


407 


Initial isolation 

Downwind day 

Downwind night 


(feet) 

(miles) 

(miles) 

CA (Bromobenzyl cyanide) C13-A004 




Small device (10 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.3 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

CN (Chloroacetophenone) C13-A008 

500 

1.0 

2.6 

Small device (10 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.3 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

400 

0.7 

2.0 

CS (o-Chlorobenzylmalononitrile) C13-A009 



Small device (10 kilograms) 

200 

0.2 

0.7 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

800 

1.6 

3.5 


13.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

13.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. If chemical protective clothing is not available 
and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' 
gear will provide very limited skin protection against agent vapors and aerosols. Contact 
with solid and liquid agents should be avoided. 

13.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chemical/ 
Biological /Radiological /Nuclear (CBRN) certification. However, during emergency oper- 
ations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by the 
manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor /acid gas/particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 

13.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Irritating and lachrymatory agents are primarily an eye and respiratory hazard; however, 
at elevated vapor / aerosol concentrations or in contact with bulk material, agents may also 
pose a dermal hazard. In addition, solvents used in agent formulations may also pose 
respiratory or contact hazards. 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction per- 
formance testing against the specific agent that has been released. Since chemical protective 
clothing is tested against relatively pure agents, reported permeation rates may be affected 
by solvents, components, or impurities in munition grade agents. 


13.5.3 Decontamination 
13.5.3. 1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. If available, an alkaline 
soap/ detergent works best. Do not use bleach or detergents containing bleach as they may 



408 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


interact with agents to produce toxic decomposition products. Alternatively, an aqueous 
solution of sodium bicarbonate (i.e., baking soda) may be used. 

Casualties should be warned that there is a mild reaction between water and the agent 
and that they could experience a burning sensation during the decontamination process. 

13.5.3.2 Vapors 

Casualties /personnel: Aeration and ventilation. If decontamination is deemed necessary, 
remove all clothing as it may contain "trapped" agent. Flush skin with cool water fol- 
lowed by showering with copious amounts of soap and warm water. Do not use hot water 
as it will increase the burning sensation on the skin. Ensure that the hair has been washed 
and rinsed to remove potentially trapped vapor. For severe eye irritation, irrigate with 
water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not allow casualties to rub 
their eyes or skin as this may exacerbate agent effects. 

Small areas: Ventilate to dissipate the aerosol. If deemed necessary, wash the area with copi- 
ous amounts of alkaline soap / detergent and water. Collect and place into containers lined 
with high-density polyethylene. Removal of porous material, including painted surfaces, 
may be required because these materials may be difficult to decontaminate. 

13.5.3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties / personnel : Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Flush skin with cool water. After flushing, use a sponge or cloth with 
liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin surface and hair at least three 
times. Do not use hot water as it will increase the burning sensation on the skin. Avoid 
rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and increase discomfort. Rinse with copious 
amounts of water. For severe eye irritation, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for 
a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not allow casualties to rub their eyes or skin as this may 
exacerbate agent effects. 

Small areas : Small puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent mater- 
ial such as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed 
material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Larger puddles can be col- 
lected using vacuum equipment made of materials inert to the released material and 
equipped with appropriate vapor filters. Wash the area with copious amounts of an alkaline 
soap/ detergent and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Removal of porous mater- 
ial, including painted surfaces, may be required because these materials may be difficult to 
decontaminate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. 

13.5.3.4 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing 
as this can aerosolize the agent. If possible, dampen the agent with a water mist to help 
prevent aerosolization. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Flush skin with cool water. After flushing, use a sponge or cloth with 
liquid soap and copious amounts of water to wash the skin surface and hair at least three 
times. Do not use hot water as it will increase the burning sensation on the skin. Avoid 
rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and increase discomfort. Rinse with copious 
amounts of water. For severe eye irritation, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for 
a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not allow casualties to rub their eyes or skin as this may 
exacerbate agent effects. 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents 


409 


Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that could 
create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize the 
agent such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped 
with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home or industrial 
vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the affected area. Vacuum all 
surfaces with extreme care in a very slow and controlled manner to minimize aerosolizing 
the agent. Place the collected material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. 
Wash the area with copious amounts of an alkaline soap/detergent and water. Collect and 
containerize the rinseate in containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Removal of 
porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required because these materials may 
be difficult to decontaminate. 


13.6 Medical 

13.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

The case can be confirmed if there is either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific 
laboratory evidence or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 

13.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented 
with a potential case of exposure to irritating agents: anxiety, anaphylaxis, conjunctivitis, 
pneumonia, ultraviolet keratitis; thermal or chemical burns; inhalation of smoke, hydro- 
carbons, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, halogens (e.g., chlorine), sulfuric acid, 
hydrogen chloride (HC1), or nickel carbonyl; sodium azide; acute respiratory distress syn- 
drome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema, congestive heart failure, 
and pulmonary edema. 

13.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

13.6.3.1 Vapors/ Aerosols 

Irritating and lachrymatory agents produce intense eye pain and tearing. They may also 
produce burning or stinging sensations of exposed mucous membranes (e.g., nose and 
mouth) and skin. Symptoms may also include rhinorrhea (runny nose), sneezing, cough- 
ing, respiratory discomfort (e.g., tightness of the chest or inability to breathe), nausea, 
and/or vomiting. Increases in ambient temperature and/or humidity exacerbate agent 
effects. Effects from solvents will be minimal in comparison to the impacts caused by the 
actual agents themselves. 

13.6.3.2 Solids/Solutions 

General signs and symptoms may include intense pain of the eyes and mucous membranes, 
tearing, as well as localized irritation and burning of the skin. 


1 3.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

Typically not required. Casualties will usually recover unassisted shortly after removal 
from the contaminated atmosphere. Consult the base station physician or regional poison 
control center for advice on specific situations. 



410 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


1 3.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all the irritating and lachrymatory agents have 
been removed. For severe eye irritation, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for 
a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not allow casualties to rub their eyes or skin as this may 
exacerbate agent effects. Irrigate open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at 
least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Casualties will usually recover unassisted from exposure to irritating agents within 
15 minutes after removal from the contaminated atmosphere. Most patients can be dis- 
charged safely. Rarely a patient with significant respiratory findings may merit admission. 


13.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects and decontaminate with soap and water. Do not 
use bleach or detergents containing bleach as they may interact with agents to produce 
toxic decomposition products. 

Wash the remains with soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent 
may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. 
If remains are heavily contaminated with residue, wash and rinse waste should be contained 
for proper disposal. 

Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action 
is necessary. Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any addi- 
tional risks, and should be contained and handled according to established procedures. 
Use standard burial procedures. 


C13-A 

AGENTS 


C13-A001 

Acrolein (Papite) 

CAS: 107-02-8 
RTECS: AS1 050000 
UN: 1092 
ERG: 131P 

O 

H 

C3H4O 

Colorless to greenish-yellow liquid with a pungent, piercing, disagreeable odor detectable 
at 0.3 ppm. Unstable and prone to polymerization; often stabilized with amyl nitrate or 
hydroquinone. May form shock-sensitive peroxides during storage. 

Used industrially as a pesticide, warning agent in refrigerants, and in the manufacturing 
of glycerol, polyurethane, polyester resins, and pharmaceuticals. 




Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents C13-A 


411 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 2.29 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCt^inhy 3500 mg-min/ m 3 (760 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.06 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 22 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937). No updated toxicity estimates have been 
proposed. 

MEG ( !/,) Min: 0.03 ppm; Sig: 0.1 ppm; Sev: 1.4 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.10 ppm 
ACGIH TLV : 0.10 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH STEL: 0.3 ppm 
IDLH: 2.0 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 56.1 

D: 0.84 g/mL (59°F) 
MP: -126°F 
BP: 127°F 
Vsc: 0.35 cS 

Interim AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.030 ppm 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.10 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 1.4 ppm 


VP: 210 mmFIg 
VD: 1.9 (calculated) 

Vlt: 280,000 ppm 
H 2 0: 40% 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Acetone 


PIP: -15°F 
LEE: 2.8 % 
UEL: 31% 
RP: 0.063 
IP: 10.13 eV 


4 h, 0.030 ppm 
4 h, 0.10 ppm 
4 h, 0.48 ppm 


8 h, 0.030 ppm 
8 h, 0.10 ppm 
8 h, 0.27 ppm 


C13-A002 

Benzyl bromide (Cyclite) 

CAS: 100-39-0 
RTECS: XS7965000 
UN: 1737 
ERG: 156 

C 7 H 7 Br 

Colorless to yellow to brownish liquid with a pleasant and aromatic odor, resembling water 
cress. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.99 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoQnhy 45,000 mg-min/m 3 (3220 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.6 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 4.3 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937). No updated toxicity estimates have been 
proposed. 

Properties: 

MW: 171.0 VP: 0.450 mmHg 

D: 1 .4362 g/mL VP: 1 .0 mmHg (90°F) 


FIP: 174°F 
LEE: — 



412 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


MP: 27°F VD: 5.9 (calculated) UEL: — 

BP: 394° F V/f: 600 ppm RP: 17 

Use: — H 2 O: 0.0385% (slowly decomposes) IP: 8.99 eV 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Benzene 


C13-A003 

Bromoacetone (Agent BA) 
CAS: 598-31-2 
RTECS: — 

UN: 1569 
ERG: 131 


o 



C 3 H 5 BrO 

Colorless to violet liquid with a pungent odor. It is unstable and decomposed by heat and 
light. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.60 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^Q(j n hy 32,000 mg-min/m 3 (2860 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.27 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 1.8 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
Liquid agent produces blisters on exposed skin. 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937). No updated toxicity estimates have been 
proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 137.0 VP: 9 mmHg PIP: — 

D: 1 .634 g/mL (73°F) VD: 4.7 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: -34° F Vlt: 13,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 279°F H 2 0: "Slight" RP: 0.9 

BP: 146°F (50 mmHg) Sol: Alcohol; Acetone; Ether; Benzene IP: 9.73 eV 

Use: — 


C13-A004 

Bromobenzyl cyanide (Agent CA) 
CAS: 5798-79-8 
RTECS: AL8090000 
UN: 1694 
ERG: 159 



C 8 H 6 BrN 

Yellow solid or yellow to brown liquid with an odor like soured or rotting fruit. Undergoes 
considerable decomposition when a large explosive charge is used to disseminate the agent. 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents C13-A 


413 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.02 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^Qdnfjy. 8,000-11,000 mg-min/ m 3 (500-690 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 
7Cf50(Eyes) : 30 mg-min/ m 3 (1.9 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.04 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 


Properties: 

MW: 196.0 
D: — 

MP: 84°F 

BP: 468°F (decomposes) 
BP: 270°F (12 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


VP: 0.012 mmFIg 
VD: 6.8 (calculated) 

Vlt: 14 ppm 
Vlt: 34 ppm (86°F) 

H 2 O: "Slightly soluble" 

Sol: Common organic solvents 


PIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: 640 
IP: <10 eV 


C13-A005 

Bromomethylethyl ketone (Bn-Stoff) 

CAS: 816-40-0 
RTECS: — 

O 

Br 

C 4 H 7 BrO 

Light yellow liquid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoynhy 20,000 mg-min/ m 3 (1600 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 2 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 2.6 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937). No updated toxicity estimates have been 
proposed. 

Properties: 


MW: 151.0 

VP: 15 mmHg (57°F) 

FIP: — 

D: 1.479 g/mL 

VD: 5.2 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 20,000 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 293°F (decomposes) 

H 2 O: "Insoluble" 

RP: 0.53 

Vsc: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 



C13-A006 

Capsaicin (Agent OC) 
CAS: 404-86-4 
RTECS: RA8530000 


N 





414 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C18H27NO3 

Crystalline solid. 

Used medicinally and as a food flavoring. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 12.49 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
hDsodng)' 350 g (estimate) 

Properties: 

MW: 305.4 
D: — 

MP: 149°F 

BP: 410°F (0.01 mmHg) 

Use: — 

C13-A007 

Chloroacetone (Tonite) 

CAS: 78-95-5 
RTECS: UC0700000 
UN: 1695 
ERG: 131 

o 

Cl 

C3H5C10 

Clear liquid with a pungent odor similar to hydrochloric acid. Readily breaks down during 
storage; often stabilized with water or calcium carbonate. Turns dark and forms resins on 
prolonged exposure to light. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of couplers for color pho- 
tography, as a photo polymerization agent for vinyl compounds, as a solvent, and as an 
enzyme inactivator in biological research. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.78 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^dnhy 23,000 mg-min/ m 3 (3040 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 4.8 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 26 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937). No updated toxicity estimates have been 
proposed. 

MEGqft) Min: 1 ppm; Sig: — ; Sev: — 

ACGIH Ceiling: 1 ppm [Skin] 

Properties: 

MW: 92.5 VP: 12.0 mmHg (77°F) 

D: 1.123 g/mL (77° F) VD: 3.7 (calculated) 

MP: -48°F Vlt: 15,800 ppm (77°F) 

BP: 248° F H 2 0: 9% 

Use: — Sol: Alcohols; Ether; Chloroform 


FIP: 104°F 
EEE: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 0.88 
IP: 9.92 eV 



VP: Negligible FIP: — 

VD: — LEE: — 

Vlt: — UEE: — 

H 2 0: "Practically insoluble" RP: 38,000,000 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Benzene; Chloroform IP: — 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents C13-A 


415 


Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 4.4 ppm 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 13 ppm 

C13-A008 

Chloroacetophenone (Agent CN) 

CAS: 532-27-4 
RTECS: AM6300000 
UN: 1697 
ERG: 153 

o 

Cl 

c 8 h 7 cio 

Colorless to white or gray crystalline solid with a sharp, fragrant odor like apple blossoms 
that is detectable at 0.02 ppm. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals and as a denaturant for 
alcohol. 

Also reported as a mixture with various solvents including CNB (mixture of 10% chloro- 
acetophenone, 45% benzene, and 45% carbon tetrachloride), CNC (mixture of 30% 
chloroacetophenone and 70% chloroform), CND (mixture of chloroacetophenone and ethyl- 
ene dichloride), and CNS (C13-A015). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.32 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoQnhy 7000 mg-min/ m 3 (550 ppm for a 2-min exposure) when dispersed as a 
solution of the agent dissolved in a solvent. 

LCt^Q(j n fj } : 14,000 mg-min/ m 3 (1100 ppm for a 2-min exposure) when dispersed as an 
aerosol from a thermal device. 

ICtso(Eyes) '■ 80 mg-min/ m 3 (6.3 ppm for a 2 min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.02-0.06 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

Exposure to high concentrations of aerosolized agent can cause severe skin irritation and 
even produce blistering similar to mustard agents (C03-C05). 

MEG m Min: — ; Sig: — ; Sev: 2.4 ppm 
OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm 
IDLH: 2.4 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 154.6 VP: 0.0041 mmHg PIP: 244°F 

D: 1.318 g/cm 3 VD: 5.3 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: 129°F Vlt: 5.4 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 478°F Vlt: 170 ppm (125°F) RP: 2000 

Use: — H 2 0: Insoluble IP: 9.44 eV 


Sol: Most organic solvents 



4 h, 1.1 ppm 8 h, 1.1 ppm 

4 h, 3.3 ppm 8 h, 3.3 ppm 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C13-A009 


o-Chlorobenzyl-malononitrile (Agent CS) 
CAS: 2698-41-1 
RTECS: 003675000 



c 10 h 5 cin 2 

Colorless solid with a pungent, pepper-like odor. 

Also reported as a 1% mixture in Trioctylphosphite (CSX). 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.71 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoQnhy. 52,000-61,000 mg-min/ m 3 (3400-4000 ppm for a 2-min exposure). This is a 
provisional update from an older value that has not been formally adopted 
as of 2005. 

" Intolerable " Irritation: 0.91 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

MEG(ih) Min: 0.05 ppm; Sig: — ; Sev: 0.26 ppm 

OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm 

ACGIH Ceiling: 0.05 ppm [Skin] 

NIOSH Ceiling: 0.05 ppm [Skin] 

IDLH: 0.26 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 188.6 
D: 1.04 g/cm 3 
D: 0.24 g/cm 3 (bulk) 
MP: 203°F 

BP: 590° F (decomposes) 


Vsc: — 


VP: 0.000034 mmHg 
VD: 6.5 (calculated) 

Vlt: 0.092 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.008% (77° F) 

Sol: Acetone; Hexane: Benzene; 
Methylene chloride 


PIP: 387°F 
MFC: 25 g/m 3 
UEL: — 

RP: 21,000 
IP: <10 eV 


C13-A010 

Chloromethyl chloroformate (Palite) 
CAS: 22128-62-7 
RTECS: — 

UN: 2745 
ERG: 157 


O 



C2H2CI2O2 

Clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor. 
Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents C13-A 


417 


Also reported as a mixture with Dichloromethyl chloroformate (C13-A018); Stannic 
chloride. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.27 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^Qdnfjy. 10,000 mg-min/ m 3 (950 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

7Cf50(Eyes) ■ 50 mg-min/ m 3 (4.7 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 

Eye Irritation: 0.38 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 


Properties: 

MW: 128.9 VP: 5.6 mmHg FIP: 203°F 

D: 1.449 g/mL VP: 100 mmHg (127°F) LEL: — 

MP: — VD: 4.4 (calculated) UEL: — 

BP: 225°F Vlt: 7600 ppm RP: 0.97 

Vsc: — H 2 O: Decomposes IP: — 


Sol: Hydrocarbon solvents 


C13-A011 

Dibenz-(b,f)-l,4-oxazepine (Agent CR) 
CAS: 257-07-8 
RTECS: HQ3950000 



C 13 H 9 NO 

Yellow needles or brown powder with a peppery odor and produces a burning sensation. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.98 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

ICtswEyesy 0-15 mg-min/ m 3 (0.009 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.0003-0.0005 ppm for a 1-min exposure 


Properties: 

MW: 195.2 VP: 0.000059 mmHg FIP: 370°F 

D: 1.56 g/mL VD: 6.7 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 160°F Vlt: 0.079 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 634° F H 2 0: 0.008% RP: 120,000 

Vsc: — Sol: Ethanol; Ether; Benzene; Chloroform IP: <9 eV 


C13-A012 

Ethyl iodoacetate (Agent SK) 
CAS: 623-48-3 
RTECS: AI3575000 


O 




418 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C 4 H 7 IO 2 

Colorless oily liquid that is light and moisture sensitive. Becomes brown during storage 
due to liberation of iodine. 

Also reported as a mixture with Chloropicrin (C10-A006) and as a mixture in Ethyl acetate 
and Ethanol (KSK). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.75 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoQnhy. 15,000 mg-min/ m 3 (860 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

" Intolerable " Irritation: 1.7 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1939) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 214.0 VP: 0.54 mmHg FIP: 169°F 

D: 1.808 g/mL VD: 7.4 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 350 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 355°F H 2 0: — RP: 13 

BP: 163°F (16 mmHg) Sol: — IP: — 

Vsc: — 


C13-A013 

Iodoacetone (Bretonite) 

CAS: 3019-04-3 
RTECS: — 

O 

C3H5IO 

Faintly yellow liquid. Becomes brown during storage due to liberation of iodine. Decom- 
poses on standing to 1,3-Diiodoacetone. 

Also reported as a mixture with Stannic chloride. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.53 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtsoQffhy. 19,000 mg-min/ m 3 (1300 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

JCtso(Eycs) : 100 mg-min/ m 3 (6.6 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

" Intolerable " Irritation: 13 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 184.0 VP: — FIP: — 

D: 1.8 g/ mL VD: 6.3 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 400 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 216°F H 2 0: — RP: 20 

BP: 122°F (11 mmHg) Sol: — IP: 9.3 eV 

Vsc: — 




Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents C13-A 


419 


C13-A014 


l-Methoxy-l,3,5-cycloheptatriene (Agent CH) 

CAS: 1714-38-1; 69044-01-5 (Fluorosulfate salt); 25059-10-3 (Perchlorate salt); 25482-84-2 
(Perchlorate salt); 54098-95-2 (Perchlorate salt); 29630-03-3 (Tetrafluoroborate salt) 

RTECS: — 



CsHiqO 


Colorless to brown liquid with a sweetish odor. Various salts have been reported. 

Also reported as a mixture with l-Methyl-4-piperidyl isopropylphenylglycolate (02- 
A006). 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.00 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 122.2 VP: 1.3 mmHg (77° F) FIP: 133°F 

D: 0.9717 g/mL (77° F) VD: 4.2 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: -153°F Vlt: 1700 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 345° F H 2 0: 0.072% RP: 7 

Vsc: 1.50 cS (77° F) Sol: Aromatic organic solvents IP: 7.23 eV 


C13-A015 

CNS 

CAS: 675600-78-9 
RTECS: — 


o 



Mixture 


Liquid mixture of 38.4% Chloropicrin (C10-A006), 23% Chloroacetophenone (C13-A008), 
and 38.4% Chloroform. Historically, the odor of this mixture has been compared to flypaper. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 
LCt^inhy H/400 mg-min/m 3 
ICt 50{E yes)- 60 mg-min/ m 3 


In addition to lacrimation, the chloropicrin component may cause pulmonary edema, 
vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. 


Properties: 

MW: Mixture 
D: 1.47 g/mL 

MP: 36°F (precipitation occurs) 
BP: 140°F 
Vsc: — 


VP: 78 mmHg 
VD: 5 (calculated) 
Vlt: — 

H 2 0 : Insoluble 
Sol: — 


FIP: None 
LEL: None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 



420 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C13-A016 

o-Nitrobenzyl chloride (Cedenite) 
CAS: 612-23-7 
RTECS: XS9092000 


Cl 

c 7 h 6 cino 2 

Pale yellow crystals. 

Used industrially for photographic imaging and in medicinal research. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.02 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
ICt 50{E yesY- 15 mg-min/ m 3 (1.1 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.26 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1939) and are not supported by modern data. 


No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 

Properties: 

MW: 171.6 VP: — FIP: 234°F 

D: — VD: 5.9 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: 118°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 261°F (10 mmHg) H 2 0: Insoluble RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Benzene IP: <10 eV 



C13-A017 

Thiophosgene (Lacrymite) 
CAS: 463-71-8 
RTECS: XN2450000 
UN: 2474 
ERG: 131 


S 



Cl Cl 


CC1 2 S 

Reddish-yellow liquid with a sharp, choking, foul odor. Air and moisture sensitive; decom- 
poses above 392°F to carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.70 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents C13-A 


421 


Properties: 

MW: 115.0 VP: — PIP: — 

D: 1 .508 g/mL (59°F) VD: 4.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 163°F H 2 O: Insoluble (decomposes) RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: Ether IP: 9.61 eV 


C13-A018 

Dichloromethyl chloroformate 

CAS: 22128-63-8 
RTECS: — 


O Cl 


Cl 



Cl 


C2HC1302 
Colorless liquid. 

Also reported as a mixture with Chloromethyl chloroformate (C13-A010). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.68 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 11 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1939) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 


MW: 163.4 

VP: 5 mmHg 

PIP: — 

D: 1.56 g/mL (59°F) 

VD: 5.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 6700 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 230°F 

H 2 0: — 

RP: 1.6 

BP: 129°F (100 mmHg) 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


Vsc: — 


C13-A019 

Benzyl chloride 

CAS: 100-44-7 
RTECS: XS8925000 
UN: 1738 
ERG: 156 



C7H7CI 

Colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a pungent, aromatic odor. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, 
perfumes, dyes, synthetic tannins, and artificial resins. 



422 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 16 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 


These values are from older sources (ca. 1939) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 

OSHA PEL: 1 ppm 
ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm 
IDLH: 10 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 126.6 
D: 1.1028 g/mL 
ATP: -49°F 
BP: 354° F 

BP: 210°F (62 mmHg) 
Vsc: — 


VP: 1.23 mmHg (77° F) 
VD: 4.4 (calculated) 

Vlt: 1200 ppm 
H 2 0: 0.0525% 

Sol: Most organic solvents 


FIP: 153°F 
LEE: — 
UEL: — 
RP: 73 
IP: 9.14 eV 


C13-A020 

Benzyl iodide 

CAS: 620-05-3 
RTECS: — 
UN: 2653 
ERG: 156 



C 7 H 7 I 

White crystalline solid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^dnhy 30,000 mg-min/ m 3 (1700 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.2 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 3.4 ppm for 1-min exposure 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1939) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 218.0 VP: — FIP: — 

D: 1.7429 g/cm 3 VD: 7.5 (calculated) LEE: — 

MP: 75°F Vlt: 130 ppm UEE: — 

BP: 438°F (decomposes) HoO: Insoluble RP: 64 

BP: 200°F (10 mmHg) Sol: Alcohol: Ether; Benzene IP: 8.73 eV 

Vsc: — 


C13-A021 

Ethyl bromoacetate 

CAS: 105-36-2 
RTECS: AF6000000 



Irritating and Lachrymatory Agents C13-A 


423 


UN: 1603 
ERG: 155 


O 



C4H7BrC>2 

Clear colorless liquid with a pungent odor. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.83 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt^inhy 23,000 mg-min/ m 3 (1700 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.44 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 5.9 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 

MW: 167.0 VP: 3.4 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 118°F 

D: 1.5032 g/mL VD: 5.8 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: -36° F Vlt: 3100 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 335°F H 2 0: 0.7% RP: 2.3 

Use: — Sol: Acetone; Benzene; Ethanol; Ether IP: — 


C13-A022 

N-Ethylcarbazole 

CAS: 86-28-2 
RTECS: FE6225700 



C14H13N 

White to brown flaky solid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.99 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 195.3 VP: 0.02 mmHg (167°F) FIP: 367°F 

D: 1.16 g/ cm 3 VD: 6.7 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 153°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 374°F H 2 0: Insoluble RP: 420 

Vsc: — Sol: Alcohol; Ether IP: — 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C13-A023 

Xylyl bromide (T-Stoff) 

CAS: 28258-59-5 (Mixture); 620-13-3 (Meta isomer); 89-92-9 (Ortho isomer); 104-81-4 (Para 
isomer) 

RTECS: — 

UN: 1701 
ERG: 152 



CgHgBr 

Mixture of the ortho, meta, and para isomers. Colorless to light yellow, slightly viscous 
liquid with a pungent and aromatic odor, resembling lilacs or elder blossoms. Weapons 
grade material is a black liquid. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 7.57 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCtso(i n hy 56,000 mg-min/ m 3 (3700 ppm for a 2-min exposure) 

Eye Irritation: 0.24 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 
" Intolerable " Irritation: 2.0 ppm; exposure duration unspecified 

These values are from older sources (ca. 1937) and are not supported by modern data. 
No updated toxicity estimates have been proposed. 


Properties: 


MW: 185.1 

UP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.36 g/ mL 

UD: 6.4 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: 80 ppm 

UEL: — 

BP: 410-428°F 

H 2 O: Insoluble 

RP: 120 

Use: — 

Sol: Most organic solvents 

IP: — 


C13-A024 
Xylylene bromide 

CAS: — (Mixture); 91-13-4 (Ortho isomer); 626-15-3 (Meta isomer); 623-24-5 (Para isomer) 
RTECS: — 



Br 


CgHgB^ 

Mixture of the ortho, meta, and para isomers. White to beige crystalline solid. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



References 


425 


Properties: 

MW: 264.0 

D: 1.96 g/cm 3 (ortho isomer) 
MP: 196°F (ortho isomer) 
MP: 288° F (para isomer) 

BP: 473°F (para isomer) 

Vsc: — 


VP: Negligible 

FIP: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

H 2 O: — 

RP: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


References 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Acrolein. Washington, DC: 
Government Printing Office, December 1990. 

Brophy, Leo P., Wyndham D. Miles, and Rexmond C. Cohrane. The Chemical Warfare Service: From 
Laboratory to Field. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1968. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Edgewood Research Development, and Engineering Center, Department of the Army. Material Safety 
Data Sheet (MSDS) for Agent CS. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical Biological Defense 
Command, Revised June 30, 1995. 

. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Riot Control Agent CR. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: 

Chemical Biological Defense Command, Revised June 30, 1995. 

Fries, Amos A., and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

Grant, George A. "Safe Sensory Irritant." US Patent 4,598,096, July 1, 1986. 

Jackson, Kirby E., and Margaret A. Jackson. "Lachrymators." Chemical Reviews 16 (1935): 195-242. 
Langford, Gordon E. "Scale-up and Synthesis of l-Methoxycyglohepta-l,3,5-triene." US Patent 
4,978,806, December 18, 1990. 

Marrs, Timothy C., Robert L. Maynard, and Frederick R. Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology 
and Treatment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 2005. 

National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http:// toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ cgi- 
bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2004. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Prentiss, Augustin M. Chemicals in War: A Treatise on Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1937. 

Sartori, Mario F. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L.W. Marrison. London: J. & 
A. Churchill, Ltd, 1939. 

Sidell, Frederick R. Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties: A Handbook for Emergency 
Medical Services. Bel Air, MD: HB Publishing, 1995. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 1, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W., ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Somani, Satu M., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. New York: Academic Press, 1992. 

Somani, Satu M., and James A. Romano, Jr., eds. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels. Boca 
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. 



426 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Swearengen, Thomas F. Tear Gas Munitions : An Analysis of Commercial Riot Gas Guns, Tear Gas Projectiles, 
Grenades, Small Arms Ammunition, and Related Tear Gas Devices. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas 
Publisher, 1966. 

True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume II, Edgezvood Arsenal Special 
Report No. EO-SR-74002. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chemical 
Casualties Handbook. 3rd Edn. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
Edition, http:/ /www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm. March 2004. 

Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection Against It. Rev. ed. New York: 
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1944. 

Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts About Tear Agent 2-Chloroacetophenone (CN). Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

. Detailed Facts About Tear Agent Bromobenzylcyanide (CA). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: 

United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

. Detailed Facts About Tear Agent Chloracetophenone in Benzene and Carbon Tetrachloride (CNB). 

Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive 
Medicine, 1996. 

. Detailed Facts About Tear Agent Chloroacetophenone and Chloropicrin in Chloroform (CNS). Aber- 
deen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive 
Medicine, 1996. 

. Detailed Facts About Tear Agent o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS). Aberdeen Proving 

Ground, MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

World Health Organization. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Report of a WHO Group 
of Consultants. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1970. 

. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcs/icstart.html. 

2004. 

. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Geneva: World 

Health Organization, 2004. 



14 

Vomiting/ St ernatory Agents 


14.1 General Information 

The majority of these materials are halo or cyano organoarsines. Under normal battlefield 
conditions, they do not pose a serious danger to the life of an exposed individual and do 
not produce any permanent injury Although the only agent in this class that is specifically 
banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention is lewisite 2 (C14-A004), which is listed 
in Schedule 1 because it can be readily converted into lewisite 1 (C04-A002), the use of all 
the other vomiting/ sternatory agents is banned during a war under the general purpose 
criterion of the convention. They may still be used by law enforcement and the military 
during operations other than war such as when responding to incidents of civil unrest or 
to disband unruly crowds. However, because of their toxicity, this class of agents has been 
abandoned for other riot control agents (see Chapter 13). 

Vomiting /sternatory agents are first generation chemical warfare agents employed in 
World War I in an attempt to defeat the existing mask filters. Toward the end of the war, 
adamsite (C14-A003) was developed, produced, and weaponized but never used. It was 
first used when the British dropped thermal generators containing a mixture of adamsite 
and diphenylchloroarsine (C14-A001) from aircraft during the Russian Civil War. This was 
the first reported deployment of air delivered chemical munitions. 

These agents are moderately difficult to synthesize. They are relatively easy to disperse 
as thermally generated aerosols or as aerosolized solutions. 


14.2 Toxicology 
14.2.1 Effects 

Vomiting /sternatory agents are primarily respiratory irritants. Effects from exposure 
are usually delayed for several minutes and include violent, uncontrolled sneezing 
and coughing, pain in the nose and throat, nausea, vomiting, chills, abdominal cramps, 
nasal discharge, and/ or tears. Severe headaches and depression often follow exposure to 
vomiting/ sternatory agents. Effects may persist for several hours postexposure. They may 
produce dermatitis on exposed skin. When released in an enclosed or confined space, they 
can cause serious illness or death. Most vomiting/ sternatory agents contain arsenic as a 
constituent and decomposition products may pose a serious health hazard. 


427 



428 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


1 4.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Vomiting /sterna tory agents are primarily a hazard through inhalation. Aerosols are very 
irritating to the skin and eyes at low concentrations but relatively nontoxic via these routes. 
However, exposure to bulk liquid or solid agents may be hazardous through skin and 
eye exposure, ingestion, introduction through abraded skin (e.g., breaks in the skin or 
penetration of skin by debris). Ingestion of some decomposition products may pose a 
significant hazard. 


14.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Most bulk agents have very little odor in pure form although impurities may give 
some agents an odor of garlic or bitter almonds. Aerosols of vomiting/ sterna tory agents 
have excellent warning properties, producing eye, respiratory, and/or skin irritation at 
concentrations well below lethal levels. 

Lethal concentrations (LC 50 S) for inhalation of these agents are as low as 5000 mg/m 3 
for a 2 -minute exposure. 

Incapacitating concentrations (ICtso) due to sneezing and regurgitation for inhalation of 
these agents are as low as 6 mg/ m 3 for a 2 -minute exposure. 

Eye irritation from exposure to agent vapors occurs at concentrations as low as 0 .3 mg / m 3 . 


14.2.4 Latency Period 

14.2.4.1 Aerosols 

Depending on dose, the effects from exposure may be delayed from 30 seconds to several 
minutes, and may last up to several hours. Mild effects may persist for several days. 


14.3 Characteristics 

14.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

1 4.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless to yellow or green liquids or solids. Pure 
materials are typically odorless. 

14.3.1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents are typically colorless to yellow, green, or brown. As the agent ages, 
colors may become more pronounced. Production impurities and decomposition products 
in these agents may give them an odor. Odors for some agents have been described as 
similar to garlic or bitter almonds. Odors may become more pronounced during storage. 

1 4.3. 1.3 Modified Agents 

Solvents have been added to these materials to facilitate handling or to increase the ease of 
percutaneous penetration by the agents. Color and other properties of these solutions may 
vary from the pure agent. Odors will vary depending on the characteristics of the solvent(s) 
used and concentration of agent in the solution. 



Vomiting/Sternatory Agents 


429 


Agents have also been micropulverized, encapsulated, or treated with flowing agents to 
facilitate their dispersal and increase their persistency. Color and other physical properties 
may be affected by these additives. 

14.3. 1.4 Mixtures with Other Agents 

Vomiting/sternatory agents have been mixed with other agents such as phosgene (Cll- 
A003), diphosgene (C10-A004), phenyl dichloroarsine (C04-A004), N-ethylcarbazole (04- 
A022), arsenic trichloride (C04-C006), and triphenylarsine. 

14.3.2 Stability 

Most vomiting/sternatory agents are stable at typical temperatures. Apomorphine (04- 
A005) is stable as a salt but is air and light sensitive. It is unstable in solution. 

Agents can be stored in glass, steel, or Teflon-coated containers when pure. If moisture 
is present, they may rapidly corrode aluminum, iron, bronze, and brass. 


14.3.3 Persistency 

When vomiting/ sterna tory agents are employed as aerosols they are not classified as per- 
sistent by the military. Normally, there is minimal secondary risk once the initial aerosol 
has settled. However, depending on the size of the individual particles and on any encap- 
sulation or coatings applied to the particles, they may be reaerosolized by ground traffic 
or strong winds. Bulk liquid or solid agents can persist in the environment for extended 
periods. Decomposition products from the breakdown of these agents can pose a persistent 
hazard. 


14.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Most vomiting / sterna tory agents are nonvolatile and produce negligible amounts of vapor. 
They are deployed as dust aerosols. Once the aerosols settle, there is minimal extended 
hazard from the agents unless the dusts are resuspended. Decomposition products can be 
persistent hazards. 

Most of these agents are insoluble in water. However, the solubility of any agent may 
be increased by solvents, components, or impurities. The specific gravities of unmodified 
agents are greater than that of water. With the exception of adamsite (C14-A003), vomit- 
ing/sternatory agents are soluble in most organic solvents. Adamsite has only limited 
solubility in common organic solvents except acetone. 


14.4 Additional Hazards 
14.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent aerosols may 
be used after decontamination of the container. Unopened items exposed to solid or liquid 
agents, or solutions of agents, should be decontaminated within a few hours postexposure 
or destroyed. Opened or unpackaged items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, 
should be destroyed. 

Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be washed thoroughly with soap and water. 



430 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


1 4.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo/soap and water. If the animals' eyes have 
been exposed to agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum 
of 30 minutes. 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be quarantined until tested. 


14.4.3 Fire 

Although not normally volatile, heat from a fire will increase the amount of vomit- 
ing/ sternatory agent vapor in the area. Actions taken to extinguish the fire can also spread 
the agent and steam generated in combating the fire could create agent aerosols. Combus- 
tion of vomiting/ sternatory agents will produce volatile toxic metal (i.e., arsenic, antimony, 
lead) decomposition products. In addition, combustion of these agents may produce toxic 
and/ or corrosive gases such as hydrogen chloride (HC1) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). 


1 4.4.4 Reactivity 

Vomiting /sternatory agents decompose slowly in water. Some agents are self-protecting 
and form an oxide coating that delays further hydrolysis. Agents may be corrosive to some 
metals. 


14.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

14.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 

Varies depending on the specific agent but may include HC1 and HCN. Several produce 
diphenylarsenious oxide. Other organic oxides of arsenic, antimony, or lead may also be 
present. 

14.4.5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include HC1, HCN, nitrogen oxides (NO. v ), benzene, 
and oxides of arsenic, antimony, or lead. 


14.5 Protection 

14.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

Isolation and protective action distances listed below are taken from Argonne National 
Laboratory Report No. ANL/DIS-00-1, Development of the Table of Initial Isolation and Pro- 
tective Action Distances for the 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, which is still the basis for 
the "when used as a weapon" scenarios in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). 
For vomiting /sternatory agents, these recommendations are based on a release scenario 
involving direct aerosolization of the solid agents with a particle size between 2 and 5 pm. 
Under these conditions, the difference between a small and a large release is not based on 
the standard 200 liters spill used for commercial hazardous materials listed in the ERG. A 
small release involves 10 kilograms of powdered agent (approximately 200 cubic inch) and 
a large release involves 500 kilograms of powdered agent (approximately 18 cubic feet). 



Vomiting/Sternatory Agents 


431 


Initial isolation 
(feet) 

Downwind day 
(miles) 

Downwind night 
(miles) 

DA (Diphenylchloroarsine) C14-A001 

Small device (10 kilograms) 

200 

0.2 

0.7 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

600 

1.4 

3.2 

DC (Diphenylcyanoarsine) C14-A002 

Small device (10 kilograms) 

100 

0.1 

0.5 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

800 

1.4 

3.3 

DM (Adamsite) C14-A003 

Small device (10 kilograms) 

200 

0.2 

0.7 

Large device (500 kilograms) 

600 

1.4 

3.2 


14.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 

14.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. If chemical protective clothing is not available 
and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' 
gear will provide very limited skin protection against agent vapors and aerosols. Contact 
with solid and liquid agents should be avoided. 

14.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chemical/ 
Biological /Radiological /Nuclear (CBRN) certification since nerve agents can degrade the 
materials used to make some respirators. However, during emergency operations, other 
NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by the manufacturer 
against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the Incident Com- 
mander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a combination 
organic vapor/ acid gas/ particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respir- 
ators other than SCBAs. However, IDLH levels have not been established for vomit- 
ing /sternatory agents. Therefore, any potential exposure to elevated concentrations of 
these agents should be regarded with extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory 
protection should be considered. 

14.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Vomiting/ sternatory agents are primarily an eye and respiratory hazard; however, at elev- 
ated aerosol concentrations or in contact with bulk material, agents may also pose a dermal 
hazard. Currently, there is no information on performance testing of chemical protective 
clothing against vomiting/ sternatory agent. 


14.5.3 Decontamination 
14.5.3.1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


14.5.3.2 Solutions or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties / personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of 
water to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Do not use hot water as it may 
increase skin irritation. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and increase 
discomfort. Rinse with copious amounts of water. For severe eye irritation, irrigate with 
water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not allow casualties to rub 
their eyes or skin as this may exacerbate agent effects. 

Small areas: Small puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent mater- 
ial such as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed 
material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Larger puddles can be col- 
lected using vacuum equipment made of materials inert to the released material and 
equipped with appropriate vapor filters. Wash the area with copious amounts of an alkaline 
soap/ detergent and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate. Removal of porous mater- 
ial, including painted surfaces, may be required because these materials may be difficult 
to decontaminate. Arsenic or antimony metal and/ or oxides, due to decomposition of the 
agents, may be present and require additional decontamination. 

14.5.3.3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties and personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing 
as this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of 
water to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Do not use hot water as it may 
increase skin irritation. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could abrade the skin and increase 
discomfort. Rinse with copious amounts of water. For severe eye irritation, irrigate with 
water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not allow casualties to rub 
their eyes or skin as this may exacerbate agent effects. 

Small areas: If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that could 
create air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioners, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize the 
agent such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped 
with a high-efficiency particulate air (FIEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home or industrial 
vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the affected area. Vacuum all 
surfaces with extreme care in a very slow and controlled manner to minimize aerosolizing 
the agent. Place the collected material into containers lined with high-density polyethyl- 
ene. Wash the area with copious amounts of an alkaline soap / detergent and water. Collect 
and containerize the rinseate in containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Removal 
of porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required because these materi- 
als may be difficult to decontaminate. Arsenic or antimony metal and/or oxides, due to 
decomposition of the agents, may be present and require additional decontamination. 


14.6 Medical 

14.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

The case can be confirmed if there is either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific 
laboratory evidence or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 



Vomiting/Sternatory Agents 


433 


14.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

The following factors have been suggested as alternatives to consider when presented with a 
potential case of exposure to irritating agents: anxiety, anaphylaxis, conjunctivitis, pneumo- 
nia, ultraviolet keratitis; inhalation of smoke, hydrocarbons, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, 
phosgene, halogens such as chlorine, sulfuric acid, hydrogen chloride (HC1), or nickel 
carbonyl; sodium azide, street drugs; acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstruct- 
ive pulmonary disease and emphysema, congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, and 
anthrax. 

14.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

Progression of symptoms is generally irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes, viscous 
discharge from the nose similar to that caused by a cold, violent uncontrollable sneezing 
and coughing, severe headache, acute pain and difficulty breathing (tightness of the chest), 
nausea, and vomiting. Mental depression may occur. Severe effects last from 30 minutes to 
several hours. Minor effects may persist for over 24 hours. 

14.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

Typically not required. Casualties will usually recover unassisted after removal from the 
contaminated atmosphere. Consult the base station physician or regional poison control 
center for advice on specific situations. 

14.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all the agents have been removed. For severe eye 
irritation, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not 
allow casualties to rub their eyes or skin as this may exacerbate agent effects. Irrigate open 
wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Casualties will usually recover unassisted from exposure to vomiting/ sterna tory agent 
although it may take several hours after removal from the contaminated atmosphere. Vig- 
orous exercise may lessen and shorten symptoms. Most patients can be discharged safely. 
Rarely a patient with significant respiratory findings may merit admission. 


14.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects. Because of the potential for hazardous residual 
metal content (i.e., arsenic, lead, antimony), it may be appropriate to ship nondurable items 
to a hazardous waste disposal facility. Otherwise, decontaminate with soap and water. 

Wash the remains with soap and water. Pay particular attention to areas where agent 
may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. If 
remains are heavily contaminated with residue, wash and rinse waste should be contained 
for proper disposal. 

Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action 
is necessary. Body fluids removed during the embalming process do not pose any addi- 
tional risks and should be contained and handled according to established procedures. Use 
standard burial procedures. 



434 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C14-A 

AGENTS 


C14-A001 

Diphenylchloroarsine (Agent DA) 
CAS: 712-48-1 
RTECS: CG9900000 
UN: 1769 
ERG: 156 


Cl 



C12H10ASCI 

Colorless odorless crystals. Weapons grade material is a dark brown, thick, viscous, 
semisolid resembling shoe polish. It has in the past been used industrially as a wood 
preservative, pesticide, and herbicide for cacti. 

Also reported as a mixture with Adamsite (C14-A003); Phosgene (C10-A003); Diphosgene 
(C10-A004); Phenyldichloroarsine (C04-A005), N-Ethylcarbazole (C14-A022); Arsenic Tri- 
chloride (C04-C007); and Triphenylarsine. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.82 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

LCt$o(i n hy 15,000 mg-min/m 3 . This value is from older sources (ca. 1942) and is not 
supported by modern data. No updated toxicity estimate has been 
proposed. 

tctsoanhy 12 mg-min/m 3 

Eye Irritation: 0.3 mg/m 3 ; exposure duration unspecified 

The hydrolysis product, diphenylarsenious oxide, is very poisonous if ingested. 

Properties: 

MW: 264.5 

D: 1.387 g/mL(122°F) 

MP: 113°F 

MP: 100°F (weapons grade) 

BP: 631 °F (decomposes) 

BP: 338°F (1 mmHg) 

Use: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1 : Not Developed 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 0.39 mg/m 3 
AEGLS: 1 h, 1.2 mg/m 3 


VP: 0.0036 mmHg (113°F) FIP: 662°F 

VD: 9.1 LEE: — 

Vlt: 4.4 ppm (113°F) UEL: — 

H 2 0: Insoluble RP: >2000 

Sol: Acetone; Ethanol; Ether; Chloroform IP: <9 eV 


4 h, 0.098 mg/m 3 
4 h, 0.30 mg/m 3 


8 h, 0.049 mg/m 3 
8 h, 0.15 mg/m 3 





436 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.35 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
LCt^inhy 11/000 mg-min/m 3 
ICtsoQnh)’ 22-150 mg-min/ m 3 

Eye & Respiratory Irritation: 0.38 mg/m 3 for 1-2 min exposure 

These are provisional updates from older values that have not been formally adopted as 
of 2005. 

The hydrolysis product, diphenylaminoarsenious oxide, is very poisonous if ingested. 


Properties: 

MW: 277.6 
D: 1.648 g/cm 3 
ATP: 383°F 

BP: 770°F (decomposes) 
Vsc: — 

Proposed AEGLs 

AEGL-1: 1 h, 0.016 mg/m 3 
AEGL-2: 1 h, 2.6 mg/m 3 
AEGL-3: 1 h, 6.4 mg/ m 3 


VP: Negligible 
VD: — 

Vlt: — 

H 2 0: 0.0064% 

Sol: Acetone 

4 h, 0.0022 mg/m 3 
4 h, 0.36 mg/m 3 
4 h, 0.91 mg/m 3 


PIP: None 
EEL : None 
UEL: None 
RP: — 

IP: — 

8 h, 0.00084 mg/m 3 
8 h, 0.14 mg/m 3 
8 h, 0.34 mg/m 3 


C14-A004 

Lewisite 2 (Agent L2) 

CAS: 40334-69-8; 50361-06-3 (Isomer) 
RTECS: — 


Cl 


Cl 



C4H4ASC13 

Clear yellow to yellowish-brown liquid. In conjunction with Lewisite 3 (C04-C007), Lewisite 
2 is a major synthetic by-product in the production of Lewisite (C04-A002). It is readily 
converted into Lewisite. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 9.55 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. Although 
L2 acts primarily as a vomiting /sterna tory agent, it does have limited vesicant power 
similar to Lewisite (C04-A002). 


Properties: 


MW: 233.4 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 1.702 g/mL 

VD: 8.1 (calculated) 

LEE: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: Decomposes 

H 2 0: Insoluble (slowly decomposes) 

RP: — 

BP: 235°F (11 mmHg) 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Most organic solvents 

IP: — 


AEGLs have been proposed only for mixtures of this compound with Lewisite (C04-A002). 



References 


437 


C14-A005 

Apomorphine 

CAS: 58-00-4; 314-19-2 (Hydrochloride salt); 41372-20-7 (Hydrochloride salt); 6191-56-6 
(Diacetate) 

RTECS: — 



C17H17NO2 

White to grayish crystalline solid. It is air and light sensitive, and rapidly becomes green 
on standing. Solutions are unstable. Various salts have been reported. 

Used as an emetic in veterinary medicine. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 10.93 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 267.3 

VP: Negligible 

PIP: — 

D: — 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: 383° F (decomposes) 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: — 

H 20 : 1.66% (61°F) 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Alcohol; Acetone; Ether; Chloroform 

IP: — 


References 

Brophy, Leo P., Wyndham D. Miles, and Rexmond C. Cohrane. The Chemical Warfare Service: From 
Laboratory to Field. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1968. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, 
and Lewisite)." March 15, 2005. 

Compton, James A.F. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. 
Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press, 1987. 

Fries, Amos A., and Clarence J. West. Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1921. 

Green, Stanley Joseph, and Thomas Slater Price. "LVI. The Chlorovinylchloroarsines." Journal of the 
Chemical Society 119 (1921): 452. 

Jackson, Kirby E. "Sternutators." Chemical Reviews 17 (1935): 251-92. 

Jackson, Kirby E., and Margaret A. Jackson. "The Chlorovinylarsines." Chemical Reviews 16 (1935): 
439-52. 

Lewis, W. Lee, and G.A. Perkins. "The Beta-Chlorovinyl Chloroarsines." Industrial & Engineering 
Chemistry 15 (March 1923): 290-95. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Munro, Nancy B., Sylvia S. Talmage, Guy D. Griffin, Larry C. Waters, Annetta P. Watson, Joseph 
F. King, and Veronique Hauschild. "The Sources, Fate and Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agent 
Degradation Products." Environmental Health Perspectives 107 (1999): 933-74. 

National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http: / / toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi- 
bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2004. 

Olson, Kent R., ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 
2004. 

Prentiss, Augustin M. Chemicals in War: A Treatise on Chemical Warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1937. 

Sartori, Mario F. The War Gases: Chemistry and Analysis. Translated by L.W. Marrison. London: J. & 
A. Churchill, Ltd, 1939. 

Sidell, Frederick R. Medical Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties: A Handbook for Emergency 
Medical Services. Bel Air, MD: HB Publishing, 1995. 

Sidell, Fredrick R., Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Bio- 
logical Warfare, Textbook of Military Medicine Series, Part 1, Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. 
Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. 

Sifton, David W., ed. PDR Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response. Montvale, NJ: 
Thompson/Physicians Desk Reference, 2002. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

Somani, Satu M., ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. New York: Academic Press, 1992. 

Somani, Satu M., and James A. Romano, Jr., eds. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels. Boca 
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. 

Swearengen, Thomas F. Tear Gas Munitions: An Analysis of Commercial Riot Gas Guns, Tear Gas Projectiles, 
Grenades, Small Arms Ammunition, and Related Tear Gas Devices. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas 
Publisher, 1966. 

True, Bey-Lorraine, and Robert H. Dreisbach. Dreisbach's Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis 
and Treatment. 13th ed. London, England: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2002. 

United States Army Headquarters. Chemical Agent Data Sheets Volume I, Edgewood Arsenal Special Report 
No. EO-SR-74001. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 1974. 

. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, Field Manual No. 3-11.9. Washing- 
ton, DC: Government Printing Office, January 10, 2005. 

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chem- 
ical Casualties Handbook. 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Army Medical 
Research Institute of Chemical Defense, July 2000. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
Edition, http:/ /www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm. March 2004. 

Wachtel, Curt. Chemical Warfare. Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941. 

Waitt, Alden H. Gas Warfare: The Chemical Weapon, Its Use, and Protection Against It. Rev. ed. New 
York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1944. 

Williams, Kenneth E. Detailed Facts About Vomiting Agent Adamsite (DM). Aberdeen Proving Ground, 
MD: United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, 1996. 

World Health Organization. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http:/ /www.cdc.gov/niosh/ 
ipcs/icstart.html. 2004. 

. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Report of a WHO Group of Consultants. Geneva: 

World Health Organization, 1970. 

. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance. Geneva: World 

Health Organization, 2004. 



15 


Malodorants 


15.1 General Information 

The majority of these materials are organic sulfur compounds that may also contain an odor 
intensifier. These chemicals are generally volatile liquids at room temperature with odors 
that are detectable at very low levels. Under normal battlefield conditions, these materials 
do not pose a serious danger to the life of an exposed individual and do not produce any 
permanent injury Since approximately 0.2% of the population is unable to detect odors 
(anosmic), compositions may contain multiple malodorant components. 

Obnoxious smelling agents have been used throughout history to provide camouflage 
and assist in breaching hardened defensive positions. Ancient Chinese armories included 
various "stink bombs." Research into development of new and more effective malodorants 
began after World War I. During World War II, an agent known as "Who Me?/' which 
smelled of rotting food and carcasses, was developed by the Allies and tested by resistance 
fighters on German and Japanese soldiers in an effort to humiliate and embarrass them. 
However, the agent was volatile and difficult to deliver and did not always produce the 
expected response. As a result of this failure, malodorants were largely abandoned in 
the United States until the 1980s. Currently, malodorants are high on the list of nonlethal 
research priorities for use in riot control, to clear facilities, to deny an area, or as a tagg- 
ant. Stench weapons in development include concentrates of natural odors such as those 
produced by skunks, rotting meat, excrement, and body odor. Since odors can provoke 
varying reactions in people based on their social and cultural conditioning, malodorants 
offer the possibility of ethnic or cultural targeting. 

Natural malodorants derived from a biological entity are prohibited under the Biological 
Weapons Convention. Malodorants composed strictly of synthetic chemicals would be 
defined as riot control agents and the Chemical Weapons Convention bans the use of such 
agents during a war. However, they may still be used by the military during operations 
other than war such as when responding to incidents of civil unrest. The military has also 
used many of these materials as simulants for lethal chemical agents. Malodorants have 
also been developed for use by police to control rioters and disband unruly crowds. 


15.2 Toxicology 
15.2.1 Effects 

Malodorants have strong, repulsive characteristics including nausea, gagging, and/or 
vomiting. Unpleasant odors impede cognitive performance, increase feelings of discomfort. 


439 



440 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


and heighten a perception of illness. If an odor is perceived to be harmful or hazardous, 
they can stimulate a feeling of panic and fear, and cause exposed personnel to want to flee. 

Reactions vary in different people based on the concentration of the odor and on social 
and cultural conditioning. Extended exposure may desensitize individuals. High concen- 
trations may cause severe physiological trauma. In an enclosed or confined space, very 
high concentration can be lethal. 


1 5.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Malodorants are primarily an inhalation hazard. Aerosols and vapors are extremely foul 
smelling at low concentrations but are otherwise relatively nontoxic. However, exposure 
to bulk liquid or solid agents may be hazardous through skin absorption, ingestion, and 
introduction through abraded skin (e.g., breaks in the skin or penetration of skin by debris). 


15.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

Malodorants do not seriously endanger life except at exposures greatly exceeding an 
effective dose, usually only achieved in a confined or enclosed space. 


15.2.4 Latency Period 

Exposure to malodorants produces immediate effects. 


15.3 Characteristics 

1 5.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

15.3.1.1 Labora tory Grade 

Laboratory grade agents are typically colorless to yellow liquids or solids. 

15.3.1.2 Munition Grade 

Munition grade agents typically consist of at least one malodorant agent (10-90%) and 
an odor intensifier (0.5-5%) dissolved in a liquid carrier. Solvents include volatile hydro- 
carbons, plant /vegetable oils, and water. Solvents typically pose minimal toxic hazards 
themselves. Compositions are typically colorless to yellow liquids. As the agent ages and 
decomposes it may discolor and become brown. 

15.3.1.3 Modified Agents 

Agents have been microencapsulated to facilitate their dispersal and increase their 
persistency. 


15.3.2 Stability 

Malodorant compositions are stable during storage but some ingredients are light and air 
sensitive. 



Malodorants 


441 


15.3.3 Persistency 

As typically deployed, malodorants are classified as nonpersistent by the military However, 
heavy aerosols or release of bulk material may cause contamination that will persist for 
days or weeks. 


15.3.4 Environmental Fate 

Malodorant vapors have a density greater than air and tend to collect in low places. The 
majority of these agents are insoluble in water and have a wide range of specific gravities 
that cause them to either float or sink in water. Further, solvents used in the formulation are 
often insoluble in water and can change the specific gravities of the active agents. Most of 
these agents are soluble in common organic solvents including oils, alcohols, and ketones. 

Agents may be absorbed into porous material, including painted surfaces, and these 
materials may be difficult to decontaminate. 


15.4 Additional Hazards 

15.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy duty plastic and exposed only to agent vapors or aerosols 
may be used after decontamination of the container. Opened or unpackaged items, or those 
packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be destroyed. 

Plants, fruits, vegetables, and grains should be washed thoroughly with soap and water 
and aerated to remove residual odor. 


1 5.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo / soap and water or an aqueous solution of 
mild oxidants (see Section 15.5.3). 

The topmost layer of unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. The 
remaining material should be aerated to remove residual odor. 


15.4.3 Fire 

Heat from a fire will increase the amount of agent vapor in the area. A significant amount 
of the agent could be volatilized and escape into the surrounding environment before the 
agent is consumed by the fire. Actions taken to extinguish the fire can also spread the agent. 
Although many malodorants are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water, runoff from 
firefighting efforts will still pose a potential contact threat. 


1 5.4.4 Reactivity 

Malodorants generally do not react with water or are very slowly decomposed by water. 
Most of these agents are incompatible with strong oxidizers. Solvents used to disperse 
agents may also be incompatible with strong oxidizers. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


1 5.4.5 Hazardous Decomposition Products 

15.4.5.1 Hydrolysis 

Malodorants are generally stable or very slowly decomposed by water. 


15.4.5.2 Combustion 

Volatile decomposition products may include sulfur oxides (S O x ), hydrogen sulfide (HoS), 
and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). 


15.5 Protection 

1 5.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

There are no published recommendations for isolation or protective action distances for 
malodorants released in mass casualty situations. 


15.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 
7 5.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is not 
effective in spill situations or release events. If chemical protective clothing is not available 
and it is necessary to rescue casualties from a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' 
gear will provide very limited skin protection against agent vapors and aerosols. Contact 
with solid and liquid agents should be avoided. 


15.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chemical/ 
Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN) certification. However, during emergency oper- 
ations, other NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by the 
manufacturer against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the 
Incident Commander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a 
combination organic vapor/ acid gas /particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. Any exposures approaching the IDLH level should be regarded with 
extreme caution and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 


15.5.2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Malodorants are primarily an inhalation hazard; however, at elevated vapor /aerosol 
concentrations or in contact with bulk material, agents may also pose a dermal hazard. 

Use only chemical protective clothing that has undergone material and construction 
performance testing against the specific agent that has been released. Reported permeation 
rates may be affected by solvents, components, or impurities in munition grade agents. 



Malodorants 


443 


15.5.3 Decontamination 

15.5.3. 1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

Some malodorants are insoluble in water and difficult to remove with soap and water. 
In such situations, an aqueous solution of mild oxidants may be effective in destroying the 
odorous ingredients of the agent. Published examples include 

one quart of 3% household hydrogen peroxide with one-quarter cup of baking soda 
and one teaspoon of liquid dish soap, or 

one cup of a sodium perborate bleach and three tablespoons of liquid dish soap in 
1 gallon of water. 

The mixture is applied with a sponge and allowed to remain in contact with the agent for 
several minutes. It is then rinsed off with water. Either of these decontamination mixtures 
could cause discoloration of hair or fabrics. 

15.5.3.2 Vapors 

Casualties/personnel: Aeration and ventilation. If decontamination is deemed necessary, 
remove all clothing as it may continue to emit "trapped" agent vapor after contact with 
the vapor cloud has ceased. Shower using copious amounts of soap and water. Ensure that 
the hair has been washed and rinsed to remove potentially trapped vapor. If necessary, an 
aqueous solution containing a mild oxidant can be used (see Section 15.5.3.1). Avoid any 
contact with sensitive areas such as the eyes. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If eye 
irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Ventilate to remove the vapors. If deemed necessary, wash the area with copi- 
ous amounts of soap and water. Collect and place into containers lined with high-density 
polyethylene. If necessary, an aqueous solution containing a mild oxidant can be used (see 
Section 15.5.3.1). Removal of porous material, including painted surfaces, may be required 
because agents that have been absorbed into these materials may migrate back to the surface 
and pose a contact hazard. 

15.5.3.3 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. Even clothing that has not come into 
direct contact with the agent may contain "trapped" vapor. To avoid further exposure of 
the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of 
water to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Avoid rough scrubbing. Rinse 
with copious amounts of water. If necessary, an aqueous solution containing a mild oxidant 
can be used (see Section 15.5.3.1). Avoid any contact with sensitive areas such as the eyes. 
Rinse with copious amounts of water. If eye irritation occurs, irrigate with water or 0.9% 
saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. 

Small areas: Small puddles of liquid can be contained by covering with absorbent material 
such as vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed 
material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Larger puddles can be 
collected using vacuum equipment made of materials inert to the released material and 
equipped with appropriate vapor filters. Wash the area with copious amounts of soap 
and water. If necessary, an aqueous solution containing a mild oxidant can be used 
(see Section 15.5.3.1). Collect and containerize the rinseate. Removal of porous material. 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


including painted surfaces, may be required because these materials may be difficult to 
decontaminate. Ventilate the area to remove vapors. 


15.6 Medical 

15.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has not published a specific case 
definition for intoxication by malodorants. 

15.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

Anyone exposed to malodorants will be immediately identifiable. 

1 5.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

15.6.3.1 Vapors 

Nausea, gagging, vomiting, dizziness, loss of coordination, disorientation, shortness of 
breath, and headache. 

15.6.3.2 Liquids 

Irritation and burning of the skin, eyes, mucous membrane, and respiratory system. 


1 5.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

Typically not required. Casualties will usually recover unassisted after removal from the 
contaminated atmosphere and decontamination. Consult the base station physician or 
regional poison control center for advice on specific situations. 


1 5.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all the agents have been removed. For severe eye 
irritation, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. Irrigate 
open wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Casualties will usually recover from exposure to malodorants shortly after removal from 
the contaminated atmosphere. Most patients can be discharged safely. Rarely a patient with 
significant respiratory findings may merit admission. 


15.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects and decontaminate with soap and water. Wash the 
remains with soap and water. If necessary, an aqueous solution containing a mild oxidant 
can be used (see Section 15.5.3.1). Pay particular attention to areas where agent may get 
trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and wounds. If remains 



Malodorants Agents C15-A 


445 


are heavily contaminated with residue, wash and rinse waste should be contained for 
proper disposal. 

Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action is 
necessary Use standard burial procedures. 


C15-A 

AGENTS 


C15-A001 

Mercaptoethanol 

CAS: 60-24-2 
RTECS: K15600000 
UN: 2966 
ERG: 153 


HS 



c 2 h 6 os 

Clear, colorless mobile liquid with a strong disagreeable odor (stench) detectable at 0.12- 
0.64 ppm. 

Used in industry as a chemical intermediate for dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, rubber chem- 
icals, flotation agents, insecticides, and plasticizers; used as a water-soluble reducing agent 
and reagent in biochemical research. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.20 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
AIHA WEEL: 0.2 ppm [Skin] 


Properties: 

MW: 78.1 VP: 1.756 mmHg (77° F) FIP: 165°F 

D: 1.1143 g/mL VD: 2.7 (calculated) LEE: 2.3% 

MP: — 148°F Vlt: 2300 ppm UEL: 18% 

BP: Decomposes H 2 0: Miscible RP: 6.5 

BP: 131°F (13 mmHg) Sol: Most organic solvents IP: — 

Use: 3.08 cS 


C15-A002 

Butyl mercaptan 

CAS: 109-79-5 
RTECS: EK6300000 
UN: 2347 
ERG: 130 



C4H10S 

Colorless mobile liquid with a strong, obnoxious odor like garlic, cabbage, or a skunk 
depending on the concentration. 



446 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


This material has been used by the military as a simulant of a nonpersistent agent to eval- 
uate chemical equipment. It is also used to activate detector kits and alarms. It has been 
used during field exercises to simulate the threat posed by toxic agent vapor and assist in 
training soldiers on the proper use of protective equipment. 

Used industrially as a solvent and chemical intermediate for insecticides, acaricides, herb- 
icides, and defoliants. It is used in agriculture as a deer repellant. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.69 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

OSHA PEL: 10 ppm 

ACGIH TLV: 0.5 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 0.5 ppm [15 min] 

IDLH : 500 ppm 


Properties: 

MW: 90.2 VP: 35 mmHg PIP: 35°F 

D: 0.8368 g/mL (77°F) VP: 45.5 mmHg (77°F) LEL: — 

ATP: — 176°F VD: 3.1 (calculated) UEL: — 

BP: 209°F Vlt: 60,000 ppm (77°F) RP: 0.23 

Use: 0.667 cS H 2 0: 0.0595% IP: 9.15 eV 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether 


C15-A003 

s-Butyl mercaptan 

CAS: 513-53-1 
RTECS: — 



C4H10S 

Colorless, mobile liquid with a heavy skunk-like odor. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for cadusafos and as an odorant for natural 
gas. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.69 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published.s 


Properties: 

MW: 90.2 VP: 80.7 mmHg (77°F) FIP: -10°F 

D: 0.8299 g/mL (63°F) VD: 3.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — 265°F Vlt: 110,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 185°F H 2 0: 0.132% RP: 0.13 

Use: — Sol: Alcohol; Ether; Benzene IP: 9.10 eV 


C15-A004 

Isobutyl Mercaptan 

CAS: 513-44-0 
RTECS: — 



Malodorants Agents C15-A 


447 



C4H10S 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.69 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 90.2 VP: 69.8 mmHg (77°F) FIP: — 

D: 1.4388 g/mL VD: 3.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — 229°F Vlt: 92,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 191°F H 20 : 0.17% RP: 0.15 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: 9.12 eV 


C15-A005 

f-Butyl mercaptan 

CAS: 75-66-1 
RTECS: TZ7660000 

HS 

C 4 H 10 S 

Colorless, mobile liquid with a strong, offensive, skunk-like odor. 

Used industrially as an odorant for natural gas, chemical intermediate, and bacterial nutri- 
ent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.69 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 90.2 VP: 181 mmHg (77°F) FIP: — 

D: 0.7943 g/mL (77°F) VD: 3.1 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 31°F Vlt: 240,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 147°F H 2 0: 0.2% (77°F) RP: 0.059 

Vsc: — Sol: Alcohol; Acetone; Ether IP: 9.03 eV 



C15-A006 

Mercaptoethyl sulfide 

CAS: 3570-55-6 
RTECS: — 



C4H10S3 

Colorless to yellow liquid with a strong, offensive, skunk-like odor. 



448 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 6.31 mg/m 3 at 77° F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 154.3 

VP: — 

FIP: 194°F 

D: 1.183 g/mL (77° F) 

VD: — 

LEL: — 

MP: — 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 276°F (10 mmHg) 

H 2 0: — 

RP: — 

Use: — 

Sol: — 

IP: — 


C15-A007 

Butyl sulfide 

CAS: 544-40-1 
RTECS: ER6417000 



QHjgS 

Clear, colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a skunk-like stench. This material is hazardous 
through inhalation and produces local skin/ eye impacts. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.98 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 146.3 VP: 1.2 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 169°F 

D: 0.838 g/mL VD: 5.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: -112°F Vlt: 1600 ppm (77°F) UEL: — 

BP: 372°F H 2 0: 0.0039% (77°F) RP: 7.0 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: 8.40 eV 


C15-A008 

Amyl mercaptan 

CAS: 110-66-7 
RTECS: SA3 150000 
UN: 1111 
ERG: 130 



c 5 h 12 s 

Colorless to yellow liquid with a strong, disagreeable odor like garlic detectable at 0.000094— 
0.070 ppm. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate, synthetic flavoring ingredient, and odorant 
to locate gas leaks. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



Malodorants Agents C15-A 


449 


Properties: 

MW: 104.2 VP: 13.8 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 65°F 

D: 0.8421 g/mL VD: 3.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — 104°F Vlt: 18,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 260°F H 2 0: 0.0156% RP: 0.72 

Vsc: — Sol: Alcohol; Ether IP: — 


C15-A009 

s-Amyl mercaptan 

CAS: 2084-19-7 
RTECS: — 



c 5 h :2 s 

Colorless liquid with a disagreeable odor (stench). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Fluman toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 


MW: 104.2 

VP: — 

FIP: — 

D: 0.833 g/mL 

VD: 3.6 (calculated) 

LEL: — 

MP: — 170°F 

Vlt: — 

UEL: — 

BP: 235°F 

H 2 0: "Slight" 

RP: — 

Vsc: — 

Sol: Alcohol 

IP: — 


C15-A010 

Isoamyl mercaptan 

CAS: 541-31-1 
RTECS: — 



c 5 h :2 s 

Clear, colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a strong disagreeable odor (stench). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 104.2 VP: 41.4 mmHg (100° F) FIP: 64°F 

D: 0.835 g/mL VD: 3.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: 52,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 244° F H 2 0: — RP: 2.5 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 



450 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


C15-A011 

f-Amyl mercaptan 

CAS: 1679-09-0 
RTECS: — 



c 5 h 12 s 

Specific information on physical appearance is not available for this agent. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.26 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 104.2 VP: — FIP: 30°F 

D: 0.812 g/mL VD: 3.6 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — 155°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 210°F H 2 0: — RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C15-A012 

Allyl sulfide 

CAS: 592-88-1 
RTECS: BC4900000 



CeHioS 

Colorless liquid with a strong odor like garlic or horseradish. 

Used industrially for the manufacture of food flavors. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.67 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 114.2 VP: 9.22 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 115°F 

D:0.888 g/mL (81°F) VD: 3.9 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — 117°F Vlt: 12,000 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 282°F H 2 0: "Practically insoluble" RP: 1.0 

Use: — Sol: Alcohol; Chloroform; Ether IP: 8.52 eV 


C15-A013 

1-Hexanethiol 

CAS: 111-31-9 
RTECS: M04550000 


SH 



Malodorants Agents C15-A 


451 


CgHuS 

Clear liquid with a stench. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, 
penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
Reacts with air on long storage. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.83 mg/m 3 at 77° F 
NIOSH Ceiling: 2.7 mg/m 3 [15 min] 

Properties: 

MW: 118.2 VP: — VP: — 

D: 0.8405 g/mL VD: — VD: — 

MP: — 113°F Vlt: — Vlt: — 

BP: 304°F H^O: Insoluble H^O: Insoluble 

BP: 178°F (10 mmHg) Sol:— Sol: — 

Vsc: — 

C15-A014 

1-Dodecanethiol 

CAS: 112-55-0 
RTECS: JR31 55000 

SH 


C12FI26S 

Colorless, water-white, or pale-yellow, oily liquid with a mild, skunk-like odor detectable 
at 0.5 ppm. This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and produces local 
skin /eye impacts. It causes irritation to the eyes, skin, respiratory system; cough; dizzi- 
ness, dyspnea (breathing difficulty), lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), confusion, cyanosis; 
abdominal pain, nausea; skin sensitization. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, 
plastics, pharmaceuticals, insecticides, fungicides, nonionic detergents; and used in 
industry as a flotation reagent for the removal of metals from wastes. 

This material has also been used as a simulant in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 8.28 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

ACGIHTLV: 0.1 ppm 

NIOSH Ceiling: 0.5 ppm [15 min] 


Properties: 

MW: 202.4 VP: 0.00853 mmHg FIP: 262°F 

D: 0.8435 g/mL VD: 7.0 (calculated) LED — 

MP: 19°F Vlt: 11 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 500-514°F H 2 0: 0.00002% (77°F) RP: 820 

BP: 297°F (15 mmHg) Sol: — IP: — 

Use: — 




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C15-A015 

1-Octadecanethiol 

CAS: 2885-00-9 
RTECS: — 



Ci8H 38 S 

White solid with a foul stench. This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorp- 
tion, penetration through broken skin, and ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. 
It causes irritation of the eyes, skin, respiratory system; headache, dizziness, lassitude 
(weakness, exhaustion), cyanosis, nausea, convulsions. 

This material has also been used as a simulant in government tests. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 11.72 mg/m 3 at 77°F 
NIOSH Ceiling: 0.5 ppm [15 min] 


Properties: 

MW: 286.6 VP: <0.37 mmHg FIP: 365°F 

D: 0.85 g/cm 3 VD: 9.9 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 84° F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 405°F (1 mmHg) H 2 O: Insoluble RP: >16 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C15-A016 

Cadaverine 

CAS: 462-94-2; 1476-39-7 (Hydrochloride salt) 
RTECS: SA0200000 


H 2 N 


nh 2 


c 5 h :4 n 2 

Clear, colorless to slightly yellow hygroscopic liquid with the odor of rotting flesh. Various 
salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 102.2 VP: 0.666 mmHg FIP: 144°F 

D: 0.873 g/mL VD: 3.5 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 48° F Vlt: 890 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 352°F H 2 0: — RP: 15 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 



Malodorants Agents C15-A 


453 


C15-A017 

Putrescine 

CAS: 110-60-1 
RTECS: EJ6800000 


h 2 n 


nh 2 


C 4 H 12 N 2 

White solid or liquid with a putrid odor like rotting flesh. Various salts have been reported. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.61 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 88.2 VP: 4.12 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 145°F 

D: 0.877 g/mL VD: 3.0 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 81°F V/f: 5400 ppm UEL: — 

BP: 316°F H 2 0: 4% RP: 2.6 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: — 


C15-A018 

Butyric acid 

CAS: 107-92-6 
RTECS: ES5425000 
UN: 2820 
ERG: 153 


O 



C4H8O2 

Colorless oily liquid with a pungent putrid odor like rancid butter or vomit detectable at 
0.003-2.5 ppm. Various salts have been reported. 

This material has been used by the military as a simulant of a nonpersistent agent to evaluate 
chemical equipment. It has been used during field exercises to simulate the threat posed 
by toxic agents and assist in training soldiers on the proper use of protective equipment. 

A mixture of butyric acid (2% ), magnesium silicate (5% ), and water (93% ) was once fielded 
as a simulant for Mustard gas (C03-A01), with the military designation AS. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals, emulsifiers, disinfectants, 
perfumes; artificial flavorings; in the manufacture of cellulose derivatives in lacquers and 
plastics; used as a leather tanning agent, as a sweetening agent for gasoline; in the food 
industry to add body to butter, cheese, butterscotch, caramel, fruit, and nut flavors; and in 
some countries it is used as an antifungal agent in the preservation of high moisture grains. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.60 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



454 


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Properties: 

MW: 88.1 
D: 0.9577 g/mL 
MP: 18°F 
BP: 329°F 
Vsc: 1.68 cS 

C15-A019 

Isobutyric acid 

CAS: 79-31-2 
RTECS: NQ4375000 
UN: 2529 
ERG: 132 

O 

OH 

C4H8O2 

Colorless liquid with a sharp odor like butter fat. 

Used industrially as a chemical intermediate for the synthesis of esters, manufacture of 
varnish, as a tanning agent, and as a food additive (flavor). 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 3.60 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 88.1 VP: 1.81 mmHg (77°F) PIP: 131°F 

D: 0.950 g/mL VD: 3.0 (calculated) LEL: 2.0% 

MP: — 53°F Vlt: 2400 ppm UEL: 9.2% 

BP: 306°F (decomposes) FLO: 16.7% RP: 5.9 

Use: 1.516 cS Sol: Alcohol; Chloroform; Ether IP: 10.24 eV 

C15-A020 

2-Methylbutyric acid 

CAS: 116-53-0 
RTECS: — 

O 

OH 

C5H10O2 

Colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a strong disagreeable odor. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 4.18 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 




VP: 0.43 mmHg FIP: 161 °F 

VD: 3.0 (calculated) LEL: 2.0% 

Vlt: 580 ppm UEL: 10% 

H 2 0 : Miscible RP: 25 

Sol: Alcohol; Ether IP: 10.17 eV 



Malodorants Agents C15-A 


455 


Properties: 

MW: 102.1 
D: 0.9365 g/mL 
MP: — 94°F 
BP: 352°F 
Vsc: 2.242 cS 

C15-A021 

3-Methylindole 

CAS: 83-34-1 
RTECS: — 



C 9 H 9 N 

White crystalline solid that darkens and turns brown with exposure to air. At very low 
levels, it has a pleasant, sweet, warm odor similar to overripe fruit. Otherwise, a putrid 
odor like fecal matter. 

This material acts as an odor intensifier. 

Used industrially as a fixative for perfumes, artificial civet, food additive (flavoring), and 
medication. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.37 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 131.2 
D: — 

MP: 203°F 
BP: 509°F 

BP: 284° F (13 mmHg) 

Vsc: — 

C15-A022 

4-Methyl indole 

CAS: 16096-32-5 
RTECS: — 



VP: 0.00555 mmHg PIP: 270°F 

VD: 4.5 (calculated) LEL: — 

Vlt: 7.3 ppm UEL: — 

H 2 0: 0.05% (77°F) RP: 1600 

Sol: Acetone; Alcohol; Benzene; Ether IP: — 


VP: 0.491 mmHg (77°F) FIP: 171°F 

VD: 3.5 (calculated) LEL: 1 .2% 

Vlt: 650 ppm UEL: 5.7% 

H 2 0: 4.5% RP: 20 

Sol: — IP: 10.27 eV 


C 9 H 9 N 



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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


Clear, yellow to brown, light sensitive liquid with a disagreeable odor. 

This material acts as an odor intensifier. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.37 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

Properties: 

MW: 131.2 VP: — FIP: >234°F 

D: 1.062 g/mL VD: 4.5 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: 41°F Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 513°F H 2 0: — RP: — 

BP: 248° F (20 mmHg) Sol: — IP: 7.6 eV 

Vsc: — 


C15-A023 

6-Methyl indole 

CAS: 3420-02-8 
RTECS: — 



C9H9N 

Light sensitive solid with a disagreeable odor. 

This material acts as an odor intensifier. 

Exposure Hazards 

Conversion Factor: 1 ppm = 5.37 mg/m 3 at 77°F 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


Properties: 

MW: 131.2 VP: — FIP: >234°F 

D: 1.059 g/cm 3 VD: 4.5 (calculated) LEL: — 

MP: — Vlt: — UEL: — 

BP: 234° F (5 mmHg) H 2 0: — RP: — 

Vsc: — Sol: — IP: 7.54 eV 


C15-A024 

Standard Bathroom Malodor 

CAS: — 

RTECS: — 

Mixture of 62.82% dipropylene glycol, 21.18% mercaptoacetic acid, 6% n-hexanoic acid, 
6% N-methyl morpholine, 2.18% p-cresyl isovalerate, 0.91% 2-naphthalenethiol, and 
0.91% skatole. 

Exposure Hazards 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 



References 


457 


References 

Dalton, Pamela, and Gary K. Beauchamp. Establishment of Odor Response Profiles: Ethnic, Racial and 
Cultural Influences. Philadelphia, PA: Monell Chemical Senses Center, February 4, 1999. 

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, September 2005. 

National Institutes of Health. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). http:/ /toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
cgi-bin/ sis/htmlgen?HSDB/. 2004. 

Pinney, Virginia Ruth. "Malodorant Compositions." US Patent 6,242,489, June 5, 2001. 

. "Non-lethal Weapon Systems." US Patent 6,386,113, May 14, 2002. 

Prentice, John A. "Defensive and Offensive Projector Composition." US Patent 1,643,954, October 4, 
1927. 

Smith, Ann, Patricia Heckelman, and Maryadele J. Oneil, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of 
Chemicals, Drugs, & Biologicals. 13th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 2001. 

United States Air Force. Development of Candidate Chemical Simulant List: The Evaluation of Candid- 
ate Chemical Simulants Which May Be Used in Chemically Hazardous Operations, Technical Report 
AFAMRL-TR-82-87 . Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1982. 

United States Coast Guard. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Manual, 1999 
Edition, http:/ /www.chrismanual.com/Default.htm. March 2004. 

World Health Organization. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). http: / / www.cdc.gov/ niosh/ 
ipcs/icstart.html. 2004. 

Yaws, Carl L. Matheson Gas Data Book. 7th ed. Parsippany, NJ: Matheson Tri-Gas, 2001. 




Section V 

Biological Agents 




16 


Toxins 


16.1 General Information 

Toxins are any poisonous substances that can be produced by an animal, plant, or microbe. 
Because of their complexity, most toxins are difficult to synthesize in large quantities by 
traditional chemical means. However, they may be harvested from cultured sources or 
produced by genetically engineered microbes. Toxins are odorless, tasteless, and nonvolat- 
ile. Ricin (C16-A036) and saxitoxin (C16-A018) are the only toxins listed in the Chemical 
Weapons Convention (Schedule 1). 

Several countries have stockpiled a limited number of toxins. Their use on the battlefield 
has been alleged (e.g., Laos, Kampuchea, and Afghanistan) but not documented to the 
extent that it is universally accepted. Toxins have been used for political assassinations 
(e.g., 1978 murder of Georgi Markov with ricin) and terrorists have threatened the use of 
toxins, usually through contamination of food or water supplies. 


16.2 Toxicology 
16.2.1 Effects 

Toxins present a variety of both incapacitating and lethal effect. Most toxins of military 
significance can be broadly classified in one of two ways. Neurotoxins disrupt the nervous 
system and interfere with nerve impulse transmission similar to nerve agents (Chapter 1). 
However, all neurotoxins do not operate through the same mechanism of action or do they 
produce the same symptoms. Cytotoxins are poisons that destroy cells or impair cellular 
activities. Symptoms may resemble those of vesicants (Chapter 3) or they may resemble 
food poisoning or other diseases. Toxins may also produce effects that are a combination of 
these general categories. The consequences of intoxication from any individual toxin can 
vary widely with route of exposure and dose. In addition, some toxins act as biomediators 
and cause the body to release excessive, and therefore harmful, amounts of chemicals that 
are normally produced by the body. 

Although classified as biological weapons, toxins are chemicals. They are not alive and 
do not replicate themselves like pathogens (Chapters 17-20). They are not communicable; 
to be affected, an individual must come into direct contact with the toxin. 


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1 6.2.2 Pathways and Routes of Exposure 

Toxins are primarily hazardous through inhalation, ingestion, and broken, abraded, or 
lacerated skin (e.g., penetration of skin by debris). A small number of toxins, such as the 
mycotoxins, produce skin lesions and systemic illness through skin and eye exposure. 
Toxins may also be dissolved in select solvents and delivered as dilute solutions that pose 
a percutaneous hazard. 


16.2.3 General Exposure Hazards 

In general, toxins do not have good warning properties. They are nonvolatile and do not 
have an odor. Although some toxins irritate the skin and eyes, in most cases they do not. 
Many neurotoxins will produce severe pain in contact with any abrasion or laceration. 

Individual toxins may be effective through multiple pathways and the route of exposure 
may significantly change the signs and symptoms associated with any given toxin. In most 
cases, effects are most severe when the toxin is inhaled. 


16.2.4 Latency Period 

Effects from exposure to toxins can appear within minutes or be delayed for days. The 
impacts from some toxins, especially cytotoxins, may occur within minutes but symptoms 
may not appear for hours. The route of exposure to the toxin can significantly change the 
latency period. 


16.3 Characteristics 

16.3.1 Physical Appearance/Odor 

1 6.3. 1. 1 Laboratory Grade 

Pure toxins are typically colorless, white, tan, or yellow solids. Venoms — crude mixtures 
of toxins and other natural chemicals produced by animals such as snakes, spiders, and 
scorpions — are colorless to yellow or brown liquids. 

1 6.3. 1.2 Modified Agents 

Toxins have been dissolved in solvents to facilitate handling, to stabilize them, or to create 
a percutaneous hazard. Percutaneous enhancement solvents include dimethyl sulfoxide, 
N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylpalmitamide, N ,N-d i methyldeca na mid e, and 
saponin. Color and other properties of these solutions may vary from the pure agent. 
Odors will vary depending on the characteristics of the solvent(s) used. 

Toxins have also been micropulverized and microencapsulated to facilitate their dispersal 
and increase their persistency. Color and other physical properties of the toxin may be 
affected by these modifications. 


16.3.2 Stability 

Very much dependent on the specific toxin. Many are sensitive to heat or light or both. 
Freeze drying or isolation as salts increases their stability and shelf life. 



Toxins 


463 


1 6.3.3 Persistency 

For military purposes, toxins are generally nonpersistent. In cases where toxins have been 
micropulverized, microencapsulated, or otherwise modified to facilitate their dispersal, 
reaerosolization by ground traffic or strong winds may be a concern. 


16.3.4 Environmental Fate 

All toxins are nonvolatile. Once the initial aerosol has settled, there is minimal inhalation 
hazard unless the toxin is released as an aerosolized powder that has been modified to 
increase the potential of reaerosolization. Solubility in water depends on the specific toxin, 
presence of solvents, and isolation as salts. 


16.4 Additional Hazards 

16.4.1 Exposure 

All foodstuffs in the area of a release should be considered contaminated. Unopened items 
packaged in glass, metal, or heavy plastic and exposed only to aerosols may be used after 
decontamination of the container. All unopened items exposed to bulk agents should be 
decontaminated within a few hours postexposure or destroyed. Opened or unpackaged 
items, or those packaged only in paper or cardboard, should be destroyed. 

Meat, milk, and animal products from animals affected or killed by toxins should be 
destroyed. 


1 6.4.2 Livestock/Pets 

Animals can be decontaminated with shampoo / soap and water, or a 0.5% household bleach 
solution (see Section 16.5.3). If the animals' eyes have been exposed to agent, they should 
be irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. 

Unprotected feedstock (e.g., hay or grain) should be destroyed. Depending on the specific 
toxin released, the level of contamination, and the weather conditions, leaves of forage 
vegetation could still retain sufficient agents to produce effects for several days post release. 


16.4.3 Fire 

Toxins are not volatile and the heat from a fire will destroy these agents. However, actions 
taken to extinguish the fire may spread the agent before it is destroyed. Runoff from fire- 
fighting efforts may pose a potential contact threat through exposure of broken, abraded, 
or lacerated skin, or through accidental ingestion. Smoke from a fire may contain acrid, 
irritating, and/ or toxic decomposition products. 


1 6.4.4 Reactivity 

Varies depending on the specific toxin. Some decompose rapidly after they become wet. 
Many react with strong acids, bases, or oxidizing agents. 



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16.5 Protection 

16.5.1 Evacuation Recommendations 

There are no published recommendations for isolation or protective action distances for 
toxins released in mass casualty situations. 


16.5.2 Personal Protective Requirements 
7 6.5.2. 1 Structural Firefighters' Gear 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations only; it is 
not effective in spill situations or release events. However, toxins have negligible vapor 
pressure and do not pose a vapor hazard. The primary risk of exposure is through contact 
with aerosolized agents, bulk agents (e.g., spilled liquids or solids), or solutions of agents. 
If chemical protective clothing is not available and it is necessary to rescue casualties from 
a contaminated area, then structural firefighters' gear will provide some skin protection 
against most toxin aerosols. Contact with bulk material and solutions should be avoided. 
However, any responder with areas of cut or lacerated skin should not make entry because 
they place the individual at extreme risk of subcutaneous exposure. 

Structural firefighters' protective clothing should never be used as the primary 
chemical protective garment to enter an area contaminated with dermally hazardous 
toxins. 

There is also a significant hazard posed by injection of toxins through contact with con- 
taminated debris. Appropriate protection to avoid any potential laceration or puncture of 
the skin is essential. 


16.5.2.2 Respiratory Protection 

Self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) or air purifying respirators (APRs) should 
have a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Chemical/ 
Biological/Radiological/Nuclear (CBRN). However, during emergency operations, other 
NIOSH approved SCBAs or APRs that have been specifically tested by the manufacturer 
against chemical warfare agents may be used if deemed necessary by the incident com- 
mander. APRs should be equipped with a NIOSH approved CBRN filter or a combination 
organic vapor/ acid gas/ particulate cartridge. 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) levels are the ceiling limit for respirators 
other than SCBAs. However, IDLH levels have not been established for toxins. Therefore, 
any potential exposure to aerosols of these agents should be regarded with extreme caution 
and the use of SCBAs for respiratory protection should be considered. 


7 6.5. 2.3 Chemical Protective Clothing 

Currently, there is no information available on performance testing of chemical protective 
clothing against toxins. 

In the event that dermally hazardous toxins have been released, responders should wear 
a Level A protective ensemble. Also, because of the extreme hazard posed by toxin aerosols 
to any area of cut or lacerated skin, responders should wear a Level A protective ensemble 
whenever there is any potential for exposure to airborne agent. 



Toxins 


465 


Since there is a significant hazard posed by injection of toxins through contact with debris, 
appropriate protection to avoid any potential abrasion, laceration, or puncture of the skin 
is essential. 


16.5.3 Decontamination 

16.5.3.1 General 

Apply universal decontamination procedures using soap and water. 

Most toxins are readily destroyed by high pH (i.e., basic solutions), especially when used 
in combination with a strong oxidizing agent. For this reason, undiluted household bleach 
is an excellent agent for decontamination of these agents. Ensure that the bleach solution 
remains in contact with the toxin for a minimum of 10 minutes. 

16.5.3.2 Liquids, Solutions, or Liquid Aerosols 

Casualties /personnel: Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure of the 
head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must be 
pulled over the head. Use a sponge or cloth with liquid soap and copious amounts of water 
to wash the skin surface and hair at least three times. Do not delay decontamination to 
find warm or hot water if it is not readily available. Avoid rough scrubbing as this could 
abrade the skin and increase the potential for movement of any residual toxin through the 
skin barrier. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the eyes have 
been exposed to the agent, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum of 
15 minutes. 

Alternatively, a household bleach solution can be used instead of soap and water. The 
bleach solution should be no more than one part household bleach in nine parts water (i.e., 
0.5% sodium hypochlorite) to avoid damaging the skin. Avoid any contact with sensitive 
areas such as the eyes. Ensure that the bleach solution remains in contact with the agent for 
a minimum of 10 minutes. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 

Small areas: Puddles of liquid can be absorbed by covering with absorbent material such as 
vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, sponges, or towels. Place the absorbed material into 
containers lined with high-density polyethylene. Wash the area with copious amounts of 
soap and water or undiluted household bleach (see Section 16.5.3.1). If bleach is used, then 
rewash the area with soap and water. Collect and containerize the rinseate in containers 
lined with high-density polyethylene. 

16.5.3.3 Solids or Particulate Aerosols 

Casualties/personnel: Do not attempt to brush the agent off the individual or their clothing as 
this can aerosolize the agent. Remove all clothing immediately. To avoid further exposure 
of the head, neck, and face to the agent, cut off potentially contaminated clothing that must 
be pulled over the head. Wash the skin surface and hair at least three times with copious 
amounts of soap and water. Do not delay decontamination to find warm or hot water if it 
is not readily available. Rinse with copious amounts of water. If there is a potential that the 
eyes have been exposed to toxins, irrigate with water or 0.9% saline solution for a minimum 
of 15 minutes. 

Alternatively, a household bleach solution can be used instead of soap and water. The 
bleach solution should be no more than one part household bleach in nine parts water (i.e., 
0.5% sodium hypochlorite) to avoid damaging the skin. Avoid any contact with sensitive 
areas such as the eyes. Ensure that the bleach solution remains in contact with the agent for 
a minimum of 10 minutes. Rinse with copious amounts of water. 



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Small areas: Extreme care must be exercised when dealing with dry or powdered agents 
as toxins may adhere to the skin or clothing and then be spread to other areas. Because 
of the minute quantities needed to produce a response in an exposed individual, cross 
contamination can pose a significant inhalation or puncture hazard later. 

If indoors, close windows and doors in the area and turn off anything that could create 
air currents (e.g., fans, air conditioner, etc.). Avoid actions that could aerosolize the agent 
such as sweeping or brushing. Collect the agent using a vacuum cleaner equipped with 
a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Do not use a standard home or industrial 
vacuum. Do not allow the vacuum exhaust to stir the air in the affected area. Vacuum all 
surfaces with extreme care in a very slow and controlled manner to minimize aerosolizing 
the agent. Place the collected material into containers lined with high-density polyethylene. 
Wash the area with copious amounts of soap and water or undiluted household bleach (see 
Section 16.5.3.1). If bleach is used, then rewash the area with soap and water. Collect and 
containerize the rinseate in containers lined with high-density polyethylene. 


16.6 Medical 

16.6.1 CDC Case Definition 

A case in which the toxin or appropriate metabolite is detected in urine, serum, or plasma, 
or detection of the specific toxin in environmental samples unless there could be a local 
source of the toxin (e.g., the molds that produce mycotoxins have been found in some 
residential and industrial settings, and the toxins have been implicated in some cases of 
"sick building" syndrome). 

A case should not be considered due to toxin poisoning if another confirmed diagnosis 
exists to explain the signs and symptoms. However, the case can be confirmed if either 
a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an 
absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 


16.6.2 Differential Diagnosis 

Patients should be viewed epidemiologically. Save clinical and environmental samples for 
diagnosis. The best early diagnostic sample for most toxins is a swab of the nasal mucosa. 


1 6.6.3 Signs and Symptoms 

Highly variable depending on the specific toxin, route of exposure, and dose. Even symp- 
toms presented by toxins with the same general classification (i.e., neurotoxin or cytotoxin) 
may vary depending on the specific mechanism of action within the body. 


1 6.6.4 Mass-Casualty Triage Recommendations 

Because of the wide variety of potential toxins and their symptoms, there are no universal 
recommendations for triaging casualties exposed to toxins as a class. However, in general, 
anyone who has been exposed should be transported to a medical facility for evaluation. 
Individuals who are asymptomatic and have not been directly exposed to the agent can be 
discharged after their names, addresses, and telephone numbers have been recorded. They 
should be told to seek medical care immediately if symptoms develop. 



Neurotoxins C16-A 


467 


1 6.6.5 Casualty Management 

Decontaminate the casualty ensuring that all the toxins have been removed. Extreme care 
must be exercised when dealing with dry or powdered agents as toxins may adhere to the 
skin or clothing and present an inhalation hazard. If any agents have gotten into the eyes, 
irrigate the eyes with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 15 minutes. Irrigate open 
wounds with water or 0.9% saline solution for at least 10 minutes. 

Once the casualty has been decontaminated, including the removal of foreign matter 
from wounds, medical personnel do not need to wear a chemical-protective mask. 

Treatment primarily consists of supportive care. Ventilate patient if they have difficulty 
breathing and administer oxygen. Be prepared to treat for shock. Monitor and support 
cardiac and respiratory functions as necessary. If the identity of the toxin is known, admin- 
ister antidote if available. Unlike chemical agents, toxins can cause an immune response. 
Vaccines are available for some toxins but generally require more than 4 weeks for the body 
to produce antibodies. Passive immunotherapy is effective for some neurotoxins but must 
be instituted shortly after exposure. The utility of antibody therapy drops sharply at or 
shortly after the onset of the first signs of disease. 


16.7 Fatality Management 

Remove all clothing and personal effects segregating them as either durable or nondurable 
items. Although it may be possible to decontaminate durable items, it may be safer and 
more efficient to destroy nondurable items rather than attempt to decontaminate them. 
Items that will be retained for further processing should be double sealed in impermeable 
containers, ensuring that the inner container is decontaminated before placing it in the 
outer one. 

Extreme care must be exercised when dealing with dry or powdered agents as toxins 
may adhere to the skin or clothing and present an inhalation hazard. 

Wash the remains with a 2% sodium hypochlorite bleach solution (i.e., 2 gallons of water 
for every gallon of household bleach) ensuring that the solution is introduced into the ears, 
nostrils, mouth, and any wounds. This concentration of bleach will not affect remains but 
will destroy all toxins on the skin surface, greatly reducing the risk of secondary exposure. 
Higher concentrations of bleach can harm remains. Pay particular attention to areas where 
agent may get trapped, such as hair, scalp, pubic areas, fingernails, folds of skin, and 
wounds. The bleach solution should remain on the cadaver for a minimum of 10 minutes. 
Wash with soap and water. Ensure that the bleach solution is completely removed prior 
to embalming as it will react with embalming fluid. All wash and rinse waste must be 
contained for proper disposal. 

Once the remains have been thoroughly decontaminated, no further protective action is 
necessary. Use standard burial procedures. 


C16-A 

NEUROTOXINS 

C16-A001 

Aconitine 

CAS: 302-27-2 


RTECS: AR5960000 



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C 34 H 47 NO 11 
Molecular Weight: 645.7 

Rapid-acting channel-activating neurotoxin. It is obtained from the leaves and roots 
of various plants including wolfbane ( Aconitum lycoctonum ) and monkshood ( Aconitum 
napelhis). It is an off-white powder that is insoluble in water (0.03% ) but soluble in 
chloroform and benzene. Various salts have been reported. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. The toxin is lipid soluble and once in the body can become stored in body fat. This can 
result in cumulative effect. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, slow heart rate 
(bradycardia), restlessness, incoordination (ataxia), vertigo, difficulty breathing (dyspnea), 
low body temperature (hypothermia), convulsions, headache, and pallor. Ingestion causes 
a burning or tingling sensation with subsequent numbness on the lips, tongue, mouth, and 
throat. It produces similar effects on other mucous membranes. Death results from respir- 
atory or cardiac failure. 

Used in medical research to produce heart arrhythmia in experimental animals. 
Toxicology 

LD^ingy. 0.02-0.06 g 

Other human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this material appears to be approximately 
one-tenth as toxic as the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 

C16-A002 
Anatoxin A 

CAS: 64285-06-9; 92142-32-0 (Stereoisomer); 85514-42-7 (Racemic mixture); 92844-80-9 
(p-Toluenesulfonate salt); 92216-03-0 (Hydrochloride salt); 70470-07-4 
(Hydrochloride salt); 122564-82-3 (Butenedioate salt) 

RTECS: KM5528500 

c 10 h 15 no 

Molecular Weight: 165.2 

Very rapid-acting paralytic neurotoxin (postsynaptic depolarizing neuromuscular blocker) 
that binds to the same receptor as acetylcholine (nicotinic cholinergic receptor agonist) pro- 
ducing neural and muscular stimulation. However acetylcholinesterase does not hydrolyze 
the toxin. It is obtained from blue-green algae ( Anabaena spp.). It is water soluble, but inac- 
tivated after several days as an aqueous solution. It is "probably tolerant" to chlorine at 
purification concentrations. It is destroyed by heat, light, and high pH. Various salts (solids) 
have been reported. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion. Symptoms mimic nerve agent exposure and include twitching, incoordination, 
tremors, paralysis, and respiratory arrest. Symptoms typically begin within 5 min. Death 
from ingestion can be delayed up to 3 h, depending on the dose. There is no specific treat- 
ment. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately one-fifth as 
toxic as the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 



Neurotoxins C16-A 


469 


C16-A003 

Anatoxin-A(S) 

CAS: 103170-78-1 
RTECS: — 

C7H17N4O4P 
Molecular Weight: 252.2 

Neurotoxin obtained from freshwater blue-green cyanobacteria ( Anabaena spp., Aphanizo- 
menon spp., and Oscillatoria spp.). It is the only known organophosphate toxin produced 
by cyanobacteria. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. It is an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and produces symptoms similar 
to an organophosphate pesticide or military nerve agent, including difficulty breathing 
with a feeling of shortness of breath or tightness of the chest, sweating, nausea, vomiting, 
involuntary urination/ defecation, and a feeling of weakness. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately twice as toxic 
as the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 


C16-A004 

Batrachotoxin 

CAS: 23509-16-2 
RTECS: CR3990000 

C 3 iH 42 N 2 0 6 

Molecular Weight: 538.7 

Very rapid-acting paralytic neurotoxin that binds to sodium channels of nerve and muscle 
cells depolarizing neurons by increasing the sodium channel permeability. It is obtained 
from South American poison-dart frogs ( Phyllobates aurotaenia, Phyllobates terribilis). It is 
insoluble in water but soluble in hydrocarbons and other nonpolar solvents. The dried 
toxin can remain active for at least a year. However, it is relatively nonpersistent in the 
environment. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation and penetration through broken skin. Once 
in the body, the toxin can become stored in body fat and may have a cumulative effect. 
Symptoms include loss of balance and coordination, profound weakness, irregular heart 
rhythms, convulsions, and cyanosis. These symptoms occur quickly and are produced in 
rapid succession. The toxin is lipid soluble and once in the body can become store in body 
fat. This can result in cumulative effect. Batrachotoxin has no effect on the skin but produces 
a long-lasting painful stinging sensation in contact with the smallest scratch. If ingested, it 
is only toxic if a lesion exists in the gastrointestinal tract. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately 1000 times 
more toxic than the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 



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C16-A005 

Botulinum toxins (Agent X) 

CAS: 93384-43-1 (A); 93384-44-2 (B); 93384-46-4 (D); 93384-47-5 (E); 107231-15-2 (F) 
RTECS: ED9300000 

Large protein 
Molecular Weight: 150,000 

Delayed-action paralytic neurotoxins that block the release of acetylcholine causing a sym- 
metric, descending flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves. Paralysis always 
begins with the cranial nerves. Toxins are obtained from an anaerobic bacteria ( Clostridium 
botulinum). Toxin A is a white powder or crystalline solid that is readily soluble in water. 
It is stable for up to 7 days as an aqueous solution. All toxins are destroyed by heat and 
decompose when exposed to air for more than 12 h. 

These materials are hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion. Botulinum toxins are unusual in that they are more toxic when ingested than 
when inhaled. They are most toxic when injected. Symptoms include dizziness, difficulty 
swallowing and speaking, blurred or double vision, sensitivity to light, and muscular weak- 
ness progressing from the head downward. In some cases may produce nausea and profuse 
vomiting. Symptoms from ingestion usually begin within 12-72 h, but can be delayed for 
up to 8 days. Symptoms from inhalation have a more rapid onset, usually 3-6 h. Onset of 
symptoms from wound botulism is usually 3 days or longer. Death results from respiratory 
failure. Recovery is prolonged and can take months. Those who survive may have fatigue 
and shortness of breath for years. 

Used medicinally as a muscle relaxant. 

They are on the TUTS Select Agents list, the USDA Eligh Consequence list, the Australia 
Group Core list, and are listed as a Category A Potential Terrorism Agent by the CDC. 

Toxicology 

LD 50m) : 0.0002 mg (estimate) 

LD^odng)'- 0.00007 mg (estimate) 


C16-A006 

Brevetoxins 

CAS: 98112-41-5 (A); 79580-28-2 (B); 85079-48-7 (C) 

ICD-10: T61.2 

RTECS: XW5886000; XW5885000 

Toxin A: C 49 EI 70 O 13 (MW 867.1) 

Toxin C: C 49 H 72 O 14 (MW 885.1) 

Paralytic neurotoxins that bind to sodium channels of nerve and muscle cells causing muscle 
contractions. They are obtained from the dinoflagella te that causes "red-tide" ( Gymnodinium 
breve). Toxins are typically light tan crystalline solids. They are insoluble in water and very 
unstable. 

These materials are hazardous through inhalation and ingestion, and cause eye irritation. 
Toxins are lipid soluble and once in the body can become stored in body fat. This can result in 
a cumulative effect. Symptoms from ingestion include burning, prickling, or tingling sensa- 
tions in the mouth as well as reversal of temperature sensations progressing to paralysis of 
the lips and extremities, with dizziness, incoordination (ataxia), muscle aches, nausea, and 
diarrhea. Inhalation causes bronchospasm and difficulty breathing (dyspnea). Symptoms 



Neurotoxins C16-A 


471 


tend to resolve themselves quickly and completely. There have been no deaths reported 
from these toxins. 

Toxicology 

CDC Case Definition: Ingestion: a combination of gastrointestinal (e.g., abdominal pain, 
vomiting, diarrhea) and neurologic signs (e.g., paresthesias, reversal of hot and cold 
temperature sensation, vertigo, ataxia). Symptoms have a latency period ranging from 
15 min to 18 h. Inhalational: cough, dyspnea, and bronchospasm. Laboratory criteria for 
diagnosis is (1) detection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method 
in biologic samples (this is not a certified method for detection of brevetoxins) or (2) any 
concentration of brevetoxin in environmental samples. 

The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a pre- 
dominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence of a nerve agent is 
present or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


C16-A007 

Bungarotoxins 

CAS: 37209-28-2; 12687-39-7 (a); 12778-32-4 (/?) 

RTECS: — 

Protein 

Mixture of neurotoxins that block the acetylcholine receptors. The /3-bungaro toxin is a pre- 
synaptic neural toxin, a-bungarotoxin is a postsynaptic neural toxin, and x-bungaro toxin 
is specific to the neuronal receptors in ganglions. They are obtained from the venom of the 
banded krait ( Bungams multicinctus). 

This material is hazardous through inhalation and penetration through broken skin. Symp- 
toms include paralysis with rapid progression to respiration failure and death. 

Used as a research tool in neurophysiology. 

Toxicology 

LD50(Suby 0.0076 g 


C16-A008 

Ciguatoxin 

CAS: 11050-21-8 (CTX-1); 142185-85-1 (CTX-2); 139341-09-6 (CTX-3); 524945-49-1 (CTX-4) 
ICD-10: T61.0 
RTECS: — 

C60H86O19 

Molecular Weight: 1111.3 

Complex polyether paralytic neurotoxins that bind to sodium channels of nerve and muscle 
cells causing muscle contractions. They are heat stable (not destroyed by cooking or freez- 
ing) white solids obtained from dinoflagellates ( Gambierdiscus toxicus). 

These materials are hazardous through ingestion. Symptoms from ingestion include burn- 
ing, prickling, or tingling sensations in the mouth as well as reversal of temperature 
sensations, diarrhea, vomiting, and pain in the abdomen and lower extremities. There 
may also be paralysis of the lips and extremities. Severe cases may progress to low blood 
pressure (hypotension) with paradoxical slow heart rate (bradycardia), and further to coma 
and respiratory arrest. Recovery may be prolonged. 



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Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 

C16-A009 

Cobrotoxin 

CAS: 12584-83-7 
RTECS: — 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 11,000 

Neurotoxin obtained from the Formosan cobra ( Naja naja atm). It is a relatively heat stable, 
water soluble, crystalline solid. 

This material is hazardous by penetration through broken skin; can cause localized pain, 
tearing, and blurred vision in contact with the eyes. Symptoms include drooping upper 
eyelid (ptosis), paralysis of the motor nerves of the eye (ophthalmoplegia), difficulty in swal- 
lowing (dysphagia), difficulty speaking (dysphasia), profuse salivation, nausea, vomiting, 
abdominal pain, muscular weakness followed by flaccid paralysis, chest pain or tightness, 
shortness of breath, and respiratory failure. 

Toxicology 

LD^otsub)'- 0.0029 g 

C16-A010 

Conotoxins 

CAS: 115797-06-3 
RTECS: — 

Proteins or small peptides 

Neurotoxins obtained from mollusks (sea snails) of the genus Conus. a-Conotoxins bind to 
and inhibit the acetylcholine receptor; 5-conotoxins and [i -conotoxins block voltage-gated 
sodium channels; x -conotoxins block voltage-gated potassium channels in muscles; and 
a>-conotoxins block voltage-gated calcium channels and also block conduction at the neur- 
omuscular junctions of skeletal muscles. Venoms are white, gray, yellow, or black viscous 
liquids. Toxins are water soluble solids that are highly stable. 

These materials are hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, 
and ingestion. Symptoms include vague feeling of bodily discomfort (malaise), 
impaired coordination, weakness, paralysis, numbness, nausea, difficulty in swallowing 
(dysphagia), vomiting, inability to speak (aphonia), absence of reflexes (areflexia), 
temporary cessation of breathing (apnea), severe itching (pruritus), and double vision 
(diplopia). 

Used as a research tool in molecular biology. 

They are on the HHS Select Agents list and the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

LD 50 : 0.00021-0.00042 g (estimate, pathway unspecified) 

C16-A011 

Diamphotoxin 

CAS: 87915-42-2 
RTECS: — 



Neurotoxins C16-A 


473 


Protein 

Molecular Weight: 60,000 

Neurotoxin obtained from the larva of leaf-cutting beetles ( Diamphidia nigro-ornata pupae) 
that is used by bushmen of Southern Africa as an arrow poison. It blocks neuromuscular 
function and also attacks the heart muscles (cardiotoxic) and is destructive to red blood 
cells (hemolytic). Dried poison is stable for over a year. 

This material is hazardous by penetration through broken skin. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


C16-A012 

Gonyautoxins 

CAS: 60748-39-2 (GTX1); 60748-40-5 (GTX2); 60748-41-6 (GTX2'); 60748-42-7 (GTX3); 
64296-26-0 (GTX4); 69866-34-8 (GTX7); 122139-78-0 (GTX-B1); 82810-44-4 (GTX-B2); 
80248-94-8 (PX2); 89614-45-9 (PX3); 89674-98-6 (PX4) 

RTECS: — 

Natural sulfate homologues of Saxitoxin (C16-A016). 

Rapid-acting paralytic neurotoxins that blocks transient sodium channels and inhibits 
depolarization of nerve cells. They are some of the causative agents of paralytic shell- 
fish poisoning (PSP). They are obtained from dinoflagellates ( Gonyaulax spp., Alexandrium 
spp.) and cyanobacteria ( Anabaena circinalis). 

These materials are hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion. Symptoms include tingling, burning, numbness, drowsiness, incoherent speech, 
respiratory paralysis, and possibly cardiovascular collapse. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


C16-A013 

a-Latrotoxin 

CAS: 65988-34-3 
RTECS: OE9020000 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: approximately 125,000 

Neurotoxin that produces a massive release of transmitters from cholinergic and adrenergic 
nerve endings resulting in continuous stimulation of muscles. It also induces formation of 
an ion channel allowing the inward flow of calcium ions into the nerve cell. It is a white 
powder obtained from the venom of the black widow spider. 

This material is hazardous by penetration through broken skin. Symptoms include 
sweating, salivation, vomiting, contractions, cramps, respiration is shallow and rapid, 
hypertension, rapid heart rate (tachycardia), and cardiac arrhythmia. May be mistaken for 
heart attack. Produces intense pain that becomes excruciating over time. Skin may be hyper 
pain sensitive. 

Used as a research tool in molecular biology. 



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Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


C16-A014 

Neosaxitoxin 

CAS: 64296-20-4 
RTECS: — 

C10H17N7O5 

Molecular Weight: 315.3 

Natural analogue of Saxitoxin (C16-A016). 

Rapid-acting paralytic neurotoxin that reversibly blocks the voltage-gated sodium channels 
at neuronal level thus stopping the propagation of the nerve impulse. One of the causat- 
ive agents of PSR It is a white solid obtained from dinoflagellates ( Gonyaulax tamarensis 
and Gonyaidax catanella) and cyanobacteria ( Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Anabaena circinalis, 
Lyngbya majuscula, and Oscillatoria mougeotti). 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. Symptoms include tingling, burning, numbness, drowsiness, incoherent speech, 
respiratory paralysis, and possibly cardiovascular collapse. 

It is being tested for medicinal use as a local anesthetic. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been published. 


C16-A015 

Palytoxin 

CAS: 11077-03-5 (from Palythoa caribaerum ); 77734-92-0 (from Palythoa toxica ); 77734-91-9 
(from Palythoa toxica) 

RTECS: RT6475000 

C 129 H 223 N 3 O 54 

Molecular Weight: 2680 

Rapid-acting neurotoxin that causes irreversible depolarization of neural and muscular tis- 
sue by an unknown mechanism. It has a very potent effect on coronary arteries and death 
may result from constriction of the blood vessels of the heart. It is a solid obtained from 
bacterium associated with soft corals ( Palythoa caribaerum and Palythoa toxica). It is soluble 
in water and alcohol, and stable to heat. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption (high doses), penetration 
through broken skin, and ingestion. Delayed effects from exposure to high concentrations 
include disintegration of red blood cells. Symptoms include drowsiness, weakness, 
vomiting, respiratory distress, diarrhea, convulsions, shock, low body temperature, and 
death. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be more than 8000 times as toxic 
as the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 



Neurotoxins C16-A 


475 


C16-A016 

Saxitoxin (Agent SS) 

CAS: 35523-89-8; 63038-80-2 (Racemic mixture); 220355-66-8 (Diacetate salt); 35554-08-6 
(Dihydrochloride salt); 63038-81-3 (Sulfate salt) 

ICD-10: T61.2 
RTECS: UY8708500 

C 10 H 17 N 7 O 4 
Molecular Weight: 299.3 

Rapid-acting channel-activating neurotoxin that blocks transient sodium channels and 
inhibits depolarization of nerve cells. It is one of the causative agents of Paralytic Shell- 
fish Poisoning (PSP). It is obtained from dinoflagellates ( Gonyaulax tamarensis, Gonyaulax 
catanella). It is soluble and stable in water and resistant to chlorine at 10 ppm. Iodine has 
no effect at 16 ppm. Various salts (solids) have been reported. The dihydrochloride salt is 
a white hygroscopic powder that is water soluble. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. Symptoms from ingestion include a tingling or burning sensation of the lips, face, and 
tongue, progressing to the fingertips, arms, legs, and neck. Additional symptoms include 
incoordination, dizziness, headache, a floating sensation, muscle weakness, vertigo, vomit- 
ing, nausea, drooling, and abdominal pain. Symptoms occur in 10 min to 4 h depending 
on the route of exposure. Severe flaccid paralysis can lead to death from respiratory failure 
in 1-24 h. If the casualty survives 18 h, recovery is usually rapid and complete. 

Used as a research tool in molecular biology. 

It is on Schedule 1 of the CWC, the HHS Select Agents list, and the Australia Group Core 
list. 

Toxicology 

CDC Case Definition: (1) A case in which saxitoxin in urine is detected or (2) detection of 
saxitoxin in ingested compounds or seafood. 

The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a predom- 
inant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute 
certainty of the etiology of the agent is known. 

LC 50( i„ h y 5 mg /m 3 
LD 5Q{Inh) : 0.00049 g 
LD 50{Su by. 0.00040 g 
LD$oQ n gy. 0.0003—0.001 g 


C16-A017 

Taipoxin 

CAS: 52019-39-3 
RTECS: — 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 46,000 

Neurotoxin obtained from the venom of the Australian taipan snake. 

This material is hazardous by penetration through broken skin. Symptoms include dizzi- 
ness, nausea, vomiting, sweating, headache, abdominal pain, and swollen lymph nodes 



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that are painful when touched. Neurologic symptoms include drooping upper eyelid 
(ptosis), paralysis of the motor nerves of the eye (ophthalmoplegia), slurred speech, diffi- 
culty breathing (dyspnea), and sudden unconsciousness. 

Toxicology 

LD 50 )(Suby 0.0074 g 


C16-A018 

Tetanus toxin 

CAS: 676570-37-9 
RTECS: XW5807000 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 150,000 

Delayed-action neurotoxin that blocks the release of acetylcholine that is a crystalline solid 
obtained from bacteria ( Clostridium tetani). Dried material is stable for years when stored 
between 39 and 45°F; otherwise, it is relatively unstable and very sensitive to heat. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. Symptoms include muscle spasms (frequently of the jaw muscle) progressing to rigid 
paralysis. Generalized spasms can be induced by sensory stimulation. Even minor stim- 
ulation may trigger these spasms. Spasms may be so severe as to cause bone fractures. 
Spasms affecting the larynx, diaphragm, and intercostal muscles lead to respiratory fail- 
ure. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system results in an irregular heartbeat (cardiac 
arrhythmias), rapid heart rate (tachycardia), and high blood pressure (hypertension). 

Toxicology 

CDC Case Definition: Acute onset of hypertonia and/or painful muscular contractions 
(usually of the muscles of the jaw and neck) and generalized muscle spasms without 
other apparent medical cause. 

LDsodng ) : 0.0002 g (estimate) 

Human toxicity values have not been fully established or have not been published. 
However, based on available information, this material appears to have approximately 
half as toxic as Botulinum toxins (C16-A005). 

C16-A019 

Tetrodotoxin 

CAS: 4368-28-9; 39920-04-2 (Racemic mixture); 629653-73-2 (Acetate salt); 18660-81- 
6 (Citrate salt); 17522-62-2 (Formate salt); 4664-41-9 (Hydrobromide salt); 4664-40-8 
(Picrate salt); 129497-92-3 (Trifluoroacetate salt) 

ICD-10: T61.2 
RTECS: 101450000 

C n H 17 N 3 0 8 

Molecular Weight: 319.3 

Rapid-acting neurotoxin that inhibits sodium-ion channels in neural and muscular tissue. It 
does not affect the neuromuscular junction. It is colorless crystals or a white powder that is 
obtained from puffer fish ( Arothron sp.), frogs, newts, dinoflagellates ( Takifugn poecilonotus), 
and bacteria (Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis). It is heat stable but darkens on heating above 



Neurotoxins C16-A 


477 


428°F without decomposition. Slightly soluble and "probably stable" in water but rapidly 
inactivated by chlorine at 50 ppm. It is soluble in dilute acetic acid but practically insoluble 
in most other organic solvents. Various salts (solids) have been reported. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion. Symptoms appear 10 min to 4 h after ingestion and include nausea, vomit- 
ing, dizziness, paleness, and a vague feeling of bodily discomfort (malaise). A sensation 
of tingling or prickling that progresses to numbness may be present. General weakness, 
dilation of the pupils, twitching, tremors, and loss of coordination follow. Death is due to 
respiratory arrest. For survivors, recovery is usually complete in 24 h. 

Used as a research tool in molecular biology. 

It is on the FIHS Select Agents list and the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

CDC Case Definition: Rapid onset of one of the following neurologic and gastrointestinal 
signs or symptoms after consumption of material potentially containing tetrodotoxin: 
(1) oral paresthesias (might progress to include the arms and legs), (2) cranial nerve 
dysfunction, (3) weakness (might progress to paralysis), or (4) nausea or vomiting. There 
are no biological markers for exposure to tetrodotoxin. 

LD5 o(/n/z)* 0.0001-0.0002 g 
LDsoang )'. 0.002 g 


C16-A020 

Tityustoxin 

CAS: 39465-37-7 
RTECS: XR3030000 

Polypeptide 

Rapid-acting neurotoxin that binds to sodium channels in nerve tissue leading to an increase 
in the release of neurotransmitters. It is a solid obtained from the venom of the Brazilian 
scorpion Tityus serrulatus. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation and penetration through broken skin. 
Causes immediate pain in contact with any break in the skin. General symptoms include 
hyperexcitability, restlessness, salivation, lacrimation, accelerated respiration, convulsions, 
contractions, and muscular twitching, followed by spastic paralysis with rigid limbs. Death 
is due to respiratory failure and can occur within a few minutes or be delayed for several 
hours. 

Used as a research tool in neurobiology. 

Toxicology 

Fluman toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. Flowever, 
based on available information, this material appears to be slightly more toxic than the 
nerve agent VX (C02-004). 


C16-A021 

Veratridine 

CAS: 71-62-5 
RTECS: YX5600000 



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C36H51NO11 
Molecular Weight: 673.8 

Neurotoxin that preferentially binds to activated sodium channels and increases the intra- 
cellular calcium concentration. It prolongs the action potential duration in the heart. It 
is obtained from sabadilla seeds ( Schoenocanlon officinale). Yellowish-white amorphous 
powder that retains water and melts at 356° F. It is insoluble in water but slightly soluble in 
ether. Various salts (solids) have been reported. The nitrate is sparingly soluble in water. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. The toxin is lipid soluble and once in the body can become stored in body fat. This 
can result in cumulative effect. Symptoms from ingestion include severe nausea, vomiting, 
burning, prickling, itching, or tingling skin sensation (paresthesia), weakness, low blood 
pressure (hypotension), slow heart rate (bradycardia), and loss of consciousness (syncope). 

Used industrially as a pesticide and for medicinal purposes. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately 100 times less 
toxic than the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 


C16-A 

CYTOTOXINS 


C16-A022 

Abrin 

CAS: 1393-62-0 
RTECS: AA5250000 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 63,000-67,000 

Delayed-action cytotoxins that inhibits protein synthesis (ribosomal inactivating protein). 
They are obtained from the seed of the Jequirity beans plant ( Abrus precatorius). Typically 
yellowish- white powders that are insoluble in distilled water but soluble in salt water. They 
are fairly heat stable. 

These materials are hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and 
ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts (redness and pain). Exposure may cause 
sensitizations. Symptoms from inhalation may occur within 8 h postexposure. Initial 
symptoms include difficulty breathing, fever, cough, nausea, and tightness in the chest 
progressing to heavy sweating, pulmonary edema, low blood pressure, and respiratory 
failure. Symptoms from ingestion may occur in less than 6 h but usually are delayed for 
1-3 days. Initial symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea that may become bloody pro- 
gressing to severe dehydration and low blood pressure. Other signs or symptoms may 
include hallucinations, seizures, and blood in the urine. Within several days, the liver, 
spleen, and kidneys stop working. Death from abrin poisoning could take place within 
72 h postexposure, depending on the route of exposure and the dose received. If death has 
not occurred in 3-5 days, the casualty usually recovers. 

They are on the HHS Select Agents list and the Australia Group Core list. 



Cytotoxins C16-A 


479 


Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately twice as toxic 
as the nerve agent VX (C02-004) when injected into the body. 


C16-A023 

Aflatoxins 

CAS: 1402-68-2; 27261-02-5 (Bl); 7220-81-7 (B2); 31223-79-7 (B2a); 1385-95-1 (Gl); 7241- 
98-7 (G2); 24147-91-9 (G2a); 6795-23-9 (Ml); 6885-57-0 (M2); 32215-02-4 (PI); 52819-96-2 
(Ql) 

RTECS: — 

Delayed action cytotoxins that inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acids. They are obtained 
from various molds/fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus). They are colorless to 
pale-yellow crystalline materials melting above 450° F. The "B" toxins fluoresce blue in the 
presence of UV light while the "G" toxins fluoresce green. They are only slightly soluble in 
water, but are soluble in methanol, acetone, and chloroform. Aqueous solutions are "prob- 
ably stable" and "probably tolerant" to chlorine at purification concentrations. 

These materials are hazardous through inhalation and ingestion. Symptoms include vomit- 
ing, abdominal pain, convulsions, pulmonary edema, coma, and death. All aflatoxins are 
potential carcinogens. Aflatoxin Bl is possibly the most potent natural liver carcinogen 
known. High-level exposure to aflatoxins produces acute localized death of liver tissue 
(necrosis) followed by the growth of scar tissue (cirrhosis), progressing to formation of a 
malignant tumor (carcinoma) in the liver. 

They are on the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


C16-A024 

Cardiotoxins 

CAS: 11061-96-4 
RTECS: — 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 6700 (CTX III) 

Cytotoxins obtained from cobra venom ( Naja naja atra). Hydrophobic solids that cause 
irreversible depolarization of cell membrane and cellular destruction as well as contraction 
of skeletal and smooth muscle, including the heart. 

This material is hazardous by penetration through broken skin. Symptoms include heart 
irregularities and low blood pressure. 

Toxicology 

LD 50 (Sub)'- 0.032 g 


C16-A025 

Cholera toxin 

CAS: 9012-63-9 
RTECS: — 



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Protein 

Cytotoxin that inactivates G proteins involved in cellular metabolism. It is obtained from 
bacteria ( Vibrio cholerae, C17-A025). It is a water soluble white powder that is stable for 
years when stored at 39°F. 

This material is hazardous by penetration through broken skin and ingestion. Symptoms 
include vomiting, abdominal cramps, and watery diarrhea. 

Used as a research tool in molecular biology and in the production of vaccines. 

It is on the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be less than one-tenth as toxic 
as the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 


C16-A026 

Clostridium perfringens toxins 
CAS: — 

RTECS: — 

Cytotoxins obtained from bacteria ( Clostridium perfringens). 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. Wound contamination results in death of skeletal muscles and soft tissue. Symptoms 
of ingestion include nausea and diarrhea usually without vomiting. Inhalation produces 
pulmonary complications. 

It is on the HHS Select Agents list, the USDA High Consequence list, the Australia Group 
Core list, and is listed as a Category B Potential Terrorism Agent by the CDC. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


C16-A027 

Maitotoxin 

CAS: 59392-53-9 
RTECS: OM5470000 

Polycyclic ether 
Molecular Weight: 3422.0 

Cytotoxin that affects the voltage-gated calcium channels causing an increased calcium 
influx into the cell, ultimately resulting in breakup of the cell's nuclear envelope (blebbing). 
It is obtained from dinoflagellates (Gambler discus toxicus). It is a water soluble, colorless, 
amorphous solid. It is the largest nonbiopolymeric and the most lethal nonpeptide natural 
product. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. This toxin, in conjunction with the neurotoxin ciguatoxin (C16-A008), is usually 
associated with ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Although maitotoxin is approximately four 
times more toxic than ciguatoxin, the symptoms of CFP are dominated by the neurologic 
presentation from ciguatoxin. The specific symptoms associated with unique exposure to 
maitotoxin have not been established or have not been published. 

Used as a research tool in neurophysiology. 



Cytotoxins C16-A 


481 


Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately 100 times 
more toxic than the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 

C16-A028 

Microcystin LR 

CAS: 128657-50-1 
RTECS: GT2810000 

C49H74N10O12 
Molecular Weight: 995.2 

Rapid-acting cytotoxin that disrupts cell membranes in the liver (hepatoxin) causing an 
accumulation of blood in the liver. It is the most toxic of the Microcystins. It is a solid 
obtained from freshwater blue-green cyanobacteria ( Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis 
cyanea). It is heat stable and water soluble. Aqueous solutions are "probably stable" and 
resistant to chlorine at 100 ppm. It is also soluble in alcohol and acetone. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. Symptoms include shivering, and rapid, deep breathing, progressing to twitching, 
convulsions, gasping respirations, and death. Shock and death occur within a matter of 
hours. 

It is on the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

/D50: 0.001-0.01 g (estimate, route unspecified) 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately one-third as 
toxic as the nerve agent VX (C02-004) when inhaled, but to have a similar toxicity when 
injected. 

C16-A029 

Modeccin 

CAS: 65988-88-7 
RTECS: — 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 57,000 

Cytotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis (ribosomal inactivating protein). It is obtained 
from the roots of Adenia digitata plant. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. Specific signs and symptoms of exposure to modeccin have not been established or 
have not been published. However, based on its similarity to other ribosomal inactivating 
proteins, such as abrin (C16-A022) and ricin (C16-A031), general symptoms may include 
fever, fatigue, weakness, and muscle pain. Symptoms from inhalation may include irritation 
and pain in the mucous membranes, cough, chest tightness, shortness of breath, low blood 
oxygen (hypoxemia), pulmonary edema, and multisystem organ dysfunction. Symptoms 
from ingestion may include abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), dehyd- 
ration, and multisystem organ dysfunction. Symptoms may persist for several days before 
death or recovery. 

It is on the Australia Group Core list. 



482 


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Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be approximately 1000 times 
more toxic than the nerve agent VX (C02-004) when injected. 


C16-A030 

Pertussis toxin 

CAS: 70323-44-3 
RTECS: XW5883750 

Protein 

Cytotoxin that inactivates G proteins involved in cellular metabolism. It is a solid obtained 
from bacteria ( Bordetella pertussis). 

This material is hazardous through inhalation and penetration through broken skin. Specific 
signs and symptoms of exposure to this toxin have not been established or have not been 
published. However, the major symptoms associated with whooping cough, the disease 
caused by Bordetella pertussis, are related to the effects of this toxin. 

Used as a research tool in molecular biology. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. 


C16-A031 

Ricin (Agent W) 

CAS: 9009-86-3 
RTECS: VJ2625000 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 65,000 

Delayed-action cytotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis (ribosomal inactivating protein) 
that is obtained from castor beans ( Ricinus communis). Waste from production of castor oil 
contains about 5% ricin by weight. It is a white powder that is soluble in water and relat- 
ively heat stable. Aqueous solutions are resistant to chlorine at 10 ppm. It is persistent in 
the environment. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. General symptoms may include fever, fatigue, weakness, muscle, and joint pain. 
Symptoms from inhalation include irritation and pain in the mucous membranes, cough, 
chest tightness, shortness of breath, low blood oxygen (hypoxemia), pulmonary edema, 
and multisystem organ dysfunction. Symptoms from ingestion may include abdominal 
pain, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), dehydration, and multisystem organ dysfunc- 
tion. Symptoms may persist for several days before death or recovery. 

Used as a research tool in molecular biology, and has been used as a rodenticide. 

It is on Schedule 1 of the CWC, the HHS Select Agents list, the Australia Group Core list, 
and is listed as a Category B Potential Terrorism Agent by the CDC. 



Cytotoxins C16-A 


483 


Toxicology 

CDC Case Definition : A clinically compatible case with (1 ) detection of urinary ricinine, an 
alkaloid in the castor bean plant; or (2) detection of ricin in environmental samples. The 
case can be confirmed if laboratory testing is not performed because either a predominant 
amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute certainty 
of the etiology of the agent is known. 

LD 50 Qnhy 0.001 g 
LD 50 0.070 g 


C16-A032 

Shiga toxin 

CAS: 75757-64-1 
RTECS: — 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 55,000 

Ribosome inactivating cytotoxic protein that irreversibly inhibits protein synthesis in cells, 
causing cell death. It is a solid obtained from bacteria ( Shigella dysenteriae). 

This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion. Symptoms from ingestions 
include diarrhea (may be bloody), dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). 
Symptoms from inhalation are not fully documented but may result in breathing difficulty 
due to fluid accumulation in the lungs. 

It is on the HHS Select Agents list, the USDA High Consequence list, and the Australia 
Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be several magnitudes more 
toxic than the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 


C16-A033 

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (Agent PG) 

CAS: 11100-45-1 
RTECS: XW5807700 

Protein 

Rapid-acting cytotoxin capable of producing either incapacitating or lethal effects. It is one 
of seven enterotoxins obtained from bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus). It is a white, fluffy 
solid that is water soluble and heat stable (not destroyed by cooking or freezing). Aqueous 
solutions are "probably stable." It resists chlorine used in municipal water systems. As a 
freeze-dried powder, it can be stored for more than a year. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation and ingestion. Symptoms from inhalation 
include fever, headache, muscle pain (myalgia), red and inflamed whites of the eyes (con- 
junctivitis), nonproductive cough, difficulty in breathing (dyspnea), elevated white blood 
count (leukocytosis), nausea, anorexia, and vomiting but not diarrhea. May progress to 
chest pain and pulmonary edema. Symptoms from ingestion usually occur in 3-4 h postex- 
posure and include the sudden onset of vomiting, abdominal cramps, nausea, explosive 
watery diarrhea, and severe weakness. 



484 


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It is on the HHS Select Agents list, the USDA High Consequence list, the Australia Group 
Core list, and is listed as a Category B Potential Terrorism Agent by the CDC. 

Toxicology 

LD 50 (inhy 0.0014 g 

ID 50 (Jnhy 0.000028 g 


C16-A034 

Verotoxins 

CAS: 620190-09-2 (VT-1); 153834-62-9 (VT-2) 

RTECS: — 

Proteins 

Ribosome activating cytotoxic proteins that irreversibly inhibit protein synthesis in cells, 
causing cell death. They are obtained from bacteria ( Escherichia coli serotype 0157:H7). 
Verotoxin 1 is almost identical to shiga toxin (C16-A032) and differs only by a single amino 
acid. Verotoxin 2 has significant differences. 

These materials are hazardous through inhalation and ingestion. Symptoms from inges- 
tions include diarrhea (may be bloody), dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). 
Symptoms from inhalation are not fully documented but may result in difficulty breathing 
due to fluid accumulation in the lungs. 

They are on the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on the similarity to shiga toxin (C16-A032), these materials are likely to be several 
magnitudes more toxic than the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 


C16-A035 

Viscumin 

CAS: 83590-17-4 
RTECS: — 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 115,000 

Ribosome inactivating cytotoxic protein that irreversibly inhibits protein synthesis in 
cells, causing cell death. It is a solid obtained from the mistletoe plant ( Viscum 
album). 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. Symptoms include headache, fever and chills, seizures, slow heart rate (bradycardia), 
abnormal blood pressure, vomiting, and death. 

It is being tested for medicinal use as an antitumor agent. 

It is on the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to have a comparable toxicity to 
ricin (C16-A031). 



Dermally Hazardous Cytotoxins C16-A 


485 


C16-A036 

Volkensin 

CAS: 91933-11-8 
RTECS: — 

Protein 

Molecular Weight: 62,000 

Ribosome inactivating cytotoxic protein that irreversibly inhibits protein synthesis in cells, 
causing cell death. It is a solid obtained from the roots of the kilyambiti plant ( Adenia 
volkensii). 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, penetration through broken skin, and inges- 
tion. May be a sensitizer. Specific signs and symptoms of exposure to modeccin have not 
been established or have not been published. However, based on its similarity to other 
ribosomal inactivating proteins, such as abrin (C16-A022) and ricin (C16-A031), general 
symptoms may include fever, fatigue, weakness, and muscle pain. Symptoms from inhal- 
ation may include irritation and pain in the mucous membranes, cough, chest tightness, 
shortness of breath, low blood oxygen (hypoxemia), pulmonary edema, and multisys- 
tem organ dysfunction. Symptoms from ingestion may include abdominal pain, vomiting, 
diarrhea (may be bloody), dehydration, and multisystem organ dysfunction. Symptoms 
may persist for several days before death or recovery. 

Used as a research tool in neurology. 

It is on the Australia Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

Human toxicity values have not been established or have not been published. However, 
based on available information, this material appears to be several magnitudes more 
toxic than the nerve agent VX (C02-004). 


C16-A 

DERMALLY HAZARDOUS CYTOTOXINS 


C16-A037 

T2 Mycotoxin 

CAS: 21259-20-1 
RTECS: YD0100000 

C 24 H 34 O 9 

Molecular Weight: 466.5 

Rapid-acting dermally hazardous cytotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis and affects clot- 
ting factors in the blood. It is capable of producing incapacitating or lethal effects. T2 is 
obtained from various molds and fungi ( Fusarium sp.). It is a colorless crystalline solid of 
white powder that melts at 304° F. Impure samples may be a colorless to slightly yellow 
oil. It is slightly soluble in water, but soluble in ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, chloroform, 
methylene chloride, diethyl ether, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). It is heat stable and can 
be stored at room temperature for years. 

This material is hazardous through inhalation, skin absorption, penetration through 
broken skin, ingestion, and produces local skin /eye impacts. Trichothecenes are 
radiomimetic and may cause bone marrow suppression, liver failure, and internal bleeding. 



486 


Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 


They are also immunosuppressive. T2 is the most toxic member of the trichothecene 
mycotoxins. Symptoms include severe skin and eye irritation possibly progressing to 
blistering and scabbing, cough (if inhaled), incoordination (ataxia), low blood pressure 
(hypotension), excessive bleeding and a lack of clotting (coagulopathy), nausea, shortness 
of breath, dizziness, chest pains, vomiting and diarrhea (may be bloody), abdominal pain, 
headache, dizziness, fever, and lack of appetite. Death may be delayed for several weeks. 
Exposures are cumulative and repeated exposures may be cumulative to a lethal dose. 

It is on the HHS Select Agents list, the USDA High Consequence list, and the Australia 
Group Core list. 

Toxicology 

CDC Case Definition: A clinically compatible case in which laboratory tests of envir- 
onmental samples have confirmed exposure. The case can be confirmed if laboratory 
testing is not performed because either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspe- 
cific laboratory evidence is present or an absolute certainty of the etiology of the agent 
is known. 

LCsodnky 200-5800 mg/m 3 

LD^Q(p er y. 0.1